3rd Quarter Pathology Test 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3rd Quarter Pathology Test 1 Deck (121):
1

Study of disease

Pathology

2

any abnormal condition which impairs the normal functioning of the body. Local disease and genetic diseases can occur.

Disease

3

was the leading cause of death in the early 1900’s

TB

4

the leading cause of death TODAY

CVD- Cardiovascular Disease

5

Another name for CAUSE

Etiology

6

The cause of disease is divided into what 2 categories?

Immediate (exciting) &Predisposing

7

The beginning of disease. The manner in which a particular disease develops.

Pathogenesis

8

3 parts of disease that we study

1. Cause (Etiology) 2. Pathogenesis 3. Changes and final effects brought about in the body.

9

Study of general disease processes, such as inflammation, degeneration, necrosis (localized area of dead tissue in a living body), repair (i.e.: scar tissue), etc.

General Pathology

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The body's total response to any injury

inflammation

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Study of disease in relation to a particular organ or the organs system. Ie., disease of the digestive track.

Special Pathology

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5 Divisions of Pathology

1. Pathological Anatomy (Morbid Anatomy) 2. Surgical Pathology3. Clinical Pathology 4. Medico - Legal Pathology (forensic pathology) 5. Physiological Pathology

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The study of the structure of the human body as affected by disease.

Pathological Anatomy (Morbid Anatomy)

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localized area of dead tissue in a living body

necrosis

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Study of disease by means of biopsies.

Surgical Pathology

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The study of disease by means of:body secretions (useful substances produced within the body), body excretions (waste substances rid from the body), & other body fluids.

Clinical Pathology

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Legal Pathology (forensic pathology) the study of disease, death, and injuries with medical/legal potential.

Medico

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2 methods to study Pathological Anatomy (Morbid Anatomy)

1.) Gross Inspection 2.) Histopathology

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See changes of the structure of the body with the unaided eye.

Gross inspection

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A study of the structure of the cell as affected by disease, by means of microscope. Disease at cellular levels.

Histopathology

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The study of the functions of the body as affected by disease.

Physiological Pathology

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A study of disease by samples of tissue removed surgically from a living person.

Biopsy

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useful substances produced within the body

body secretions

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waste products that are rid from the body

body excretions

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The study of deaths and injuries of medical and legal significance

Medico-Legal Pathology

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The study of the function of the human body as affected by disease.

Physiological Pathology

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Medico-Legal Pathology is also known as...

Forensic Pathology

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Importance of autopsy

1. Confirm medical diagnosis2. Amplify or reject the clinical diagnosis3. Advancement of medical knowledge 4. Medico-legal cases5. Medical statistics

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Autopsy is also known as...

necropsy or postmortem exam

30

Differences between Coroner vs. Medical Examiner

1. Determination of jurisdiction (county where death occurred)2. Qualifications 3. Inquest

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a formal legal proceeding into the events and circumstances surrounding a particular death.

Inquest

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Coroner is a carry over from the.....

English common law system

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Inquest are needed in cases of....

unknown deaths ordeaths caused by violence

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Elected county officer who investigates and holds inquests over unknown deaths or deaths caused by violence.

J.P./Coroner

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Appointed...must have gone to school (MD) works with the police officers; works under coroner.

Medical examiner

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Texas does NOT use the term__________________, but has _______________ in those counties not large enough to have a ME's office.

Coroner Justice of the Peace (J.P.)

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Difference with ordinary clinical autopsy (relation to clinical findings and diagnosis) vs. forensic autopsy. Forensic Autopsy will provide...

A. Absolute identification of the body.B. A description of the body and scene.C. A description of the clothingD. An unrestricted autopsy (prevention of future legal actions) a complete autopsy.

38

Types of Unrestricted autopsy

Biochemical Microbiological scans Radiological scans

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toxicological

Biochemical

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Primary need of a forensic autopsy is to determine...

cause of death

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A minimum of ___________ must be listed on a death certificate.

One cause of death

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Three types or parts of death

ImmediateBasicContributory

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the thing responsible for death at the time of the terminal event (peritonitis)

Immediate cause of death

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the thing prior to and leading up to the terminal event (stab wounds)

basic cause of death

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the thing involved in but not causing the terminal event (leukemia) persons with leukemia have less blood clotting ability.

contributory cause of death

46

GOK means

God only knows

47

Failure to thrive means

infant not sucking on breast

48

DIS

dead in the saddle

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the circumstances surrounding a particular death

manner of death

50

Types of Mannerrs of death

1. Natural 2. Homicide3. Suicide4. Accident5. Unexplained (SIDS)6. Undetermined (decomposed)

51

An explanation of the sequence of events leading up to the death.

mechanism of death

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recover and preserve this_____________

Evidence

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any abnormal condition which impairs the normal functioning of the body. It can affect the entire body or only one part of the body.

Definition of disease

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presence of microorganisms in or on the body.

Microbiological scans

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x-rays

Radiological scans

56

The doctrine of cellular pathology was written by who? He is considered the father of pathology.

Virchow

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What does the doctrine of cellular pathology state?

“Just like the cell is the structural and functional unit of life. The cell is also the structural and functional unit of disease.”

58

any disease of impaired function without change in structure. i.e. mental illness, color blindness.

Functional disease

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any disease in which definite structural changes accompany it.

Organic disease

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Any structural or functional change due to disease.

Lesion

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The identification of a specific disease.

Diagnosis

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Any disease in which the fever accompanying it is either excessively high and or lasts a prolonged period of time. Ex: Rickettsia infections- Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever - 107 15 - 20 days (2-3 weeks).

Febrile disease

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Disease state which occur at the same time or concurrently with another disease. Often times they are infectious in nature.

Complications

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Alcohol, steroids, poisoning, the exposure of the body to poisonous substances.

Intoxications

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Disease states which occur on second or subsequent exposure to the same allergen.

Allergies

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A forecast of the outcome of a particular disease.

Prognosis

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Subjective manifestation of a disease. They accompany the disease but are not measurable. Pain, headache.

Symptoms

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Objective manifestation of a disease. These are measurable. Vital signs, blood pressure, breathing.

Signs

69

Any disease caused by a microorganism.

Infectious disease

70

Any disease that occurs every now and then.

Sporadic disease

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Any disease that turns into a worldwide epidemic, flu.

Pandemic disease

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A disease that attacks a large number of people in a short period of time, i.e. chicken pox.

Epidemic

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Any disease that is continuously present i.e. common cold.

Endemic disease

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A set of both signs and symptoms accompanying a disease, i.e. Down’s syndrome (mongolism) SIDS.

Syndrome

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A sudden increase in the severity of a disease. “The patient has made a turn for the worse.” Conditions of patients are rated; good, fair, critical, grave condition. If a patient goes from fair to critical condition

Exacerbation

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Temporary absence of a particular disease. ie: Cancer

Remission (abatement)

77

Any disease transmitted genetically - through the genes, i.e. hemophilia, dwarfism.

Hereditary disease

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Any disease caused by dietary or metabolic deficiency, i.e. diabetes mellitus scurvy (lack of vitamin C) Goiter (lack of iodine).

Deficiency disease

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Any disease with slow on set and long duration. ex: Carcinoma (cancer). Gout

Chronic

80

Any disease present at birth. Does not have to be life threatening, i.e. cleft palate, polydactylism (more digits on hand or feet than normal).

Congenital disease

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Any disease obtained after birth.

Acquired disease

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Any disease that reappears now and then, fever blisters, cold sores.

Recurrent disease

83

Any disease of unknown origin or cause. Essential hypertension.

Idiopathic disease

84

Any disease in which a person’s occupation or profession makes them more susceptible to develop a particular disease. Hepatitis B, scrotal cancer, (chimney sweeps) anthrocosis (black lung disease) silicosis (sandblasting).

Occupational disease

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Any disease of sudden onset and short duration. ex: MI

Acute

86

the study of the causes of disease

Etiology

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The divisions of the causes of disease

predisposing conditions exciting (immediate causes)

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conditions that make a person more susceptible or inclined to develop a particular disease.ex: Age (MS/Meningitis-children's disease) (Alzheimer's disease-elderly) (Sarcoma vs. Carcinoma-most 40-65) Sex (Prostate cancer-male) (Uterine & Ovarian cancer-female) (Gallbladder attack-mostly in women) Nutrition (Kwashiokor - protein deficiency) Race (Sickle cell anemia-Blacks) (TB-less in Eskimos) Occupation (Hepatitis B-Embalmers) (Scrotal cancer- chimney sweeps)

Predisposing conditions

89

Any cause of disease that has established a cause/effect relationship

Exciting (immediate) causes

90

coal miners disease...black lung diseaseIt is a type of occupational disease

Anthrocosis

91

Hepatitis B is what type of disease?

Occupational

92

Scrotal cancer is commonly a Recurrent Disease...TRUE OR FALSE?

FALSE...it is commonly an occupational disease

93

any condition or disease induced/caused by treatment of a physician or medical personnel ex: leaving a pair of forceps in the body after surgery

Iatrogenic

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number of cases reported of a specific illness or disease in a given population.

Morbidity Rate

95

MMWR stands for.....It is one of the most common reports that the morbidity rate of illnesses or diseases are posted in.

mortality and morbidity weekly report

96

Number of deaths reported in a given population for a specific period of time.

Mortality Rate (Death Rate)

97

Carcinoma is an example of what type of disease?

Chronic

98

diabetes mellitus(lack of insulin) & scurvy (lack of vitamin C) is an example of what type of disease?

deficiency disease

99

A common cold is a ______________ disease.

endemic

100

dwarfism is what type of disease?

hereditary

101

essential hypertension is what type of disease?

idiopathic

102

polydactylism (more digits on hand or feet than normal) is a ______________ disease.

congenital

103

A hereditary disease that is also known as the bleeder’s disease. It is mostly present in male offspring; is the absence of an essential clotting factor- Factor 8)

hemophilia

104

The flu can be which two types of diseases?

Endemic & epidemic

105

Allergies are also known as...

Hypersensitivities

106

A death resulting from immediate severe allergic reaction.

Anaphylaxis

107

Anaphylaxis is also known as...

anaphylactic shock

108

also known as frequency. Number of incidents...how frequently an incident occurs.

Prevalence- Most commonly used as “how prevalent”

109

Factors in predisposing conditions

Age Sex Nutrition Race Occupation

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any type of wound or injury

trauma

111

disease due to dietary or metabolism in the systemex: albinisim

deficiencies

112

not seen on first exposure. Seen on second or third exposure

allergens

113

other factors of predisposing conditions

fatigue, general living conditions, plague, alcoholism, heredity, emotion, etc.

114

mongolism (down's syndrome), hemophilia, diabetes, dwarfism are examples of...

heredity

115

foreign protein that triggers production of an incomplete antibody

allergen

116

extremes of temperature-cold or heat. Radiation is also an example of this...

physical agents

117

parasites, microorganisms are examples of...

infectious agents

118

chemicals that are either immediately or eventually toxic or poisonous to the body.chemical reactions-has a cause and effect. Chemicals which induce a change in the human body.

chemical agents

119

types of death with medico-legal potential

1. injury or death by violence2. sudden and/or unexpected death3. environmental deaths4. health, welfare, & safety5. medical litigation

120

albinism is an example of what disease?

deficiencies disease

121

complete absence of production of melanin

albinism