Flashcards in Anatomy II Exam 1 Deck (114):
study of muscles
are made for movement of and within the body
what are the 3 types of muscle tissue
1. cardiac muscle
2. visceral muscle
3. skeletal muscle
Visceral/ Smooth muscle
found in the viscera (organs) of the body, single nucleus, involuntary control
this muscle is indirectly attached to the bone or skeleton, distinct striated, multinucleate, voluntary control
what are the 3 distinct parts in the skeletal muscle
1. the body or belly
Body or Belly
the bulky, fleshy part of the muscle which shortens and thickens during contraction
the relatively fixed point of attachment of the muscle
the relatively movable point of attachment of the muscle
There are approximately _____ skeletal muscles in the body
The total mass of skeletal muscle tissue accounts for about ____% of the body weight
a broad, flat tendon
muscle attachment to bone is made indirectly, with a connective tissue structure
muscles may be named for the particular type of action they produce upon contraction
a flexor muscle decreases the angle between 2 body parts
an extensor muscle increases the angle between 2 body parts
an abductor pulls a body part away from the median plane
a supinator turns the palm of the hand anteriorly (back into anatomical position)
a pronator muscle turns the palm of the hand posteriorly (out of anatomical position)
a supinator turns the palm of the hand anteriorly (back into anatomical position)
eversion implies a turning outward or inside out
inversion means to draw inward or outside in. (the feet are initially positioned in an inverted position)
a constrictor muscle such as a sphincter muscle, narrows or binds a vessel, opening, or passageway
dilator expands an organ, vessel, or orifice
elevator muscle raise a particular body part or organ
depressor be it of the tongue or otherwise, lowers a part
this muscle action has no antagonistic muscle action, but rather refers to the turning of a bone about its long axis, as when you shake your head no
movement such that the distal end of a bone describes a circle, and the shaft describes a cone. Look for this movement by a 3rd base coach in baseball, as he waves in a runner from 2nd base to try and score a run
circular shaped, and will constrict
names may be applied which approximately describe the shape of a muscle
triangular shaped muscle which gives roundness and fullness to the shoulder. Its function is to abduct the arm.
sphincter muscles- circular-shaped
points of attachment
muscles may be named according to their point of origin and insertion
what are the only two muscles that are described by their points of attachment
number of divisions
muscles may have prominent divisions in which fibers may be grouped into bundles that run in slightly different directions and have different points of attachment "-ceps" latin meaning "headed"
the space between the ribs
circular-shaped muscle of the mouth
circular-shaped muscle of the eye
superficial vs. deep
the muscles of facial expression lie superficially in relationship to the muscles of mastication, which lie deep
muscles of the arm
muscles of the thigh
the fibers of this muscle found in the ventral abdominal wall form a "V" outside layer, used to rotate the spine
the fibers of this muscle, located just beneath the external oblique, form an inverted "V" (a teepee: ^) middle layer, used to rotate the spine
innermost of the muscles of the ventral abdominal wall, its fibers go transversely (horizontally) = bottom layer, used to rotate the spine
many time, the second part of the name of a muscle tells you something about its size
Major, Maximum, Magnus
Minor, Minimus, Brevis
calf muscle- large in terms of size
arrector pili muscles
cause goosebumps; small in terms of size
What are the 4 muscles of mastication (chewing & swallowing)
3. lateral (external) pterygoid
4. medial (internal) pterygoid
Muscles of the head which draws the scalp backwards, elevates the eyebrow, and wrinkles the forehead. This muscle is named for the points of attachment.
Broad flat tendon which joins the Frontalis
Chewers muscle - Used to close the mouth and clench the teethUsed during the Civil War as an non expert method of mouth closure. Hyperodermic inject
A fan shaped muscle located on squamous portion of the temporal bone on the side of the head. The purpose is also to close the mandibule/ mouth and protrude the mandibule.
lateral (external) pterygoid
To open and move the mandible side to side. (Strap like)
medial (internal) pterygoid
To open and move the mandible side to side (strap like)
what are the 3 muscles of the neck
(Named by shape} A thin and flat muscle of the neck. Its purpose - to depress (mandibule) the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck. (tensing)
Purpose: To depress & lower/ retract the hyoid Located between the shoulder to the hyoid bone.
Purpose - to rotate and extend the head in the movement NO This is the lateral boundary of the Anterior Cervical Triangle. The anatomical guide to raise the common carotid artery and the internal juggler vain. The artery and vain lies medial to the muscle.
(shape) a four sided or diamond shaped muscle of the upper back. Used to elevate or shrug the shoulders.
a flat muscle of the lower back. It adducts, extends, and medially rotates the arm.
Adduct - to bring a body part toward the median plane.
major chest muscles
chest - that part of the trunk or torso above the diaphragm.
named by location and size. A large fleshy muscle of the trunk or torso (upper chest) used to flex and adduct the arm. Draw upper extremities together
spaces located between the ribs. (on the outside) front - breast bone and plate and ribs. Function is to draw the ribs together
spaces located between the ribs. (on the inside) back. Function is to draw the ribs together.
muscles of the abdomen
That portion of the trunk or torso below the diaphragm.
front of the abdomen (anterior) and further from the midline (lateral) front side of the abdomen listed outer most to innermost.
toward the front and closer to the midline.
straight muscle of the arterial medial muscle of the abdominal wall. Used to perform sit ups.
psoas major (iliopsoas)
Only seen and used in autopsy cases used as the anatomical guide to raise the external iliac arteries. Those arteries will always lie medial to the midline to this.
diaphragm (phrenic muscle)
function - This is the major muscle of inhalation or breathing.
openings - Three natural openings in the diaphragm.
What are the 3 openings in the diaphragm
1. esophageal orifice
2. aortic orifice
3. inferior vena caval orifice
The opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus will pass.
The opening in the diaphragm that the aorta will pass. The aorta is the largest artery in the body - carotid artery.
inferior vena caval orifice
opening through which the inferior vena cava (IVC) passes. The largest vain in the body.
A large muscle of the shoulder used to adduct and medially rotate the arm. The tendon of the teres major muscle is used as the anatomical limit to seperate the axillary and brachial arteries.
Named for number of division. A two (2) headed muscle located in the arm region between the shoulder and elbow. This muscle is used as the anatomical guide to raise the brachial artery.
The anatomical guide to raise the axillary artery in the arm pit.
Anterior muscle of the arm to extend the arm and forearm. A three (3) headed muscle of the arm region. forearm muscles (between elbow and wrist)
The purpose of these three (3) muscles are to flex and pronate the hand.
flexor carpi ulnaris
Most medial ventral muscle of forearm. The tendon is the anatomical guide to raise the ulna artery. The ulna artery lies just lateral to the tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.
flexor digitorum superficialis
The tendon of this muscle stands out the most when you make your hand arthritic looking. The ulna artery will lie just medial to the tendon of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle.
flexor carpi radialis
the most lateral ventral muscle of the forearm. The radial artery lies just lateral to the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis muscle at the level of the wrist
Classified as the only superficial dorsal muscle of the forearm. The deep dorsal muscles of the forearm have the common action to extend and supinate the hand. (called the popeyes muscle)
simply remember that as a group, they aid in extension and supination of the hand.
The largest and most superficial of the muscles of the gluteus region. The purpose is to abduct and extend the thigh. injections
anterior femoral muscles
Anterior muscles of the thigh all located in front of the thigh bone.
longest muscle in the human body. An anterior muscle of the thigh used to cross the legs. The tailor’s muscle. Lateral boundary of the femoral triangle.
A four (4) headed muscle of the thigh region. Used to extend the leg as in kicking a football. The petela (knee) is imbedded in the tendon of this muscle
most anterior head of the quadriceps femoris muscle (closest to the front) rectus - a straight muscle in the thigh region. superficial
Large muscle - most lateral head of the quadriceps femoris muscle.
The most medial head of the quadriceps femoris muscle.
The large head quadriceps femoris muscle in-between the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles.
medial femoral muscles
medial of the thigh.
The longest medial muscle of the thigh. serves as the medial boundary of the femoral triangle. Purpose is to adduct the thigh
Largest medial muscle of the thigh,The opening in the adductor magnus muscle is to serve as the anatomical limit between the femoral and popliteal blood vessels.
A short muscle of the thigh.
posterior femoral muscles (hamstring group)
Located on the back of the thigh. The hamstring group. With knees flexed, you can distinctly make out two (2) tendons that form the boundary of the popliteal space.
A two (2) headed muscle of the thigh region. The most lateral posterial muscle of the thigh. Purpose is to flex the leg
The tendon on this muscle stands out the most when the knee is tensed.
The most medial posterior muscle of the thigh.
Muscle located on front of the shin bone or tibia. (dorsiflection) - when you walk on the balls of your feet or heals.
posterior muscles Calf - the largest. The large fleshy muscle called the calf muscle Also called the toe dancers muscle. planterflection - to walk tip toe.
A posterior muscle of the leg. Planterflection- to walk tip toe