Anatomy II Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy II Exam 1 Deck (114):
1

myology

study of muscles

2

muscles

are made for movement of and within the body

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what are the 3 types of muscle tissue

1. cardiac muscle
2. visceral muscle
3. skeletal muscle

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Visceral/ Smooth muscle

found in the viscera (organs) of the body, single nucleus, involuntary control

4

Skeletal muscle

this muscle is indirectly attached to the bone or skeleton, distinct striated, multinucleate, voluntary control

5

what are the 3 distinct parts in the skeletal muscle

1. the body or belly
2. origin
3. insertion

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Body or Belly

the bulky, fleshy part of the muscle which shortens and thickens during contraction

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Origin

the relatively fixed point of attachment of the muscle

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Insertion

the relatively movable point of attachment of the muscle

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There are approximately _____ skeletal muscles in the body

500

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The total mass of skeletal muscle tissue accounts for about ____% of the body weight

45

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aponeurosis

a broad, flat tendon

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Tendon

muscle attachment to bone is made indirectly, with a connective tissue structure

13

Action

muscles may be named for the particular type of action they produce upon contraction

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Flexion

a flexor muscle decreases the angle between 2 body parts

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Extension

an extensor muscle increases the angle between 2 body parts

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Abduction

an abductor pulls a body part away from the median plane

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Supination

a supinator turns the palm of the hand anteriorly (back into anatomical position)

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Pronation

a pronator muscle turns the palm of the hand posteriorly (out of anatomical position)

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Supination

a supinator turns the palm of the hand anteriorly (back into anatomical position)

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Eversion

eversion implies a turning outward or inside out

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inversion

inversion means to draw inward or outside in. (the feet are initially positioned in an inverted position)

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Constriction

a constrictor muscle such as a sphincter muscle, narrows or binds a vessel, opening, or passageway

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dilation

dilator expands an organ, vessel, or orifice

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elevation

elevator muscle raise a particular body part or organ

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depression

depressor be it of the tongue or otherwise, lowers a part

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rotation

this muscle action has no antagonistic muscle action, but rather refers to the turning of a bone about its long axis, as when you shake your head no

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circumduction

movement such that the distal end of a bone describes a circle, and the shaft describes a cone. Look for this movement by a 3rd base coach in baseball, as he waves in a runner from 2nd base to try and score a run

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Sphincter muscle

circular shaped, and will constrict

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Shape

names may be applied which approximately describe the shape of a muscle

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Deltoid

triangular shaped muscle which gives roundness and fullness to the shoulder. Its function is to abduct the arm.

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quadratus

4 sided

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trapezius

trapezoid

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orbicularis

sphincter muscles- circular-shaped

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platysma

flat

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vastus

large

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rectus

straight

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points of attachment

muscles may be named according to their point of origin and insertion

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what are the only two muscles that are described by their points of attachment

sternocleidomastoid
occipitofrontalis

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number of divisions

muscles may have prominent divisions in which fibers may be grouped into bundles that run in slightly different directions and have different points of attachment "-ceps" latin meaning "headed"

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intercostal

the space between the ribs

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buccinator

facial cheeks

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orbicularis oris

circular-shaped muscle of the mouth

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orbicularis oculi

circular-shaped muscle of the eye

44

superficial vs. deep

the muscles of facial expression lie superficially in relationship to the muscles of mastication, which lie deep

45

brachii

muscles of the arm

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femoris

muscles of the thigh

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external oblique

the fibers of this muscle found in the ventral abdominal wall form a "V" outside layer, used to rotate the spine

48

internal oblique

the fibers of this muscle, located just beneath the external oblique, form an inverted "V" (a teepee: ^) middle layer, used to rotate the spine

49

transversus abdominus

innermost of the muscles of the ventral abdominal wall, its fibers go transversely (horizontally) = bottom layer, used to rotate the spine

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Size

many time, the second part of the name of a muscle tells you something about its size

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Major, Maximum, Magnus

large

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Minor, Minimus, Brevis

small

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Medius

medium

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Longus

Long

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gastrocnemius

calf muscle- large in terms of size

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arrector pili muscles

cause goosebumps; small in terms of size

57

What are the 4 muscles of mastication (chewing & swallowing)

1. masseter
2. temporalis
3. lateral (external) pterygoid
4. medial (internal) pterygoid

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Occipitofrontalis

Muscles of the head which draws the scalp backwards, elevates the eyebrow, and wrinkles the forehead. This muscle is named for the points of attachment.

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galea aponeurotica

Broad flat tendon which joins the Frontalis

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masseter

Chewers muscle - Used to close the mouth and clench the teethUsed during the Civil War as an non expert method of mouth closure. Hyperodermic inject

61

temporalis

A fan shaped muscle located on squamous portion of the temporal bone on the side of the head. The purpose is also to close the mandibule/ mouth and protrude the mandibule.

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lateral (external) pterygoid

To open and move the mandible side to side. (Strap like)

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medial (internal) pterygoid

To open and move the mandible side to side (strap like)

64

what are the 3 muscles of the neck

platysma
omohyoid
sternocleidomastoid

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platysma

(Named by shape} A thin and flat muscle of the neck. Its purpose - to depress (mandibule) the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck. (tensing)

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omohyoid

Purpose: To depress & lower/ retract the hyoid Located between the shoulder to the hyoid bone.

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sternocleidomastoid

Purpose - to rotate and extend the head in the movement NO This is the lateral boundary of the Anterior Cervical Triangle. The anatomical guide to raise the common carotid artery and the internal juggler vain. The artery and vain lies medial to the muscle.

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trapezius

(shape) a four sided or diamond shaped muscle of the upper back. Used to elevate or shrug the shoulders.

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latissimus dorsi

a flat muscle of the lower back. It adducts, extends, and medially rotates the arm.
Adduct - to bring a body part toward the median plane.

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major chest muscles

chest - that part of the trunk or torso above the diaphragm.

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pectoralis major

named by location and size. A large fleshy muscle of the trunk or torso (upper chest) used to flex and adduct the arm. Draw upper extremities together

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external intercostals

spaces located between the ribs. (on the outside) front - breast bone and plate and ribs. Function is to draw the ribs together

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internal intercostals

spaces located between the ribs. (on the inside) back. Function is to draw the ribs together.

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muscles of the abdomen

That portion of the trunk or torso below the diaphragm.

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anterolateral wall

front of the abdomen (anterior) and further from the midline (lateral) front side of the abdomen listed outer most to innermost.

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anteromedial wall

toward the front and closer to the midline.

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rectus abdominus

straight muscle of the arterial medial muscle of the abdominal wall. Used to perform sit ups.

78

psoas major (iliopsoas)

Only seen and used in autopsy cases used as the anatomical guide to raise the external iliac arteries. Those arteries will always lie medial to the midline to this.

79

diaphragm (phrenic muscle)

function - This is the major muscle of inhalation or breathing.
openings - Three natural openings in the diaphragm.

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What are the 3 openings in the diaphragm

1. esophageal orifice
2. aortic orifice
3. inferior vena caval orifice

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esophageal orifice

The opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus will pass.

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aortic orifice

The opening in the diaphragm that the aorta will pass. The aorta is the largest artery in the body - carotid artery.

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inferior vena caval orifice

opening through which the inferior vena cava (IVC) passes. The largest vain in the body.

84

teres major

A large muscle of the shoulder used to adduct and medially rotate the arm. The tendon of the teres major muscle is used as the anatomical limit to seperate the axillary and brachial arteries.

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biceps branchii

Named for number of division. A two (2) headed muscle located in the arm region between the shoulder and elbow. This muscle is used as the anatomical guide to raise the brachial artery.

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coracobrachialis

The anatomical guide to raise the axillary artery in the arm pit.

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brachialis

Anterior muscle of the arm to extend the arm and forearm. A three (3) headed muscle of the arm region. forearm muscles (between elbow and wrist)

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ventral aspect

The purpose of these three (3) muscles are to flex and pronate the hand.

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flexor carpi ulnaris

Most medial ventral muscle of forearm. The tendon is the anatomical guide to raise the ulna artery. The ulna artery lies just lateral to the tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.

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flexor digitorum superficialis

The tendon of this muscle stands out the most when you make your hand arthritic looking. The ulna artery will lie just medial to the tendon of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle.

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flexor carpi radialis

the most lateral ventral muscle of the forearm. The radial artery lies just lateral to the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis muscle at the level of the wrist

92

superficial: brachioradialis

Classified as the only superficial dorsal muscle of the forearm. The deep dorsal muscles of the forearm have the common action to extend and supinate the hand. (called the popeyes muscle)

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deep: brachioradialis

simply remember that as a group, they aid in extension and supination of the hand.

94

gluteus maximus

The largest and most superficial of the muscles of the gluteus region. The purpose is to abduct and extend the thigh. injections

95

anterior femoral muscles

Anterior muscles of the thigh all located in front of the thigh bone.

96

sartorius

longest muscle in the human body. An anterior muscle of the thigh used to cross the legs. The tailor’s muscle. Lateral boundary of the femoral triangle.

97

quadriceps femoris

A four (4) headed muscle of the thigh region. Used to extend the leg as in kicking a football. The petela (knee) is imbedded in the tendon of this muscle

98

rectus femoris

most anterior head of the quadriceps femoris muscle (closest to the front) rectus - a straight muscle in the thigh region. superficial

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vastus lateralis

Large muscle - most lateral head of the quadriceps femoris muscle.

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vastus medialis

The most medial head of the quadriceps femoris muscle.

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vastus intermedius

The large head quadriceps femoris muscle in-between the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles.

102

medial femoral muscles

medial of the thigh.

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adductor longus

The longest medial muscle of the thigh. serves as the medial boundary of the femoral triangle. Purpose is to adduct the thigh

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adductor magnus

Largest medial muscle of the thigh,The opening in the adductor magnus muscle is to serve as the anatomical limit between the femoral and popliteal blood vessels.

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adductor brevis

A short muscle of the thigh.

106

posterior femoral muscles (hamstring group)

Located on the back of the thigh. The hamstring group. With knees flexed, you can distinctly make out two (2) tendons that form the boundary of the popliteal space.

107

biceps femoris

A two (2) headed muscle of the thigh region. The most lateral posterial muscle of the thigh. Purpose is to flex the leg

108

semitendinosus

The tendon on this muscle stands out the most when the knee is tensed.

109

semimembranosus

The most medial posterior muscle of the thigh.

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tibialis anterior

Muscle located on front of the shin bone or tibia. (dorsiflection) - when you walk on the balls of your feet or heals.

111

gastrocnemius

posterior muscles Calf - the largest. The large fleshy muscle called the calf muscle Also called the toe dancers muscle. planterflection - to walk tip toe.

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soleus

A posterior muscle of the leg. Planterflection- to walk tip toe

113

The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles are united together by a common tendon called ________ that attaches them to your heal bone.

the calcaneal tendon or achilles tendon