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Flashcards in Microbiology Exam 1 Deck (93):
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Microbiology

scientific study of microorganisms & their effect on other living organisms; literally, the study of small life.

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Divisions of Microbiology

Bacteriology
Rickettsiology
Virology
Protozoology
Mycology

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Bacteriology

study of bacteria;

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Rickettsiology

study of rickettsia

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Virology

study of viruses,or viral diseases

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Protozoology

study of protozoa *the smallest form of animal life

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Mycology

study of fungi (yeasts & molds)

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Bacteria

a prokaryotic one-celled mircoorganism of the Kingdom Monera, existing as free living organisms or parasites, multiplying by binary fission and having a large range of biochemical properties staph., strept., infections

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Mycoplasmas

bacteria of the Mycoplasma genus that are found in humans have no cell wall; the smallest free-living organisms; size between viruses & bacteria, famous in humans for causing an infection called primary atypical pneumonia;

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Rickettsia

a genus of gram-negative, pathogenic, intracellular parasitic bacteria, febrile infections (named for person discovering it Sr. Anthony Ricketts) Could run a fever of 107 degrees-Rocky Mountain Spotted Feverfebrile infections, mostly spread by insect; ex. typhus fever The infection accompanying these is high fever and last a longer period of time. Flea born or rat also transmitted by louse or lice

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Chlamydia

a large group of nonmotile, gram negative intracellular parasites; parrot fever, NGU (non gonococcal urethritis) leading sexually transmitted disease

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Viruses

smallest microorganism know; measles, mumps, flu, hepatitis, smallpox must use an electron microscope to see virus/ virus cannot live alone *this is the smallest microorganism known to man.

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Protozoa

smallest form of animal life, malaria, amebic dysentery one celled organisms of the Kingdom Protista-most are unicellular although some are colonist

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Fungi

yeast and molds; athlete's foot, thrush, PCP, a group of diverse and widespread unicellular and multicellular organisms lacking chlorophyll, usually bearing spores and often filamentous

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Prion

small proteinaceous infectious agents (particles) which almost certainly do not have a nucleic acid genome and therefore resist inactivation by procedures that modify nucleic acids.(Ex: Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJ) )

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Which family or group of microorganisms cause the greatest majority of infection in man?

Bacteria

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Morphology

study of external structure and form without regard to its function

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Taxonomy

classification or naming of all living things

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Dimorphism

ability to exist in either one cell or multi cell form

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Phagocytosis

Cell ingestion, white blood cells destroy foreign objects

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Virulence

likelihood disease causes infection to human from a microorganism; relative power of an organism to produce disease

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Micron (L)

largest unit of measure 25,000 of an inch

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Nanometer (M)

medium unit of measure 250,000 of an inch

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Angstrom (S)

smallest unit of measure 2.5 millionth of an inch

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what are the 3 main shapes of bacteria?

1. Spherical
2. Rod
3. Spiral

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Coccus (pl. Cocci)

spherical (round) or ovoid shaped bacteria

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Bacillus (pl. Bacilli)

rod (capsule) shaped bacteria

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Spirillum (pl. Spirilla)

spiral shaped bacteria

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Vibrio

(L. to move rapidly, vibrate) a genus of spiral bacteria which are curved or bend rods that resemble commas Example: Cholera

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Spirillum

a genus of spiral bacteria having a snake shape with a rigid cell wall and hair-like projections called flagella that assist in movement;

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Spirochete

a genus of bacteria having a flexible cell wall but no flagella in the traditional sense. Movement in these organisms occurs by contractions (undulating) of long filaments (endoflagella) that run the length of the cell; corkscrew shaped bacteria (Syphilis)

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What are the 3 arrangements of Cocci

1. Diplococci
2. Staphylococci
3. Streptococci

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Diplococci

pairs meaning only 2; a variation of round shaped bacteria

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Staphylococci

a genus of gram positive, nonmotile, opportunistic bacteria which tent to aggregate in irregular round clusters; bunches like grapes

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Streptococci

spherical shaped bacteria occurring in chains-

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What are the 2 arrangements of Bacilli

1. Diplobacilli
2. Streptobacilli

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Diplobacilli

a double bacillus, two being linked end to end. Morax-Axenfeld bacillus a cause of conjunctivitis is typical of this form.

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Streptobacilli

rod-shaped bacteria occurring in chains

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Cell wall

the outermost layer which gives shape and integrity (strength) to bacteria; its makeup used to differ among microorganisms; Ex: high lipid (fat) for TB; protein in gram stain (blue if yes, red if no) This test shows if there is protein in the bacteria of TB

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Cell membrane

a thinner, inner layer; controls entry and exit into the bacteria

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Cytoplasm

living substance present in the cell

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Capsule (slime layer)

the membrane that surrounds some bacterial cells; a loose gel-like structure that, in pathogenic bacteria helps to protect cells from phagocytosis, thus enhancing virulence of microorganism

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Endospore

a thick-walled spore within a bacterium; best means of protection any microorganism can possess; NOT a means of reproduction, means of survival, never more than 1 per cell

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What are the only 2 genus that are able to form endospores?

1. Bacillus
2. Clostridium

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Vegetative Bacteria

any bacteria that can never form endospores; or any bacteria which can produce endospores, but is NOT currently

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Sporilating Bacteria

any bacteria which is currently producing endospores; occurs under adverse living conditions

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Germinating Bacteria

when free, endospores forms new vegetative cell when good living conditions return

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Flagella

used for movement of bacteria; long whip-like structures attached to outside

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Monotrichous

form of flagella; single long tail like (ex. sperm)

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Peritrichous

form of flagella; several hairs like all around

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Pili

"little hairs" shorter than flagella and used to aid in attachment to the initial site of infection (ex. gonorrhea)

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Bacterial typical reproduction is by?

binary fission (simple transverse division) an asexual means

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Binary fission

a method of asexual reproduction involving halving of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell followed by the development of each half into a new individual.

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asexual reproduction

has everything it needs to reproduce on its own.

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Bacterial colony

a visible group of bacteria growing on a solid medium, presumably arising from a single microorganism (nutrient broth, blood agar)

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What are the conditions affecting bacterial growth?

1. Food requirements
2. Oxygen requirements
3. Moisture (water) requirements
4. pH

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Autotrophic bacteria

self nourishing bacteria; obtain there food from an organic matter, does not contain carbon

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Heterotrophic bacteria

other than self nourishing; organisms that must obtain their nourishment from complex organic matter; does contain carbon

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Strict (obligate) saprophytes

an organism that can only survive on dead or decaying organic matter

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Strict (obligate) parasite

an organism that is completely dependent on its living host for survival

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Strict (obligate) aerobe

a microbe that can only live in the presence of free oxygen (Humans)

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Strict (obligate) anaerobe

a microbe that can only survive in the absence of free oxygen (Clostridium/ Gang-green)

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Microaerophilic

a microorganism that requires very little free oxygen (a level less that is required for humans)

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pH

percentage of Hydrogen ion in solution; slightly alkaline for most pathogens

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pH scale ranges from

0-14

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pH of 7.0 is

neutral (Ex: water)

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pH of 7.3-7.4

slightly alkaline; the pH of a living human body/ blood

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pH of 5.0

slightly acidic; a deceased body with rigamoritis

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pH of 1.0

highly acidic (Ex: HCl Hydrochloric Acid/ battery acid)

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pH of 10.5

moderately alkaline

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pH of 3.5

moderately acidic

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pH of 13

highly alkaline (Ex: Milk)

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pH above 7.0

Alkaline/ Basic turns litmis paper blue; bitter taste (bile)

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pH below 7.0

Acidic turns litmis paper red (gastric juice)

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Facultative saprophyte

prefers live organic matter as a source of nutrition but can adapt to the use of dead organic matter under certain conditions

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Facultative aerobe

a microorganism that prefers an environment devoid of oxygen but has adapted so that it can live and grow in the presence of oxygen

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Facultative anaerobe

an organism that prefers an oxygen environment but is capable of living and growing in its absence

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87%

non-pathogenic

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13%

can cause infection to the human body

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Staph

grows in clusters (yellow pus/ golden pigment)

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Strept

grows in chains

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Classification of living things (highest to lowest)

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

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Genus

name of all living things is always Capitalized, it tells about the morphology- the external structure or form

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Species

always in small letters; it tells one of the names this infection will cause. if it does not tell us an infection it causes, it usually tells us a laboratory characteristic

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Staphylococcus aureus

round, clusters, golden pigment

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

round, chains, infection of lung tissue (lobar pneumonia)

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Neisseria meningitides

Named from person who discovered it, inflammation of 3 layer membrane in spinal cord

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Hemophilus influenzae

blood living disease, flu, shingles

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Borrelia burgdorferii

lime disease

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typhi

typhoid fever
typhus fever

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Facultative bacteria

Obtain their food from either dead or living organic matter

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Spongiform encephalopathies

prion diseases & because of the post mortem appearance of the brain with large vacuoles in the cortex and cerebellum

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Strep and staph are caused by

Bacteria