Flashcards in Pathology Final ALL CARDS Deck (666):
Study of disease
any abnormal condition which impairs the normal functioning of the body. Local disease and genetic diseases can occur.
was the leading cause of death in the early 1900’s
the leading cause of death TODAY
CVD- Cardiovascular Disease
Another name for CAUSE
The cause of disease is divided into what 2 categories?
Immediate (exciting) &Predisposing
The beginning of disease. The manner in which a particular disease develops.
3 parts of disease that we study
1. Cause (Etiology) 2. Pathogenesis 3. Changes and final effects brought about in the body.
Study of general disease processes, such as inflammation, degeneration, necrosis (localized area of dead tissue in a living body), repair (i.e.: scar tissue), etc.
The body's total response to any injury
Study of disease in relation to a particular organ or the organs system. Ie., disease of the digestive track.
5 Divisions of Pathology
1. Pathological Anatomy (Morbid Anatomy) 2. Surgical Pathology3. Clinical Pathology 4. Medico - Legal Pathology (forensic pathology) 5. Physiological Pathology
The study of the structure of the human body as affected by disease.
Pathological Anatomy (Morbid Anatomy)
localized area of dead tissue in a living body
Study of disease by means of biopsies.
The study of disease by means of:body secretions (useful substances produced within the body), body excretions (waste substances rid from the body), & other body fluids.
Legal Pathology (forensic pathology) the study of disease, death, and injuries with medical/legal potential.
2 methods to study Pathological Anatomy (Morbid Anatomy)
1.) Gross Inspection 2.) Histopathology
See changes of the structure of the body with the unaided eye.
A study of the structure of the cell as affected by disease, by means of microscope. Disease at cellular levels.
The study of the functions of the body as affected by disease.
A study of disease by samples of tissue removed surgically from a living person.
useful substances produced within the body
waste products that are rid from the body
The study of deaths and injuries of medical and legal significance
The study of the function of the human body as affected by disease.
Medico-Legal Pathology is also known as...
Importance of autopsy
1. Confirm medical diagnosis2. Amplify or reject the clinical diagnosis3. Advancement of medical knowledge 4. Medico-legal cases5. Medical statistics
Autopsy is also known as...
necropsy or postmortem exam
Differences between Coroner vs. Medical Examiner
1. Determination of jurisdiction (county where death occurred)2. Qualifications 3. Inquest
a formal legal proceeding into the events and circumstances surrounding a particular death.
Coroner is a carry over from the.....
English common law system
Inquest are needed in cases of....
unknown deaths ordeaths caused by violence
Elected county officer who investigates and holds inquests over unknown deaths or deaths caused by violence.
Appointed...must have gone to school (MD) works with the police officers; works under coroner.
Texas does NOT use the term__________________, but has _______________ in those counties not large enough to have a ME's office.
Coroner Justice of the Peace (J.P.)
Difference with ordinary clinical autopsy (relation to clinical findings and diagnosis) vs. forensic autopsy. Forensic Autopsy will provide...
A. Absolute identification of the body.B. A description of the body and scene.C. A description of the clothingD. An unrestricted autopsy (prevention of future legal actions) a complete autopsy.
Types of Unrestricted autopsy
Biochemical Microbiological scans Radiological scans
Primary need of a forensic autopsy is to determine...
cause of death
A minimum of ___________ must be listed on a death certificate.
One cause of death
Three types or parts of death
the thing responsible for death at the time of the terminal event (peritonitis)
Immediate cause of death
the thing prior to and leading up to the terminal event (stab wounds)
basic cause of death
the thing involved in but not causing the terminal event (leukemia) persons with leukemia have less blood clotting ability.
contributory cause of death
God only knows
Failure to thrive means
infant not sucking on breast
dead in the saddle
the circumstances surrounding a particular death
manner of death
Types of Mannerrs of death
1. Natural 2. Homicide3. Suicide4. Accident5. Unexplained (SIDS)6. Undetermined (decomposed)
An explanation of the sequence of events leading up to the death.
mechanism of death
recover and preserve this_____________
any abnormal condition which impairs the normal functioning of the body. It can affect the entire body or only one part of the body.
Definition of disease
presence of microorganisms in or on the body.
The doctrine of cellular pathology was written by who? He is considered the father of pathology.
What does the doctrine of cellular pathology state?
“Just like the cell is the structural and functional unit of life. The cell is also the structural and functional unit of disease.”
any disease of impaired function without change in structure. i.e. mental illness, color blindness.
any disease in which definite structural changes accompany it.
Any structural or functional change due to disease.
The identification of a specific disease.
Any disease in which the fever accompanying it is either excessively high and or lasts a prolonged period of time. Ex: Rickettsia infections- Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever - 107 15 - 20 days (2-3 weeks).
Disease state which occur at the same time or concurrently with another disease. Often times they are infectious in nature.
Alcohol, steroids, poisoning, the exposure of the body to poisonous substances.
Disease states which occur on second or subsequent exposure to the same allergen.
A forecast of the outcome of a particular disease.
Subjective manifestation of a disease. They accompany the disease but are not measurable. Pain, headache.
Objective manifestation of a disease. These are measurable. Vital signs, blood pressure, breathing.
Any disease caused by a microorganism.
Any disease that occurs every now and then.
Any disease that turns into a worldwide epidemic, flu.
A disease that attacks a large number of people in a short period of time, i.e. chicken pox.
Any disease that is continuously present i.e. common cold.
A set of both signs and symptoms accompanying a disease, i.e. Down’s syndrome (mongolism) SIDS.
A sudden increase in the severity of a disease. “The patient has made a turn for the worse.” Conditions of patients are rated; good, fair, critical, grave condition. If a patient goes from fair to critical condition
Temporary absence of a particular disease. ie: Cancer
Any disease transmitted genetically - through the genes, i.e. hemophilia, dwarfism.
Any disease caused by dietary or metabolic deficiency, i.e. diabetes mellitus scurvy (lack of vitamin C) Goiter (lack of iodine).
Any disease with slow on set and long duration. ex: Carcinoma (cancer). Gout
Any disease present at birth. Does not have to be life threatening, i.e. cleft palate, polydactylism (more digits on hand or feet than normal).
Any disease obtained after birth.
Any disease that reappears now and then, fever blisters, cold sores.
Any disease of unknown origin or cause. Essential hypertension.
Any disease in which a person’s occupation or profession makes them more susceptible to develop a particular disease. Hepatitis B, scrotal cancer, (chimney sweeps) anthrocosis (black lung disease) silicosis (sandblasting).
Any disease of sudden onset and short duration. ex: MI
the study of the causes of disease
The divisions of the causes of disease
predisposing conditions exciting (immediate causes)
conditions that make a person more susceptible or inclined to develop a particular disease.ex: Age (MS/Meningitis-children's disease) (Alzheimer's disease-elderly) (Sarcoma vs. Carcinoma-most 40-65) Sex (Prostate cancer-male) (Uterine & Ovarian cancer-female) (Gallbladder attack-mostly in women) Nutrition (Kwashiokor - protein deficiency) Race (Sickle cell anemia-Blacks) (TB-less in Eskimos) Occupation (Hepatitis B-Embalmers) (Scrotal cancer- chimney sweeps)
Any cause of disease that has established a cause/effect relationship
Exciting (immediate) causes
coal miners disease...black lung diseaseIt is a type of occupational disease
Hepatitis B is what type of disease?
Scrotal cancer is commonly a Recurrent Disease...TRUE OR FALSE?
FALSE...it is commonly an occupational disease
any condition or disease induced/caused by treatment of a physician or medical personnel ex: leaving a pair of forceps in the body after surgery
number of cases reported of a specific illness or disease in a given population.
MMWR stands for.....It is one of the most common reports that the morbidity rate of illnesses or diseases are posted in.
mortality and morbidity weekly report
Number of deaths reported in a given population for a specific period of time.
Mortality Rate (Death Rate)
Carcinoma is an example of what type of disease?
diabetes mellitus(lack of insulin) & scurvy (lack of vitamin C) is an example of what type of disease?
A common cold is a ______________ disease.
dwarfism is what type of disease?
essential hypertension is what type of disease?
polydactylism (more digits on hand or feet than normal) is a ______________ disease.
A hereditary disease that is also known as the bleeder’s disease. It is mostly present in male offspring; is the absence of an essential clotting factor- Factor 8)
The flu can be which two types of diseases?
Endemic & epidemic
Allergies are also known as...
A death resulting from immediate severe allergic reaction.
Anaphylaxis is also known as...
also known as frequency. Number of incidents...how frequently an incident occurs.
Prevalence- Most commonly used as “how prevalent”
Factors in predisposing conditions
Age Sex Nutrition Race Occupation
any type of wound or injury
disease due to dietary or metabolism in the systemex: albinisim
not seen on first exposure. Seen on second or third exposure
other factors of predisposing conditions
fatigue, general living conditions, plague, alcoholism, heredity, emotion, etc.
mongolism (down's syndrome), hemophilia, diabetes, dwarfism are examples of...
foreign protein that triggers production of an incomplete antibody
extremes of temperature-cold or heat. Radiation is also an example of this...
parasites, microorganisms are examples of...
chemicals that are either immediately or eventually toxic or poisonous to the body.chemical reactions-has a cause and effect. Chemicals which induce a change in the human body.
types of death with medico-legal potential
1. injury or death by violence2. sudden and/or unexpected death3. environmental deaths4. health, welfare, & safety5. medical litigation
albinism is an example of what disease?
complete absence of production of melanin
types of cellular reactions (manners by which a body would respond to injury)
regressive tissue changesprogressive tissue changes
an increase in size is what type of cellular reaction?
progressive tissue changes
a decrease in size is what type of cellular reaction?
regressive tissue changes
Types of regressive tissue changes
type of regressive tissue change in which there is an accumulation or buildup of a substance INTRACELLULARLY (within) the protoplasm of cells.
we diffrentiate types of degeneration according to the type of _________ that is _______
most common type of degeneration.similar to edema. this fluid is between cells. Intracellular, cloudy swelling, There is a temporary accumulation or buildup of fluid within the protoplasm of cells.
cellular (cloudy) swelling
fatty change-fatty metamorphosis-abnormal accumulation of fat within the protoplasm of normal cells.
fat in liver cells affects the _______. This would be called __________
liverliver dysfunction (fatty liver degeneration)
intracellular accumulation or buildup of amyloid within the normal protoplasm of cells.Commonly seen in TB - Typically, in adults, it begins in the lungs. Osteomyelitis - inflammation of the spongey bone marrow inside bones. Infectious disease.
a waxy starch like substance
These two disease are commonly seen in relation to amyloid disease...
type of regressive tissue change in which there is an accumulation or buildup of a substance intercellularly (between the cells)
means within the cells
means between the cells
inflammation of the spongey bone marrow inside bones. Infectious disease.
accumulation or buildup of a pigmented or colored substance
types of infiltration
accumulation of a pigmented or colored substance which originated outside the body
tattoos, plumbism, (color change along gum line from high elements of lead) anthracosis (cole miner's disease-black lung), bismuth poisoning (caused from high dosages over time of bismuth-pepto) are examples of...
a disease that causes a color change along the gum line...from high elements of lead is called
cole miner's disease also called black lung disease is...
abnormal accumulation of pigmented or colored substance that is naturally present or produced within the body
jaundice, freckles, moles, albinism, birthmarks
types of pigmentation
increased localized amounts of melanin. Usually a lighter shade of brown.
benign pigmented tumors usually a darker shade of brown.
complete absence of melanin production
these are usually shades of red (port wine color)type of benign tumor of blood vascular tissue.
accumulation or buildup of calcium salts between the cell fibers, as in sclerotic vessels.This is also the natural way the body heals bone fractures.
calcification is also known as...
excess uric acid, especially seen in big toe
process by which you have a localized area of necrotic or dead tissue present during life
causes of necrosis..
1. insufficient blood supply2. physical agent-temperature extremes, radiation3. chemical gents4. loss of nerve supply
type of dead tissue which is cheese-like in appearance. Has a unique odor. As seen in TB
difference between infarction and necrosis...
need to look up
types of necrosis
most famous type of necrosis.
types of gangrene
true gangrene, since saprophytes are present and invade the tissue. There is a foul odor present since saprophytes are present. This is the worst possible type of gangrene
It fits this four word definition...ischemic necrosis (localized area of dead tissue that has been caused by the reduction in arterial blood supply ) plus putrefaction. This is why it is considered true.
Which gangrene is commonly called TRUE GANGRENE?
localized area of dead tissue present in a living body
reduction in arterial blood supply
the decomposition of proteins in an anaerobic environment (absence of oxygen)
4 word definition for true gangrene?
ischemic necrosis plus putrefaction
organisms that obtain their food from dead matter
false gangrene; no saprophytes present; no order; nice line of demarcation.
since saprophytes have not invaded dry gangrene it spreads_________
only type that is infectious, caused by clostridium perfringens during life; microorganisms cause tissue gas in death
a bacteria which can cause spores
which type of gangrene is the ONLY type that is infectious
gas gangrene is caused by which of the following type of microorganisms
bedsores caused by pressure points which restrict blood flow.
dead epithelial tissue
absence or lack of growthA decrease in size of a body part or organ that previously was of normal size.
decrease in size of a body part or organ due to decreased functional demand
types of atrophy
types of gangrene
types of degeneration
cellularfatty degeneration amyloid disease
forms of physiological atrophy
thymus glandsenile atrophybreasts after lactation
located at the base of the neck. Largest and most active during infancy.
the progressive shrinkage of all organs as part of the natural aging process.
decrease in size due to disease
examples of pathological atrophyCHECK ACCURACY OF THIS CARD
anorexia nervosa cancerdisease of a body part (muscle) which will decrease in size.
body’s total response to any injury.
Function of inflammation
protection of the body
If possible, inflammation will...
a. Destroy the causative agent.b. Limit the area affected.c. Begin the process of repair - the process to replace destroyed cells with new ones (scar tissue), but not the same as the destroyed cells.
Causes of inflammation
1. Physical irritants2. Chemical irritants3. Infectious agents4. Immunological reaction
extremes of temperature - hot or cold.Radiation which is cumulative.
an exposure to chemical.
any type of microscopic pathogens.
allergic reaction to a immunological shot (autoimmune disease).
Process of inflammation
1. Hyperemia (congestion) vascular2. Exudation
The shipment of access blood to the injured body part or organ.
Hyperemia (congestion) vascular
the oozing of fluids at the level of the capillaries.
the liquid that is oozed in inflammation
Types of exudates....
1. Purulent (suppurative)2. Hemorrhagic3. Serous
exudates which contain pus
dead and living white blood cells and dead and living bacteria
exudate which contains blood
exudate which does not contain pus, it is clear
cardinal signs and/or symptoms with inflammation should be __________________
cardinal signs and/or symptoms of inflammation
Heat Redness Swelling PainAltered function
concerning inflammation....CALOR (INCREASED TEMPERATURE)
concerning inflammation...TUMOR (SHOULD BE TEMPORARY)
concerning inflammation...FUNCTIO LAESA
localized collection of pus.
cellulitis, a diffuse or wide spread inflammation of subcutaneous connective tissue. Appears as a red streak located and growing just under the surface of the skin.
blister, a small or slight elevation on the surface of the skin filled with serous or non-purulent fluid (does not contain pus).
non-communicating boil, an abscess of a hair follicle or sweat gland.
several communicating boils where the drainage of the hair follicle or sweat gland are shared.
abnormal passageway. Occurs mostly in the lower digestive tract. Can occur between parts of a body or from a body part to the outside.
localized area of necrotic opithel - three common sites
3 common sites of ulcers
1. Upper GI tract, stomach or duodenum2. Toes on diabetics3. Decubitus ulcer - bedsore
Slight elevation of the surface of the skin which contains pus. (Pimple, whitehead, or black head) usually an oil gland.
outcomes of inflammation
types of regeneration
a part of the outcome which signals the end of the exudation stage or inflammation stage.
the replacement of damaged or diseased cells with the exact cells making it up.
Regeneration due to increased functional demand.
Regeneration due to disease
connective tissue cells. The replacement of damaged or diseased cells with healthy new cells with connective tissue cells or by surgery -results in scar tissue.
bladder or sac
types of inflammation in the nervous system
inflammation of the brain
inflammation of the spinal cord.
inflammation of the 3 layer membrane of the brain and spinal cord.
inflammation of the gray matter portion of the spinal cord.
inflammation of a neuron or nerve cell.
types of inflammation in the respiratory system
inflammation of the nasal mucosa
(mucusmembrane of the lining of the nasal cavity)
inflammation of the pharynx a sore throat
inflammation of one or more sets of the paranasal sinuses
near or along the nasal cavities
inflammation of the larynx or voice box
inflammation of the pleura
pleuritis is also called...
a thin membrane that surrounds the lungs
pleura (pleural space or cavity)
inflammation of the trachea or windpipe
inflammation of one or both of the bronchi (two) or bronchus (one)
inflammation of or infection of lung tissue itself
types of pneumonitis
lobar pneumonia (one portion of the lung)bronchial pneumoniaviral pneumonia
types of inflammation in the digestive system
inflammation of the mouth
inflammation of the tongue
inflammation of the gums
inflammation of the esophagus
muscular tube that conveys food from the throat to the stomach
inflammation of the stomach
inflammation of the small intestines
inflammation of the diverticulum or intestinal hernia
inflammation of the colon
longest division of the large intestines
types of colitis
amebiculcerative (psychosomatic disorder)
inflammation of the rectum
inflammation of the peritoneum
membrane which surrounds the abdominal viscera
inflammation of the pancreas
a heterocrine gland that breaks down food and releases insulin into blood to control sugar levels
inflammation of the liver
inflammation of the sac containing bile or gallbladder
inflammation of one or more of the bile ducts
inflammation of the vermiform appendix
Types of inflammation in the Genital & Urinary System
Pyelitis Pyelonephritis Glomerulonephritis Ureteritis Cystitis Urethritis Orchitis Prostatitis Oophoritis Salpingitis Endometritis Endocervicitis Vaginitis
inflammation of the renal pelvis.
inflammation of the structural and functional unit of the kidney caused by pyogenic bacteria.
inflammation of the Vagina or birth canal.
inflammation of the endocervic
the inner most layer of the lower neck structure of the cervix.
inflammation of the little tufted capillaries of the structural and functional unit of the kidneys.
little tufted capillaries of kidneys
inflammation of the tube that urine between the kidney and urinary bladder conveys.
inflammation of the urinary bladder.
inflammation of the endometrium, the inner most or vascular layer of the uterus
inflammation of one or both of the fallopian tubes.
inflammation of the single tube that conveys urine from the urinary bladder to outside the body.
inflammation of one or both of the male gonads (testis).
inflammation of the prostate gland.
inflammation of one or both of the ovaries (female sex gland).
types of inflammation of the Cardiovascular System
- inflammation of the vein caused by an attached blood clot during life.
- inflammation of the vein.
- inflammation of the artery
what can cause arteritis
inflammation of the pericardium
the sack surrounding the heart.
inflammation of the muscle layer of the heart.
- inflammation of the inner most layer of the heart. The heart valves are made from this tissue.
types of inflammation of the Skin and Skeletomuscular System
inflammation of the skin - contact delayed reaction.
inflammation of the bursa
- the tiny sac filled with a lubricant for the joints.
- inflammation of the sponge bone and marrow.
- inflammation of the joints.
types of inflammation of the Lymphatic System
- inflammation of the lymph vessel.
-inflammation of the one or more of the three sets of tonsils. Tissue between the mouth and throat.
A circulatory disturbanceA disease in which a person has excess amounts of tissue fluid present in the body
substance which bathes and surrounds the body cells.
causes of edema
a. Increased permeability of the capillaries. The capillaries are allowing too much fluid in and not enough out. The cells are swelling.b. Increased capillary pressure due to venous obstruction or heart failure.c. Inflammatory conditions - due to injury.d. Fluid / electrolyte problems – post surgical problems
Examples of edema
Anasarca AscitesHydrothorax Hydropericardium Hydrocele Hydro-cephalus
Type of edemageneralized edema – edema scattered throughout the entire body
Type of edema excess tissue fluid in the abdominal cavity or peritoneal cavity.
Type of edemaexcess tissue fluid in the thoracic or plural cavity.
Type of edemaexcess tissue fluid in the sack that surrounds the heart.
Type of edemaexcess fluid or edema of a sacculated cavity. Affects the scrotum in males
Type of edemaexcess fluid in the cranial cavity - water on the brain. Affects the nervous system. Most commonly reported more in children than adults.
A circulatory disturbanceexcess blood in a body part or organ
types of hyperemia
Physiological hyperemiaPathological hyperemia Active hyperemia Passive hyperemia
types of hyperemiae.g., blushing - excess blood in a body part or organ due to increased functional demand.
types of hyperemiae.g., cyanosis - excess blood in a body part or organ due to disease
types of hyperemiaexcess blood in a body part or organ brought there by the arteries
types of hyperemiaexcess blood in a body part or organ due to venous obstruction, an obstruction which is present in the veins. Passive hyperemia is always pathologic.
reddish blue discoloration seen in the tissues due to lack of oxygen
a circulatory disturbancea reduction in the arterial blood supply to a body part or organ
the most common cause of ischemia is?
the presence of an attached blood clot present in an artery.
if left untreated, what is the effect of ischemia?
death - infarction (death of tissue due to interference of blood supply).
a circulatory disturbancethe process by which there is the presence of an attached blood clot during life.
single blood clot
two or more blood clots
causes of thrombosis (4)
a. Injuries to blood vessels.b. Slower or reduced rate of blood flow.c. Alterations in blood composition.d. Blood diseases - becoming thin from within such as leukemia.
locations of thrombi
a. Veins b. Arteriesc. chambers of the heart
the most common site for thrombi
thrombi in the lower extremities would cause
DVTdeep vein thrombosis
the least common site for thrombi
chambers of the heart
the chambers of the heart is the least common site for thrombi. Why?
they were shipped to the heart from another part of the body
when a thrombi changes location it becomes?
a thrombi becoming mural (or changing location) is the greatest risk because?
the attached blood clot has become infected, and once it becomes infected, it will spread
consequences of thrombi depend on what?
where it is located
a consequence of thrombosisthrombosis present in the artery – causes reduction in arterial blood supply. Restricts blood flow
the most common consequence of thrombosis. Present in the vein.
a consequence of thrombosisdeath of the tissue caused by interference in blood supply - ischemic necrosis + putrefaction
a circulatory disturbancethe process by which there is a free floating object in the blood stream during life.
a single free floating object in the blood during life
one or more objects in the blood during life
types of embolism
a. Fragments of thrombi b. Bacteria c. Tumors d. Animal parasites e. Fat f. Gas g. Foreign bodies
types of embolisma clot that detaches or breaks off. The most common type of an embolism.
Fragments of thrombi
types of embolismpresent in the blood stream during life. Blood poisoning
types of embolism swelling; an abnormal growth. Malignant or non-malignant. Begins as free floating in the blood stream. Spread by the blood or lymph system.
types of embolismfree floating in the blood stream.
types of embolismfat cells free floating in the blood stream.
types of embolismair free floating in the blood stream.
types of embolismsmall pieces of glass or metal free floating in the blood stream.
Consequences of embolism
a. Ischemia - reduction in arterial blood supply.b. Infarction - localized area of dead tissue caused by interference of blood supply.c. Spread of infection or neoplasm (new growth).d. Necrosis - dead tissue, i.e. heart.
a circulatory disturbanceloss of blood from the vascular system. A human can lose no more than half (1/2) without irreversible damage or death.
Methods of hemorrhage
Rhexis or Diapedesis
loss of blood by rupture of a blood vessel. Rupture of one of the chambers of the heart
loss of blood by squeezing through the pores of the capillaries
Causes of hemorrhage
a. Trauma - wound or injuryb. Vascular diseases of the blood vesselsc. Hypertension - high blood pressured. Blood diseases - plethora - excess amount of circulating blood
Related terms (3)Size of the hemorrhage
Petechia Echymosis Hematoma
pinpoint hemorrhages;, smallest of the hemorrhages in terms of size; commonly seen in cancer patients (think of petite)
medium sized hemorrhage (bruise or black and blue spot). Most famous sites- long term IV or a shiner (black eye)
a tumor like mass of lost blood. Largest of the hemorrhages in terms of size(Pool of blood such as a gun shot wound).(hema-huge-largest)
Location of the hemorrhage (10)
Epistaxis Hemoptysis Hematemesis Melena Hemothorax Hemoperitoneum Hematuria Exsanguination Hemopericardium Hemophilia
Location of the hemorrhagenose bleed, blood coming from the nasal cavity
Location of the hemorrhageblood brought up in sputum from the respiratory tract. (Emphysema)
Location of the hemorrhage vomiting of blood. Blood in the vomit from the digestive tract.
Location of the hemorrhagethe presence of blood in feces (the stool.) Intestinal tract, the stool color changes from brown to black. (Colon cancer, diverticulitis)
Location of the hemorrhagethe presence of blood in the thoracic cavity or plural cavity.
Location of the hemorrhagethe presence of blood in the peritoneal cavity or abdominal cavity.
Location of the hemorrhagethe presence of blood in the urine or urinary tract, urinary tract infection.
Location of the hemorrhagemassive loss of blood which usually results in death or irreversible damage. The body cannot loose more than 1/2 of the blood volume, without death or irreversible damage
Location of the hemorrhageexcess blood in the sack surrounding the heart.
Location of the hemorrhagean affinity for blood. The bleeder’s disease. A heredity disease only found in males characterized by the absence or a deficiency of an essential clotting factor, factor 8.
Postmortem conditions in regards to circulatory disturbances
1. Diminished circulation 2. Abscesses 3. Hemorrhages 4. Emaciation/ Dehydration 5. Rapid decomposition 6. Discoloration Intravascular and/or extravascular.
diminished circulation postmortem is due to
the hardening of the arteries
a postmortem circulatory disturbance localized collection of pus
occurring postmortemmassive loss of blood can cause generalized circulatory shock.
the wasting away or loss of tissue
loss of moisture from the body.
postmortem hypostasis which causes livor mortis (reddish blue discoloration) which is an intravascular blood discoloration. Can be usually removed by embalming.
blood discoloration after death outside the intravascular system. This is a cosmetic problem.
National board question: What is considered the most permanent blood discoloration?
Post mortem extravascular (post mortem stain)
localized or generalized. Affects one part of the body or the entire body.
edema is also called...
hyperemia is also called...
process by which there is a localized area of dead tissue caused by the interference of blood supply
a localized area of dead tissue caused by interference of blood supply. Those appear white when present in living tissue.
an abnormal new growth
Enclosed sac-like pouches that have a definite wall.Usually containing a liquid, solid, or semi-solid material
Types of cysts
Duarian cystSebaccous cyst
abnormal sac-like pouch present on the ovary.
type of duarian cyst
duarian cyst also called...
a rare ovarian (duarian) cyst that contains a waxy tissue and other structures not normally foundex: teeth or hair follicles
an abnormal sac-like structure located on a oil gland
oil glands are also called
An increase in size of a body part or organ by an increase in size of the cells already present.Excessive growth
sebaccous cysts are also called...
an abnormal sac-like structure
types of hypertrophy
increase in size of a body part or organ due to increased functional demand
Breast tissue due to lactation. The increase in size of the female uterus in preparation of pregnancy.
an increase in size of a body part or organ due to disease
Wilm's tumor and brain tumor is an example of what?
a rare tumor of the kidney in children
increase in size of a body part or organ to compensate or make up for the loss of a similar or paired organ
increase in size of a body part or organ by an increase in the total number of cells making it up.
What type of change is hyperplasia?
Progressive tissue change
oat cell carcinoma is an example of
classifications of neoplasms
state of disease
types of states of disease (clinical)
A suffix of "oma" generally means that it is a _____________ tumorNOT ALWAYS
ALL malignant tumors left untreated will _______________
generally a suffix of sarcoma or carcinoma
malignant tumor of epithelial tissue occurring in persons 45-60
breast cancer or lung cancer are examples of what type of tumor
bone cancer is an example of what type of tumor
malignant tumor or connective tissue in persons under 30
generally, a benign tumor will NOT...
tissue of origin; what tissue it originated first.Shown by its prefix or the stem of the word
characteristics of benign neoplasms
a. Grow by expansion.b. Don’t metastasize - don’t spread.c. Don’t recur after surgery - removal or treatment.d. Don’t cause great tissue damage.e. Resemble original tissue of origin.
characteristics of malignant neoplasms
a. Grow by the called infiltrationb. Metastasize (spread)c. Can reoccur after surgery.d. Cause extensive tissue damage.e. No resemblance to original tissue of origin.
take over existing tissue
process by which a malignancy spreads itself to other parts of the body. Usually by means of the lymph or blood stream
Types of BENIGN neoplasms
1. Epithelial tissue2. Muscle tissue3. Connective tissue4. Nervous tissue
lining tissue...also the inner most tissue
Types of BENIGN EPITHELIAL TISSUE...
1. Adenoma2. Papilloma3. Nevus
glandular- a benign tumor of glandular epithelial
a benign tumor of epithelial that appears as a pedestal "stalk-like" growth.
papilloma is also known as...
most frequently in the nasal cavity or intestinal track
a benign pigmented tumor. a shade of brown or black. localized and well defined
nevus is also called...
Types of BENIGN MUSCLE TISSUE
1. Rhabdomyoma2. Leiomyoma
a benign tumor of tissue used for movement.
benign muscle tissue is also called...
a benign tumor of skeletal muscle tissue
a benign tumor of sooth muscle tissue
Types of BENIGN CONNECTIVE TISSUE
1. Osteoma2. Chondroma3. Lipoma4. Angioma5. Fibroma
benign tumor of bone
benign tumor of cartilage.
cartilage is a form of.....
a benign tumor of fatty connective tissue
a benign tumor of vascular tissue
types of Angiomas
1. Hemangioma2. Lymphangloma
a benign tumor of blood vascular tissue
example of hemangioma....usually a shade of red.
a benign tumor of lymph vascular tissue....usually a shade of white or yellow.
a benign tumor of fibrous connective tissue
benign tumor that originates in the movement of neurons
benign nervous tissue is also called...
Types of MALIGNANT neoplasms
1. Epithelial tissue2. Connective tissue3. Muscle tissue4. Nervous tissue
indicate a malignant tumor that originates in any type of epithelial tissue
types of carcinoma
1. Melanoma2.Squamous cell3. Adenocarcinoma4. Transitional cell carcinoma5. Bascel cell carcinoma
a malignant pigmented tumor.
(makes up skin tissue). A malignant tumor of squamous cell epithelia
most common name given for squamous cell is .....
Squamous cell is the most ________ reported form of _________________ in adults
gland - a malignant tumor of glandular epithelia.
most famous form of Adenocarcinoma...
a malignant tumor of transitional cell epithelia
transitional cell carcinoma
common form of transitional cell carcinoma
a malignant tumor of bascel cell epithelia tissue.
bascel cell carcinoma
_______________ is the most lethal site of bascel cell carcinoma malignancy in ADULTS (MALE & FEMALE)
______________is the most lethal site of bascel cell carcinoma malignancy in CHILDREN
Type of MALIGNANT connective tissue
Types of Sarcoma
1. Osteosarcoma2. Chondrosarcoma3. Liposarcoma4. Fibrosarcoma5. Angiosarcoma6. Lymphoma
malignant tumor of bone
example of osteosarcoma
malignant tumor of cartilage
What is a benign tumor of connective tissue?
malignant tumor of fatty connective tissue
What do you call a tumor that infiltrates fatty connective tissue?
malignant tumor of fibrous connective tissue
malignant tumor of vascular tissue- blood or lymph
types of angiosarcoma
1. Hemangiosarcoma2. Lymphangiosarcoma
malignant tumor of blood vascular tissue
malignant tumor of lymph vascular tissue
malignant tumor of lymphoid tissue
Three tumors that end in "oma", which indicates a malignant tumor
1. Melanoma2. Lymphoma3. Glioma
example of Lymphoma
an enlarged cervical lymphoid usually on the left side of the neck in young adult males
still has a malignant tumor, but it does not present itself in young males...malignant tumor in the spleen
The largest mass of lymphoid tissue in body is the_________
the largest and most active lymphoid tissue during INFANCY is the ____________
Sarcoma is also used for malignant tumor of ______________ as well as ____________.
muscle tissueconnective tissue
Malignant muscle tissue also known as
Types of MALIGNANT muscle tissue
1. Rhabdomyosarcoma2. Leiomyosarcoma
malignant tumor of skeletal muscle tissue
malignant tumor of visceral (smooth) muscle tissue
example of Leiomyosarcoma
malignant tumor of the nervous tissue
most common example of glioma is...
type of cancer that DOES NOT end in sarcoma
in adults, the leading cause of death resulting from cancer, regardless of sex is________
most frequently reported malignant cancer...
skin cancer (squamous cell cancer)
You can live longer with________
Post-mortem conditions of malignant tumors
1. Emaciation2. Discoloration3. Hemorrhage4. Tissue deformation5. Extravascular obstruction6. Dehydration
Wasting away, loss of tissue. It is most noticeable in the temporal bone region.
emaciation also known as
indicates liver dysfunction---a shade of green or yellow
wide spread pinpoint hemorrhages...petite or smallest of the hemorrhages. Seen in long term chemotherapeutic patients
types of discoloration
1. Jaundice2. Purpura
loss of bloodcommon with brain tumors
tissue is deformed or eaten away
in the blood vascular system
example of extravascular obstruction
rare form of cancer...cancer in the kidneys...commonly found in children
Predisposing factors of diseases of the heart & blood vessels
1. Heredity2. Obesity53. Diabetes4. Elevated cholesterol levels5. Social factors
condition or factors that make a person more susceptible to a disease.
Social factors regarding predisposing factors...
a) Smokingb) Substance abusec) Stress - type A personalityd) Diet
Types of Heart conditions....
1. Dilatation2. Hypertrophy3. Endocarditis4. Valvular defects5. Pericarditis6. Myocarditis7. Rheumatic heart disease8. Coronary artery disease9. Cardiac failure10. Myocardial infarcation11. Hypertensive heart disease12. Cardiomyopathy13. Carditis
Dilatation used as a verb...
usually a temporary condition...INCREASE in the LENGTH or STRETCHING of heart muscle fibers.
usually a permanent condition...INCREASE in size of the heart muscle by an INCREASE in the SIZE of the heart cells itself.
inflammation of the endocardium
inner most layer of the heart...the layer of the heart in which heart valves are made.
Types of Valvular Defects...
1. insufficiency2. stenosis3. prolapse
incompetence...failure of a heart valve to close or seat properly.
narrowing...a reduction or narrowing in the size of the opening controlled by a heart valve.
weakening...(collapse) in the wall of a heart cusp making up a heart valve.
inflammation of the pericardium
sac surrounding the heart
inflammation of the myocaredium
muscle layer of the heart
this heart disease is CONTAGIOUS...caused by Streptococcus Pyogenes and Ashoff bodies.
Rheumatic heart disease
a strict pathogen
scar tissue which form in persons who recover from the childhood disease rheumatic fever
a disease affecting the coronary arteries
coronary artery disease
disease of the major vascular system of the body that conveys blood...Veins, Arteries, & Capillaries
blood vessel disease
inflammation of the arteries
hardening of the blood vessels.
This is a CHRONIC or slowly progressive disease. The late stage of hardening of the arteries. Seen mostly in the femoral arteries.
Diseases of the THE BLOOD VESSELS
1. Arteritis2. Arteriosclerosis3. Aneurysm4. Phlebitis5. Varicose veins
weakness in the wall of an artery...found mostly at the splitting of OR just above the bifurcation of the Abdominal Aorta.
inflammation of a vein
dilated or engorged superficial veins. Can NOT be surgically removed
varicose veins are also called...
this is the earlier stage of hardening of the arteries that have the presence or formation of ATHEROMAS.
tends to form in Tortuous Arteries...
arteries that can quickly change the volume of blood flow that is flowing through them in a short period of time.
Atherosclerosis are related to all of the following PER OUR NOTES*****
Coronary ArteriesCerebral Arterial Arteries (circle of willis)
Inflammation of vein due to the presence of an attached blood clot
most patients with thrombophlebitis are put on...
Types of CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
1. Thrombosis2. Spasms3. Embolism
the presence of an attached blood clot during life in the coronary arteries
the presence of a free floating object in the blood stream
abnormal contraction of the heart muscle
spasms can also be called...
Groups of diseases of the blood
Reactive ChangeAnemiaHemopoietic disordersBleeding disorders
Types of Reactive Changes in diseases of the blood
1. Leukocytosis2. Leukopenia
a SUDDEN and TEMPORARY INCREASE in the total number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS, as part of a natural inflammatory response-injury
A decrease in the total number of white blood cells due to disease. Bone marrow not producing proper number of white blood cells.
white blood cells...
The biggest cause of LEUKOPENIA is ___________________ not producing the proper number of ______________________.
Bone marrowWhite blood cells
a DECREASE in the total number of RED BLOOD cells, hemoglobin, or both.
this literally means, the absence of or lack of blood
Types of Anemia
1. Primary2. Secondary
a previously existing condition which causes anemia
example of secondary anemia
the first disease by which a person is diagnosed
formation of all blood cells that occurs in the bone marrow
type of hemopoietic disorders
1. Leukemia2. Polycythemia vera
Cancer of the blood - a malignant tumor of the blood forming organs characterized by excess production of improperly functioning white blood cells.
A disease in which a person is producing excess numbers of red blood cells or erythrocytes. This causes blood to become thicker or increase viscosity which reduces the blood flow and increases the tendency to form clots.
Polycythemia vera is also known as...
types of bleeding disorders
1. Hemophilia2. Purpura3. Thrombocytopenia
(an affinity for blood) Bleeders disease, a hereditary disease in male offspring characterized by the absence of an essential clotting factor. (factor 8)
Widespread hemorrhage, loss of blood scattered throughout the body.
Decrease in the total number of thrombocytes or platelets due to disease. Thrombocytes initiates the clotting process.
liver, gallbladder, and pancreas which has as it’s purpose the breakdown of foods and liquids into useful soluble substances for distribution to the bloodstream throughout the body.
Accessory organs of digestion
specific diseases of the digestive system
1. Inflammatory/degenerative2. Genetic/developmental3. Obstruction
types of inflammatory/degenerative diseases
1. gingivitis2. pharyngitis3. esophagitis4. gastritis5. peptic ulcer6. enteritis7. colitis8. appendicitis9. hemorrhoids10. hepatitis11. cirrhosis12. cholecystitis13. choletithaiasis14. cholangitis15. pancreatitis16. peritonitis17. diverticulosis
Inflammation of the gums
Inflammation of the pharynx - a sore throat
Inflammation of the muscular tube which conveys food from the throat to the stomach through the esophagus.
example of esophagitis
Inflammation of the stomach.
A localized area of necrotic epithelia (dead tissue) caused by the action of the enzyme pepsin.
a digestive enzyme
where are peptic ulcers commonly found?
stomach or duodenum
Inflammation of the small intestine.
Inflammation of one or more divisions of the colon. The colon is the longest division of the large intestines.
types of colitis
1. amebic2. ulcerative
inflammation of the longest division of the large intestine characterized by several localized areas of dead epithelial.
a microscopic animal that has invaded and actively multiplying in the colon
inflammation of the vermiform appendix, attached to the cecum
ulcerative colitis is a __________ disease
self induced disease
cure for ulcerative colitis...
pus in the pleural cavity
leading cause of death in 1900s
an allergic disease in which a person has to be exposed to twice...can attack any part of the body but usually attacks the lungs.
TB of the lungs is called...
most lethal form of TB
a group of a lung diseases caused by prolonged inhalation of a single foreign substance.CONFIRM DEFINITION
???????? definition coal miners disease or black lung disease.
caused by excess exposure to silica...inside ash trays of buildings & seen in occupation of sandblasting.
caused by the prolonged inhalation of asbestos. Ex: Roofers
failure of the lung tissue to expand at birth
Atelectasis in INFANTS
the collapse of a lung due to complete bronchial obstruction
Atelectasis in ADULTS
over distention or rupture of the alveoli in the lungs caused by a partial or incomplete bronchial obstruction.
localized collection of pus in the lungs. Usually bacterial in nature.
commonly called a collapsed lung
Atelectasis in ADULTS
histoplasmosis is what type of disease
systemic Fungal disease
tiny air sacs in the lungs
ring worm is what type of disease
superficial fungal disease
fungal disease classifications
failure of the roof of the mouth to close or form completely
cleft lip/palate is commonly called
Types of Genetic/developmental diseases
Cleft lip/palateCystic fibrosis
over secretion of an excessively thick mucus forming in the lower respiratory tract.
cystic fibrosis is what type of disease?
patients usually die from cystic fibrosis due to what reason....
the mucus so thick that even if they cough the substance blocks breathing.
Obstructive diseases of the respiratory tract.
an obstruction within the air passageway
an obstruction from outside the breathing tube
asphyxia & suffocation
COPD stands for...
chronic obstruction pulmonary disease
ex of COPD
postmortem conditions of diseases of the respiratory tract
1. Cyanosis2. Emaciation3. Edema4. Hemorrhage5. Caviation
a reddish-blue discoloration seen tissues- caused by lack of oxygen.
loss of tissue. Most noticeable in the face and temporal region.
excess fluid in pleural cavity or thoracic cavitygives the body a barrel-shaped chest appearance
examples of edema in postmortem conditions
loss of blood
blood in the septum (phlem)...will see clotted during cavity treatment
presence or formation of spaces or cavities in the lung tissue
most common heart valve where valvular defects take place and why?
Mitral valve, because of its structure...only heart valve that has two distinct sections or cusps making it up
congestive heart failure- Usually occurs in adulthood. In adults the persons heart was not beating as fast as it should; swollen ankles are indicative of CHF; children- generally a result of improper structural changes that fail to occur at birth or shortly thereafter.
Death of heart muscle tissue caused by interference in blood supply. Commonly known as a heart attack; it could be mild (dead muscle tissue but not enough to kill the person).
hypertension or high blood pressure caused by a diseases of the heart. (Give patient a diuretic)
hypertensive heart disease
a disease of the heart muscle; can be born with this. If diagnosed early enough, the patient would be a candidate for a heart transplant)
end stage of liver disease; in which the normal/ healthy liver cells are replaced by the surrounding supporting cells; are candidates for a liver transplant; appearance little bumps on the surface of the liver called a hob nail liver
dilated or engorged veins; located around the anal canal; can be internal or external (risk or danger is blood loss; blood in the stool “Melina”)
inflammation of the liver (3types) would like to suffer from type A if diagnosed; vaccine to help with immunity;
inflammation of the sac containing bile; inflammation of the gallbladder
the presence or formation of cholelithis; referred to as gall stones
Inflammation of one or more of the bile ducts
inflammation of the pancreas; false membrane will form around the pancreas (heterocrine gland) causing blockage of the pancreatic duct by a gallstone (most lethal form of cancer)
inflammation of the perineum; largest serous membranes (the membrane which lines the abdominal viscera/ organs)
the presence of one or more an intestinal hernia also referred to as diverticula/ diverticulum a weakness of the wall of the large intestine;
a narrowing in the size of the opening controlled by the pyloric valve of the stomach, circular shaped valve that controls the passing of food from the stomach to the small intestines
Specific diseases of the digestive system *****Genetic/developmental*******
1. Pyloric Stenosis2. Hernia
abnormal protrusion of a body part of organ into an area where it’s not normally found;
the stomach protruding into the thoracic cavity
blockage within the digestive system; blocks the flow of food
types of Obstruction concerning the digestive system
1. Bile duct- 2. Volvulus- 3. Intussuception4. Adhesioins
obstruction or blockage due to gallstones
obstruction or blockage due to a twisting of the intestines
obstruction or blockage; telescoping of the intesitnes
Obstruction or Blockage; scar tissue which form due to a previous disease or from surgery
a postmortem condition caused by disease of the digestive system; the evacuation of any substance after death.
a postmortem condition caused by disease of the digestive system; this will call more blood clots
rapid coagilation of blood
Specific diseases of the respiratory tract Inflammatory/degenerative.......the infection or inflammation of lung tissue itself.
3 types of pneumonia
a type of pneumonia; infection confined to one or more lobes of the lung tissue.
a type of pneumonia; infection of the lung tissue that began in the bronchi.