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Flashcards in Pathology Final ALL CARDS Deck (666):
1

Study of disease

Pathology

2

any abnormal condition which impairs the normal functioning of the body. Local disease and genetic diseases can occur.

Disease

3

was the leading cause of death in the early 1900’s

TB

4

the leading cause of death TODAY

CVD- Cardiovascular Disease

5

Another name for CAUSE

Etiology

6

The cause of disease is divided into what 2 categories?

Immediate (exciting) &Predisposing

7

The beginning of disease. The manner in which a particular disease develops.

Pathogenesis

8

3 parts of disease that we study

1. Cause (Etiology) 2. Pathogenesis 3. Changes and final effects brought about in the body.

9

Study of general disease processes, such as inflammation, degeneration, necrosis (localized area of dead tissue in a living body), repair (i.e.: scar tissue), etc.

General Pathology

10

The body's total response to any injury

inflammation

11

Study of disease in relation to a particular organ or the organs system. Ie., disease of the digestive track.

Special Pathology

12

5 Divisions of Pathology

1. Pathological Anatomy (Morbid Anatomy) 2. Surgical Pathology3. Clinical Pathology 4. Medico - Legal Pathology (forensic pathology) 5. Physiological Pathology

13

The study of the structure of the human body as affected by disease.

Pathological Anatomy (Morbid Anatomy)

14

localized area of dead tissue in a living body

necrosis

15

Study of disease by means of biopsies.

Surgical Pathology

16

The study of disease by means of:body secretions (useful substances produced within the body), body excretions (waste substances rid from the body), & other body fluids.

Clinical Pathology

17

Legal Pathology (forensic pathology) the study of disease, death, and injuries with medical/legal potential.

Medico

18

2 methods to study Pathological Anatomy (Morbid Anatomy)

1.) Gross Inspection 2.) Histopathology

19

See changes of the structure of the body with the unaided eye.

Gross inspection

20

A study of the structure of the cell as affected by disease, by means of microscope. Disease at cellular levels.

Histopathology

21

The study of the functions of the body as affected by disease.

Physiological Pathology

22

A study of disease by samples of tissue removed surgically from a living person.

Biopsy

23

useful substances produced within the body

body secretions

24

waste products that are rid from the body

body excretions

25

The study of deaths and injuries of medical and legal significance

Medico-Legal Pathology

26

The study of the function of the human body as affected by disease.

Physiological Pathology

27

Medico-Legal Pathology is also known as...

Forensic Pathology

28

Importance of autopsy

1. Confirm medical diagnosis2. Amplify or reject the clinical diagnosis3. Advancement of medical knowledge 4. Medico-legal cases5. Medical statistics

29

Autopsy is also known as...

necropsy or postmortem exam

30

Differences between Coroner vs. Medical Examiner

1. Determination of jurisdiction (county where death occurred)2. Qualifications 3. Inquest

31

a formal legal proceeding into the events and circumstances surrounding a particular death.

Inquest

32

Coroner is a carry over from the.....

English common law system

33

Inquest are needed in cases of....

unknown deaths ordeaths caused by violence

34

Elected county officer who investigates and holds inquests over unknown deaths or deaths caused by violence.

J.P./Coroner

35

Appointed...must have gone to school (MD) works with the police officers; works under coroner.

Medical examiner

36

Texas does NOT use the term__________________, but has _______________ in those counties not large enough to have a ME's office.

Coroner Justice of the Peace (J.P.)

37

Difference with ordinary clinical autopsy (relation to clinical findings and diagnosis) vs. forensic autopsy. Forensic Autopsy will provide...

A. Absolute identification of the body.B. A description of the body and scene.C. A description of the clothingD. An unrestricted autopsy (prevention of future legal actions) a complete autopsy.

38

Types of Unrestricted autopsy

Biochemical Microbiological scans Radiological scans

39

toxicological

Biochemical

40

Primary need of a forensic autopsy is to determine...

cause of death

41

A minimum of ___________ must be listed on a death certificate.

One cause of death

42

Three types or parts of death

ImmediateBasicContributory

43

the thing responsible for death at the time of the terminal event (peritonitis)

Immediate cause of death

44

the thing prior to and leading up to the terminal event (stab wounds)

basic cause of death

45

the thing involved in but not causing the terminal event (leukemia) persons with leukemia have less blood clotting ability.

contributory cause of death

46

GOK means

God only knows

47

Failure to thrive means

infant not sucking on breast

48

DIS

dead in the saddle

49

the circumstances surrounding a particular death

manner of death

50

Types of Mannerrs of death

1. Natural 2. Homicide3. Suicide4. Accident5. Unexplained (SIDS)6. Undetermined (decomposed)

51

An explanation of the sequence of events leading up to the death.

mechanism of death

52

recover and preserve this_____________

Evidence

53

any abnormal condition which impairs the normal functioning of the body. It can affect the entire body or only one part of the body.

Definition of disease

54

presence of microorganisms in or on the body.

Microbiological scans

55

x-rays

Radiological scans

56

The doctrine of cellular pathology was written by who? He is considered the father of pathology.

Virchow

57

What does the doctrine of cellular pathology state?

“Just like the cell is the structural and functional unit of life. The cell is also the structural and functional unit of disease.”

58

any disease of impaired function without change in structure. i.e. mental illness, color blindness.

Functional disease

59

any disease in which definite structural changes accompany it.

Organic disease

60

Any structural or functional change due to disease.

Lesion

61

The identification of a specific disease.

Diagnosis

62

Any disease in which the fever accompanying it is either excessively high and or lasts a prolonged period of time. Ex: Rickettsia infections- Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever - 107 15 - 20 days (2-3 weeks).

Febrile disease

63

Disease state which occur at the same time or concurrently with another disease. Often times they are infectious in nature.

Complications

64

Alcohol, steroids, poisoning, the exposure of the body to poisonous substances.

Intoxications

65

Disease states which occur on second or subsequent exposure to the same allergen.

Allergies

66

A forecast of the outcome of a particular disease.

Prognosis

67

Subjective manifestation of a disease. They accompany the disease but are not measurable. Pain, headache.

Symptoms

68

Objective manifestation of a disease. These are measurable. Vital signs, blood pressure, breathing.

Signs

69

Any disease caused by a microorganism.

Infectious disease

70

Any disease that occurs every now and then.

Sporadic disease

71

Any disease that turns into a worldwide epidemic, flu.

Pandemic disease

72

A disease that attacks a large number of people in a short period of time, i.e. chicken pox.

Epidemic

73

Any disease that is continuously present i.e. common cold.

Endemic disease

74

A set of both signs and symptoms accompanying a disease, i.e. Down’s syndrome (mongolism) SIDS.

Syndrome

75

A sudden increase in the severity of a disease. “The patient has made a turn for the worse.” Conditions of patients are rated; good, fair, critical, grave condition. If a patient goes from fair to critical condition

Exacerbation

76

Temporary absence of a particular disease. ie: Cancer

Remission (abatement)

77

Any disease transmitted genetically - through the genes, i.e. hemophilia, dwarfism.

Hereditary disease

78

Any disease caused by dietary or metabolic deficiency, i.e. diabetes mellitus scurvy (lack of vitamin C) Goiter (lack of iodine).

Deficiency disease

79

Any disease with slow on set and long duration. ex: Carcinoma (cancer). Gout

Chronic

80

Any disease present at birth. Does not have to be life threatening, i.e. cleft palate, polydactylism (more digits on hand or feet than normal).

Congenital disease

81

Any disease obtained after birth.

Acquired disease

82

Any disease that reappears now and then, fever blisters, cold sores.

Recurrent disease

83

Any disease of unknown origin or cause. Essential hypertension.

Idiopathic disease

84

Any disease in which a person’s occupation or profession makes them more susceptible to develop a particular disease. Hepatitis B, scrotal cancer, (chimney sweeps) anthrocosis (black lung disease) silicosis (sandblasting).

Occupational disease

85

Any disease of sudden onset and short duration. ex: MI

Acute

86

the study of the causes of disease

Etiology

87

The divisions of the causes of disease

predisposing conditions exciting (immediate causes)

88

conditions that make a person more susceptible or inclined to develop a particular disease.ex: Age (MS/Meningitis-children's disease) (Alzheimer's disease-elderly) (Sarcoma vs. Carcinoma-most 40-65) Sex (Prostate cancer-male) (Uterine & Ovarian cancer-female) (Gallbladder attack-mostly in women) Nutrition (Kwashiokor - protein deficiency) Race (Sickle cell anemia-Blacks) (TB-less in Eskimos) Occupation (Hepatitis B-Embalmers) (Scrotal cancer- chimney sweeps)

Predisposing conditions

89

Any cause of disease that has established a cause/effect relationship

Exciting (immediate) causes

90

coal miners disease...black lung diseaseIt is a type of occupational disease

Anthrocosis

91

Hepatitis B is what type of disease?

Occupational

92

Scrotal cancer is commonly a Recurrent Disease...TRUE OR FALSE?

FALSE...it is commonly an occupational disease

93

any condition or disease induced/caused by treatment of a physician or medical personnel ex: leaving a pair of forceps in the body after surgery

Iatrogenic

94

number of cases reported of a specific illness or disease in a given population.

Morbidity Rate

95

MMWR stands for.....It is one of the most common reports that the morbidity rate of illnesses or diseases are posted in.

mortality and morbidity weekly report

96

Number of deaths reported in a given population for a specific period of time.

Mortality Rate (Death Rate)

97

Carcinoma is an example of what type of disease?

Chronic

98

diabetes mellitus(lack of insulin) & scurvy (lack of vitamin C) is an example of what type of disease?

deficiency disease

99

A common cold is a ______________ disease.

endemic

100

dwarfism is what type of disease?

hereditary

101

essential hypertension is what type of disease?

idiopathic

102

polydactylism (more digits on hand or feet than normal) is a ______________ disease.

congenital

103

A hereditary disease that is also known as the bleeder’s disease. It is mostly present in male offspring; is the absence of an essential clotting factor- Factor 8)

hemophilia

104

The flu can be which two types of diseases?

Endemic & epidemic

105

Allergies are also known as...

Hypersensitivities

106

A death resulting from immediate severe allergic reaction.

Anaphylaxis

107

Anaphylaxis is also known as...

anaphylactic shock

108

also known as frequency. Number of incidents...how frequently an incident occurs.

Prevalence- Most commonly used as “how prevalent”

109

Factors in predisposing conditions

Age Sex Nutrition Race Occupation

110

any type of wound or injury

trauma

111

disease due to dietary or metabolism in the systemex: albinisim

deficiencies

112

not seen on first exposure. Seen on second or third exposure

allergens

113

other factors of predisposing conditions

fatigue, general living conditions, plague, alcoholism, heredity, emotion, etc.

114

mongolism (down's syndrome), hemophilia, diabetes, dwarfism are examples of...

heredity

115

foreign protein that triggers production of an incomplete antibody

allergen

116

extremes of temperature-cold or heat. Radiation is also an example of this...

physical agents

117

parasites, microorganisms are examples of...

infectious agents

118

chemicals that are either immediately or eventually toxic or poisonous to the body.chemical reactions-has a cause and effect. Chemicals which induce a change in the human body.

chemical agents

119

types of death with medico-legal potential

1. injury or death by violence2. sudden and/or unexpected death3. environmental deaths4. health, welfare, & safety5. medical litigation

120

albinism is an example of what disease?

deficiencies disease

121

complete absence of production of melanin

albinism

122

types of cellular reactions (manners by which a body would respond to injury)

regressive tissue changesprogressive tissue changes

123

an increase in size is what type of cellular reaction?

progressive tissue changes

124

a decrease in size is what type of cellular reaction?

regressive tissue changes

125

Types of regressive tissue changes

degeneration infiltrationnecrosisatrophy

126

type of regressive tissue change in which there is an accumulation or buildup of a substance INTRACELLULARLY (within) the protoplasm of cells.

degeneration

127

degeneration is....

intracellular

128

we diffrentiate types of degeneration according to the type of _________ that is _______

substanceaccumulated

129

most common type of degeneration.similar to edema. this fluid is between cells. Intracellular, cloudy swelling, There is a temporary accumulation or buildup of fluid within the protoplasm of cells.

cellular (cloudy) swelling

130

fatty change-fatty metamorphosis-abnormal accumulation of fat within the protoplasm of normal cells.

fatty degeneration

131

fat in liver cells affects the _______. This would be called __________

liverliver dysfunction (fatty liver degeneration)

132

intracellular accumulation or buildup of amyloid within the normal protoplasm of cells.Commonly seen in TB - Typically, in adults, it begins in the lungs. Osteomyelitis - inflammation of the spongey bone marrow inside bones. Infectious disease.

Amyloid disease

133

a waxy starch like substance

amyloid

134

These two disease are commonly seen in relation to amyloid disease...

TBOsteomyelitis

135

type of regressive tissue change in which there is an accumulation or buildup of a substance intercellularly (between the cells)

Infiltration

136

means within the cells

intracellular

137

means between the cells

intercellular

138

inflammation of the spongey bone marrow inside bones. Infectious disease.

Osteomyelitis

139

accumulation or buildup of a pigmented or colored substance

pigmentation

140

types of infiltration

pigmentationcalcification gout

141

accumulation of a pigmented or colored substance which originated outside the body

exogenous pigmentation

142

tattoos, plumbism, (color change along gum line from high elements of lead) anthracosis (cole miner's disease-black lung), bismuth poisoning (caused from high dosages over time of bismuth-pepto) are examples of...

exogenous pigmentation

143

a disease that causes a color change along the gum line...from high elements of lead is called

plumbism

144

cole miner's disease also called black lung disease is...

anthracosis

145

abnormal accumulation of pigmented or colored substance that is naturally present or produced within the body

endogenous pigmentation

146

jaundice, freckles, moles, albinism, birthmarks

endogenous pigmentation

147

types of pigmentation

exogenousendogenous

148

increased localized amounts of melanin. Usually a lighter shade of brown.

freckles

149

benign pigmented tumors usually a darker shade of brown.

moles

150

complete absence of melanin production

albinism

151

these are usually shades of red (port wine color)type of benign tumor of blood vascular tissue.

birthmarks

152

accumulation or buildup of calcium salts between the cell fibers, as in sclerotic vessels.This is also the natural way the body heals bone fractures.

calcification

153

calcification is also known as...

calcareous infiltration

154

excess uric acid, especially seen in big toe

gout

155

process by which you have a localized area of necrotic or dead tissue present during life

necrosis

156

causes of necrosis..

1. insufficient blood supply2. physical agent-temperature extremes, radiation3. chemical gents4. loss of nerve supply

157

type of dead tissue which is cheese-like in appearance. Has a unique odor. As seen in TB

caseous necrosis

158

difference between infarction and necrosis...

need to look up

159

types of necrosis

caseousgangreneDecubitus ulcer

160

most famous type of necrosis.

gangrene

161

types of gangrene

moistdry gas

162

true gangrene, since saprophytes are present and invade the tissue. There is a foul odor present since saprophytes are present. This is the worst possible type of gangrene

moist

163

It fits this four word definition...ischemic necrosis (localized area of dead tissue that has been caused by the reduction in arterial blood supply ) plus putrefaction. This is why it is considered true.

moist gangrene

164

Which gangrene is commonly called TRUE GANGRENE?

moist gangrene

165

localized area of dead tissue present in a living body

necrosis

166

reduction in arterial blood supply

ischemic

167

the decomposition of proteins in an anaerobic environment (absence of oxygen)

putrefaction

168

4 word definition for true gangrene?

ischemic necrosis plus putrefaction

169

organisms that obtain their food from dead matter

saprophytes

170

false gangrene; no saprophytes present; no order; nice line of demarcation.

dry gangrene

171

since saprophytes have not invaded dry gangrene it spreads_________

slowly

172

only type that is infectious, caused by clostridium perfringens during life; microorganisms cause tissue gas in death

gas gangrene

173

a bacteria which can cause spores

perfringens

174

which type of gangrene is the ONLY type that is infectious

gas gangrene

175

gas gangrene is caused by which of the following type of microorganisms

bacteria (perfringens)

176

bedsores caused by pressure points which restrict blood flow.

decubitus ulcer

177

dead epithelial tissue

ulcer

178

absence or lack of growthA decrease in size of a body part or organ that previously was of normal size.

atrophy

179

decrease in size of a body part or organ due to decreased functional demand

physiological atrophy

180

types of atrophy

physiologicalpathological

181

types of gangrene

moistdry gas

182

types of degeneration

cellularfatty degeneration amyloid disease

183

forms of physiological atrophy

thymus glandsenile atrophybreasts after lactation

184

located at the base of the neck. Largest and most active during infancy.

Thymus gland

185

the progressive shrinkage of all organs as part of the natural aging process.

Senile atrophy

186

decrease in size due to disease

pathological atrophy

187

examples of pathological atrophyCHECK ACCURACY OF THIS CARD

anorexia nervosa cancerdisease of a body part (muscle) which will decrease in size.

188

body’s total response to any injury.

INFLAMMATION

189

Function of inflammation

protection of the body

190

If possible, inflammation will...

a. Destroy the causative agent.b. Limit the area affected.c. Begin the process of repair - the process to replace destroyed cells with new ones (scar tissue), but not the same as the destroyed cells.

191

Causes of inflammation

1. Physical irritants2. Chemical irritants3. Infectious agents4. Immunological reaction

192

extremes of temperature - hot or cold.Radiation which is cumulative.

Physical irritants

193

an exposure to chemical.

Chemical irritants

194

any type of microscopic pathogens.

Infectious agents

195

allergic reaction to a immunological shot (autoimmune disease).

Immunological reaction

196

Process of inflammation

1. Hyperemia (congestion) vascular2. Exudation

197

The shipment of access blood to the injured body part or organ.

Hyperemia (congestion) vascular

198

the oozing of fluids at the level of the capillaries.

Exudation

199

the liquid that is oozed in inflammation

Exudate

200

Types of exudates....

1. Purulent (suppurative)2. Hemorrhagic3. Serous

201

exudates which contain pus

purulent (suppurative)

202

dead and living white blood cells and dead and living bacteria

pus

203

exudate which contains blood

hemorrhagic

204

exudate which does not contain pus, it is clear

serous

205

cardinal signs and/or symptoms with inflammation should be __________________

temporary

206

cardinal signs and/or symptoms of inflammation

Heat Redness Swelling PainAltered function

207

concerning inflammation....CALOR (INCREASED TEMPERATURE)

HEAT

208

concerning inflammation...RUBOR

REDNESS

209

concerning inflammation...TUMOR (SHOULD BE TEMPORARY)

SWELLING

210

concerning inflammation...DOLOR

PAIN

211

concerning inflammation...FUNCTIO LAESA

ALTERED FUNCTION

212

Inflammatory lesions

abscessphlegmonvesiclefurunclecarbunclesfistulaulcerpustule

213

localized collection of pus.

Abscess

214

cellulitis, a diffuse or wide spread inflammation of subcutaneous connective tissue. Appears as a red streak located and growing just under the surface of the skin.

Phlegmon

215

blister, a small or slight elevation on the surface of the skin filled with serous or non-purulent fluid (does not contain pus).

Vesicle

216

non-communicating boil, an abscess of a hair follicle or sweat gland.

Furuncle

217

several communicating boils where the drainage of the hair follicle or sweat gland are shared.

Carbuncles

218

abnormal passageway. Occurs mostly in the lower digestive tract. Can occur between parts of a body or from a body part to the outside.

Fistula

219

localized area of necrotic opithel - three common sites

Ulcer

220

3 common sites of ulcers

1. Upper GI tract, stomach or duodenum2. Toes on diabetics3. Decubitus ulcer - bedsore

221

Slight elevation of the surface of the skin which contains pus. (Pimple, whitehead, or black head) usually an oil gland.

Pustule

222

outcomes of inflammation

resolutionregenerationrepair

223

types of regeneration

physiological pathological

224

a part of the outcome which signals the end of the exudation stage or inflammation stage.

Resolution

225

the replacement of damaged or diseased cells with the exact cells making it up.

Regeneration

226

Regeneration due to increased functional demand.

Physiological

227

Regeneration due to disease

Pathological

228

connective tissue cells. The replacement of damaged or diseased cells with healthy new cells with connective tissue cells or by surgery -results in scar tissue.

Repair

229

itis means...

inflammation

230

cyst means...

bladder or sac

231

chole means....

bile

232

types of inflammation in the nervous system

encephalitismyelitismeningitispoliomyelitisneuritis

233

inflammation of the brain

Encephalitis

234

inflammation of the spinal cord.

Myelitis

235

inflammation of the 3 layer membrane of the brain and spinal cord.

Meningitis

236

inflammation of the gray matter portion of the spinal cord.

Poliomyelitis

237

inflammation of a neuron or nerve cell.

Neuritis

238

types of inflammation in the respiratory system

rhinitispharyngitissinusitislaryngitispleuritistracheitisbronchitispneumonitis

239

inflammation of the nasal mucosa

Rhinitis

240

(mucusmembrane of the lining of the nasal cavity)

nasal mucosa

241

inflammation of the pharynx a sore throat

pharyngitis

242

inflammation of one or more sets of the paranasal sinuses

sinusitis

243

near or along the nasal cavities

paranasal sinuses

244

inflammation of the larynx or voice box

laryngitis

245

inflammation of the pleura

pleuritis

246

pleuritis is also called...

pleurisy

247

a thin membrane that surrounds the lungs

pleura (pleural space or cavity)

248

inflammation of the trachea or windpipe

tracheitis

249

inflammation of one or both of the bronchi (two) or bronchus (one)

bronchitis

250

inflammation of or infection of lung tissue itself

pneumonitis

251

types of pneumonitis

lobar pneumonia (one portion of the lung)bronchial pneumoniaviral pneumonia

252

types of inflammation in the digestive system

stomatitisglossitisgingivitisesophagitisgastritisenteritisdiverticulitiscolitisproctitisperitonitispancreatitishepatitischolecystitischolangitisappendicitis

253

inflammation of the mouth

stomatitis

254

inflammation of the tongue

glossitis

255

inflammation of the gums

gingivitis

256

inflammation of the esophagus

esophagitis

257

muscular tube that conveys food from the throat to the stomach

esophagus

258

inflammation of the stomach

gastritis

259

inflammation of the small intestines

enteritis

260

inflammation of the diverticulum or intestinal hernia

diverticulitis

261

inflammation of the colon

colitis

262

longest division of the large intestines

colon

263

types of colitis

amebiculcerative (psychosomatic disorder)

264

inflammation of the rectum

proctitis

265

inflammation of the peritoneum

peritonitis

266

membrane which surrounds the abdominal viscera

peritoneum

267

inflammation of the pancreas

pancreatitis

268

a heterocrine gland that breaks down food and releases insulin into blood to control sugar levels

pancreas

269

inflammation of the liver

hepatitis

270

inflammation of the sac containing bile or gallbladder

cholecystitis

271

inflammation of one or more of the bile ducts

cholangitis

272

inflammation of the vermiform appendix

appendicitis

273

snakelike

vermiform

274

Types of inflammation in the Genital & Urinary System

Pyelitis Pyelonephritis Glomerulonephritis Ureteritis Cystitis Urethritis Orchitis Prostatitis Oophoritis Salpingitis Endometritis Endocervicitis Vaginitis

275

inflammation of the renal pelvis.

Pyelitis

276

inflammation of the structural and functional unit of the kidney caused by pyogenic bacteria.

Pyelonephritis

277

inflammation of the Vagina or birth canal.

Vaginitis

278

inflammation of the endocervic

Endocervicitis

279

the inner most layer of the lower neck structure of the cervix.

endocervic

280

pus forming

pyogenic

281

inflammation of the little tufted capillaries of the structural and functional unit of the kidneys.

Glomerulonephritis

282

little tufted capillaries of kidneys

(glomerulus)

283

inflammation of the tube that urine between the kidney and urinary bladder conveys.

Ureteritis

284

inflammation of the urinary bladder.

Cystitis

285

inflammation of the endometrium, the inner most or vascular layer of the uterus

Endometritis

286

inflammation of one or both of the fallopian tubes.

Salpingitis

287

inflammation of the single tube that conveys urine from the urinary bladder to outside the body.

Urethritis

288

inflammation of one or both of the male gonads (testis).

Orchitis

289

inflammation of the prostate gland.

Prostatitis

290

inflammation of one or both of the ovaries (female sex gland).

Oophoritis

291

types of inflammation of the Cardiovascular System

pericarditismyocarditisendocarditisarteritisphlebitisthrombophlebitis

292

- inflammation of the vein caused by an attached blood clot during life.

Thrombophlebitis

293

- inflammation of the vein.

Phlebitis

294

- inflammation of the artery

Arteritis

295

what can cause arteritis

angiograms

296

inflammation of the pericardium

Pericarditis

297

the sack surrounding the heart.

pericardium

298

inflammation of the muscle layer of the heart.

Myocarditis

299

- inflammation of the inner most layer of the heart. The heart valves are made from this tissue.

Endocarditis

300

types of inflammation of the Skin and Skeletomuscular System

dermatitisbursitisosteomyelitisarthritis

301

inflammation of the skin - contact delayed reaction.

Dermatitis

302

inflammation of the bursa

Bursitis

303

- the tiny sac filled with a lubricant for the joints.

bursa

304

- inflammation of the sponge bone and marrow.

Osteomyelitis

305

- inflammation of the joints.

Arthritis

306

types of inflammation of the Lymphatic System

tonsillitislymphangitis

307

- inflammation of the lymph vessel.

Lymphangitis

308

-inflammation of the one or more of the three sets of tonsils. Tissue between the mouth and throat.

Tonsillitis

309

A circulatory disturbanceA disease in which a person has excess amounts of tissue fluid present in the body

Edema (Dropsy)

310

substance which bathes and surrounds the body cells.

Tissue fluids

311

causes of edema

a. Increased permeability of the capillaries. The capillaries are allowing too much fluid in and not enough out. The cells are swelling.b. Increased capillary pressure due to venous obstruction or heart failure.c. Inflammatory conditions - due to injury.d. Fluid / electrolyte problems – post surgical problems

312

Examples of edema

Anasarca AscitesHydrothorax Hydropericardium Hydrocele Hydro-cephalus

313

Type of edemageneralized edema – edema scattered throughout the entire body

Anasarca

314

Type of edema excess tissue fluid in the abdominal cavity or peritoneal cavity.

Ascites

315

Type of edemaexcess tissue fluid in the thoracic or plural cavity.

Hydrothorax

316

Type of edemaexcess tissue fluid in the sack that surrounds the heart.

Hydropericardium

317

Type of edemaexcess fluid or edema of a sacculated cavity. Affects the scrotum in males

Hydrocele

318

Type of edemaexcess fluid in the cranial cavity - water on the brain. Affects the nervous system. Most commonly reported more in children than adults.

Hydro-cephalus

319

A circulatory disturbanceexcess blood in a body part or organ

Hyperemia (congestion)

320

types of hyperemia

Physiological hyperemiaPathological hyperemia Active hyperemia Passive hyperemia

321

types of hyperemiae.g., blushing - excess blood in a body part or organ due to increased functional demand.

Physiological hyperemia

322

types of hyperemiae.g., cyanosis - excess blood in a body part or organ due to disease

Pathological hyperemia

323

types of hyperemiaexcess blood in a body part or organ brought there by the arteries

Active hyperemia

324

types of hyperemiaexcess blood in a body part or organ due to venous obstruction, an obstruction which is present in the veins. Passive hyperemia is always pathologic.

Passive hyperemia

325

reddish blue discoloration seen in the tissues due to lack of oxygen

Cyanosis

326

a circulatory disturbancea reduction in the arterial blood supply to a body part or organ

Ischemia

327

the most common cause of ischemia is?

the presence of an attached blood clot present in an artery.

328

if left untreated, what is the effect of ischemia?

death - infarction (death of tissue due to interference of blood supply).

329

a circulatory disturbancethe process by which there is the presence of an attached blood clot during life.

Thrombosis

330

single blood clot

Thrombus

331

two or more blood clots

Thrombi

332

causes of thrombosis (4)

a. Injuries to blood vessels.b. Slower or reduced rate of blood flow.c. Alterations in blood composition.d. Blood diseases - becoming thin from within such as leukemia.

333

locations of thrombi

a. Veins b. Arteriesc. chambers of the heart

334

the most common site for thrombi

veins

335

thrombi in the lower extremities would cause

DVTdeep vein thrombosis

336

the least common site for thrombi

chambers of the heart

337

the chambers of the heart is the least common site for thrombi. Why?

they were shipped to the heart from another part of the body

338

when a thrombi changes location it becomes?

mural

339

a thrombi becoming mural (or changing location) is the greatest risk because?

the attached blood clot has become infected, and once it becomes infected, it will spread

340

consequences of thrombi depend on what?

where it is located

341

a consequence of thrombosisthrombosis present in the artery – causes reduction in arterial blood supply. Restricts blood flow

ischemia

342

the most common consequence of thrombosis. Present in the vein.

Passive hyperemia

343

a consequence of thrombosisdeath of the tissue caused by interference in blood supply - ischemic necrosis + putrefaction

gangrene

344

a circulatory disturbancethe process by which there is a free floating object in the blood stream during life.

Embolism

345

a single free floating object in the blood during life

embolus

346

one or more objects in the blood during life

emboli

347

types of embolism

a. Fragments of thrombi b. Bacteria c. Tumors d. Animal parasites e. Fat f. Gas g. Foreign bodies

348

types of embolisma clot that detaches or breaks off. The most common type of an embolism.

Fragments of thrombi

349

types of embolismpresent in the blood stream during life. Blood poisoning

Bacteria

350

types of embolism swelling; an abnormal growth. Malignant or non-malignant. Begins as free floating in the blood stream. Spread by the blood or lymph system.

Tumors

351

types of embolismfree floating in the blood stream.

Animal parasites

352

types of embolismfat cells free floating in the blood stream.

Fat

353

types of embolismair free floating in the blood stream.

gas

354

types of embolismsmall pieces of glass or metal free floating in the blood stream.

Foreign bodies

355

Consequences of embolism

a. Ischemia - reduction in arterial blood supply.b. Infarction - localized area of dead tissue caused by interference of blood supply.c. Spread of infection or neoplasm (new growth).d. Necrosis - dead tissue, i.e. heart.

356

a circulatory disturbanceloss of blood from the vascular system. A human can lose no more than half (1/2) without irreversible damage or death.

hemorrhage

357

Methods of hemorrhage

Rhexis or Diapedesis

358

loss of blood by rupture of a blood vessel. Rupture of one of the chambers of the heart

rhexis

359

loss of blood by squeezing through the pores of the capillaries

Diapedesis

360

Causes of hemorrhage

a. Trauma - wound or injuryb. Vascular diseases of the blood vesselsc. Hypertension - high blood pressured. Blood diseases - plethora - excess amount of circulating blood

361

Related terms (3)Size of the hemorrhage

Petechia Echymosis Hematoma

362

pinpoint hemorrhages;, smallest of the hemorrhages in terms of size; commonly seen in cancer patients (think of petite)

Petechia

363

medium sized hemorrhage (bruise or black and blue spot). Most famous sites- long term IV or a shiner (black eye)

Echymosis

364

a tumor like mass of lost blood. Largest of the hemorrhages in terms of size(Pool of blood such as a gun shot wound).(hema-huge-largest)

Hematoma

365

Location of the hemorrhage (10)

Epistaxis Hemoptysis Hematemesis Melena Hemothorax Hemoperitoneum Hematuria Exsanguination Hemopericardium Hemophilia

366

Location of the hemorrhagenose bleed, blood coming from the nasal cavity

Epistaxis

367

Location of the hemorrhageblood brought up in sputum from the respiratory tract. (Emphysema)

Hemoptysis

368

Location of the hemorrhage vomiting of blood. Blood in the vomit from the digestive tract.

Hematemesis

369

Location of the hemorrhagethe presence of blood in feces (the stool.) Intestinal tract, the stool color changes from brown to black. (Colon cancer, diverticulitis)

Melena

370

Location of the hemorrhagethe presence of blood in the thoracic cavity or plural cavity.

Hemothorax

371

Location of the hemorrhagethe presence of blood in the peritoneal cavity or abdominal cavity.

Hemoperitoneum

372

Location of the hemorrhagethe presence of blood in the urine or urinary tract, urinary tract infection.

Hematuria

373

Location of the hemorrhagemassive loss of blood which usually results in death or irreversible damage. The body cannot loose more than 1/2 of the blood volume, without death or irreversible damage

Exsanguination

374

Location of the hemorrhageexcess blood in the sack surrounding the heart.

Hemopericardium

375

Location of the hemorrhagean affinity for blood. The bleeder’s disease. A heredity disease only found in males characterized by the absence or a deficiency of an essential clotting factor, factor 8.

Hemophilia

376

Postmortem conditions in regards to circulatory disturbances

1. Diminished circulation 2. Abscesses 3. Hemorrhages 4. Emaciation/ Dehydration 5. Rapid decomposition 6. Discoloration Intravascular and/or extravascular.

377

diminished circulation postmortem is due to

the hardening of the arteries

378

a postmortem circulatory disturbance localized collection of pus

abscess

379

occurring postmortemmassive loss of blood can cause generalized circulatory shock.

hemorrhages

380

the wasting away or loss of tissue

emaciation

381

loss of moisture from the body.

dehydration

382

postmortem hypostasis which causes livor mortis (reddish blue discoloration) which is an intravascular blood discoloration. Can be usually removed by embalming.

******

383

blood discoloration after death outside the intravascular system. This is a cosmetic problem.

extravascular

384

National board question: What is considered the most permanent blood discoloration?

Post mortem extravascular (post mortem stain)

385

localized or generalized. Affects one part of the body or the entire body.

Circulatory Disturbance

386

edema is also called...

Dropsy

387

hyperemia is also called...

congestion

388

process by which there is a localized area of dead tissue caused by the interference of blood supply

infarction

389

a localized area of dead tissue caused by interference of blood supply. Those appear white when present in living tissue.

Infarct

390

new growth

neoplasm

391

bleeding...

hemorrhage

392

an abnormal new growth

neoplasms (tumors)

393

Enclosed sac-like pouches that have a definite wall.Usually containing a liquid, solid, or semi-solid material

Cysts

394

Types of cysts

Duarian cystSebaccous cyst

395

abnormal sac-like pouch present on the ovary.

Duarian cyst

396

type of duarian cyst

dermoid

397

duarian cyst also called...

ovarian cyst

398

a rare ovarian (duarian) cyst that contains a waxy tissue and other structures not normally foundex: teeth or hair follicles

dermoid cyst

399

an abnormal sac-like structure located on a oil gland

sebaccous

400

oil glands are also called

sebaceous glands

401

An increase in size of a body part or organ by an increase in size of the cells already present.Excessive growth

hypertrophy

402

sebaccous cysts are also called...

wen

403

an abnormal sac-like structure

tumor

404

types of hypertrophy

physiologicalpathologicalcompensatory

405

increase in size of a body part or organ due to increased functional demand

physiological hypertrophy

406

Breast tissue due to lactation. The increase in size of the female uterus in preparation of pregnancy.

physiological hypertrophy

407

an increase in size of a body part or organ due to disease

pathological hypertrophy

408

Wilm's tumor and brain tumor is an example of what?

pathological hypertrophy

409

a rare tumor of the kidney in children

Wilm's tumor

410

increase in size of a body part or organ to compensate or make up for the loss of a similar or paired organ

compensatory hypertrophy

411

increase in size of a body part or organ by an increase in the total number of cells making it up.

hyperplasia

412

What type of change is hyperplasia?

Progressive tissue change

413

oat cell carcinoma is an example of

metaplasia

414

classifications of neoplasms

clinicalhistological

415

state of disease

clinical

416

types of states of disease (clinical)

benignmalignant

417

A suffix of "oma" generally means that it is a _____________ tumorNOT ALWAYS

benign

418

ALL malignant tumors left untreated will _______________

kill

419

generally a suffix of sarcoma or carcinoma

malignant

420

malignant tumor of epithelial tissue occurring in persons 45-60

carcinoma

421

breast cancer or lung cancer are examples of what type of tumor

carcinoma

422

bone cancer is an example of what type of tumor

sarcoma

423

malignant tumor or connective tissue in persons under 30

sarcoma

424

generally, a benign tumor will NOT...

kill you

425

tissue of origin; what tissue it originated first.Shown by its prefix or the stem of the word

histological

426

characteristics of benign neoplasms

a. Grow by expansion.b. Don’t metastasize - don’t spread.c. Don’t recur after surgery - removal or treatment.d. Don’t cause great tissue damage.e. Resemble original tissue of origin.

427

characteristics of malignant neoplasms

a. Grow by the called infiltrationb. Metastasize (spread)c. Can reoccur after surgery.d. Cause extensive tissue damage.e. No resemblance to original tissue of origin.

428

take over existing tissue

infiltration

429

process by which a malignancy spreads itself to other parts of the body. Usually by means of the lymph or blood stream

metastisize

430

Types of BENIGN neoplasms

1. Epithelial tissue2. Muscle tissue3. Connective tissue4. Nervous tissue

431

lining tissue...also the inner most tissue

epithelial tissue

432

Types of BENIGN EPITHELIAL TISSUE...

1. Adenoma2. Papilloma3. Nevus

433

glandular- a benign tumor of glandular epithelial

adenoma

434

a benign tumor of epithelial that appears as a pedestal "stalk-like" growth.

Papilloma

435

papilloma is also known as...

polyp

436

most frequently in the nasal cavity or intestinal track

papilloma

437

a benign pigmented tumor. a shade of brown or black. localized and well defined

nevus

438

nevus is also called...

mole

439

Types of BENIGN MUSCLE TISSUE

1. Rhabdomyoma2. Leiomyoma

440

a benign tumor of tissue used for movement.

muscle tissue

441

benign muscle tissue is also called...

myoma

442

a benign tumor of skeletal muscle tissue

rhabdomyoma

443

a benign tumor of sooth muscle tissue

leiomyoma

444

Types of BENIGN CONNECTIVE TISSUE

1. Osteoma2. Chondroma3. Lipoma4. Angioma5. Fibroma

445

benign tumor of bone

osteoma

446

benign tumor of cartilage.

chondroma

447

cartilage is a form of.....

connective tissue

448

a benign tumor of fatty connective tissue

lipoma

449

a benign tumor of vascular tissue

angioma

450

types of Angiomas

1. Hemangioma2. Lymphangloma

451

a benign tumor of blood vascular tissue

hemangioma

452

example of hemangioma....usually a shade of red.

birthmarks

453

a benign tumor of lymph vascular tissue....usually a shade of white or yellow.

lymphangloma

454

a benign tumor of fibrous connective tissue

fibroma

455

benign tumor that originates in the movement of neurons

nervous tissue

456

benign nervous tissue is also called...

neuroma

457

Types of MALIGNANT neoplasms

1. Epithelial tissue2. Connective tissue3. Muscle tissue4. Nervous tissue

458

indicate a malignant tumor that originates in any type of epithelial tissue

carcinoma

459

types of carcinoma

1. Melanoma2.Squamous cell3. Adenocarcinoma4. Transitional cell carcinoma5. Bascel cell carcinoma

460

a malignant pigmented tumor.

melanoma

461

(makes up skin tissue). A malignant tumor of squamous cell epithelia

squamous cell

462

most common name given for squamous cell is .....

skin cancer

463

Squamous cell is the most ________ reported form of _________________ in adults

frequentlymalignant tumors

464

gland - a malignant tumor of glandular epithelia.

Adenocarcinoma

465

most famous form of Adenocarcinoma...

breast cancer

466

a malignant tumor of transitional cell epithelia

transitional cell carcinoma

467

common form of transitional cell carcinoma

bladder cancer

468

a malignant tumor of bascel cell epithelia tissue.

bascel cell carcinoma

469

_______________ is the most lethal site of bascel cell carcinoma malignancy in ADULTS (MALE & FEMALE)

lung cancer

470

______________is the most lethal site of bascel cell carcinoma malignancy in CHILDREN

Leukemia

471

Type of MALIGNANT connective tissue

Sarcoma

472

Types of Sarcoma

1. Osteosarcoma2. Chondrosarcoma3. Liposarcoma4. Fibrosarcoma5. Angiosarcoma6. Lymphoma

473

malignant tumor of bone

osteosarcoma

474

example of osteosarcoma

bone cancer

475

malignant tumor of cartilage

chondrosarcoma

476

What is a benign tumor of connective tissue?

Chondroma

477

malignant tumor of fatty connective tissue

liposarcoma

478

What do you call a tumor that infiltrates fatty connective tissue?

liposarcoma

479

malignant tumor of fibrous connective tissue

fibrosarcoma

480

malignant tumor of vascular tissue- blood or lymph

angiosarcoma

481

types of angiosarcoma

1. Hemangiosarcoma2. Lymphangiosarcoma

482

malignant tumor of blood vascular tissue

hemangiosarcoma

483

malignant tumor of lymph vascular tissue

lymphangiosarcoma

484

malignant tumor of lymphoid tissue

lymphoma

485

Three tumors that end in "oma", which indicates a malignant tumor

1. Melanoma2. Lymphoma3. Glioma

486

example of Lymphoma

Hodgkin's disease

487

an enlarged cervical lymphoid usually on the left side of the neck in young adult males

Hodgkin's disease

488

still has a malignant tumor, but it does not present itself in young males...malignant tumor in the spleen

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

489

The largest mass of lymphoid tissue in body is the_________

spleen

490

the largest and most active lymphoid tissue during INFANCY is the ____________

thymus gland

491

Sarcoma is also used for malignant tumor of ______________ as well as ____________.

muscle tissueconnective tissue

492

Malignant muscle tissue also known as

myosarcoma

493

Types of MALIGNANT muscle tissue

1. Rhabdomyosarcoma2. Leiomyosarcoma

494

malignant tumor of skeletal muscle tissue

Rhabdomyosarcoma

495

malignant tumor of visceral (smooth) muscle tissue

Leiomyosarcoma

496

example of Leiomyosarcoma

Esophageal cancer

497

malignant tumor of the nervous tissue

glioma

498

most common example of glioma is...

brain tumor

499

type of cancer that DOES NOT end in sarcoma

Leukemia

500

in adults, the leading cause of death resulting from cancer, regardless of sex is________

lung cancer

501

most frequently reported malignant cancer...

skin cancer (squamous cell cancer)

502

You can live longer with________

carcinoma

503

Post-mortem conditions of malignant tumors

1. Emaciation2. Discoloration3. Hemorrhage4. Tissue deformation5. Extravascular obstruction6. Dehydration

504

Wasting away, loss of tissue. It is most noticeable in the temporal bone region.

Emaciation

505

emaciation also known as

cachexia

506

indicates liver dysfunction---a shade of green or yellow

jaundice

507

wide spread pinpoint hemorrhages...petite or smallest of the hemorrhages. Seen in long term chemotherapeutic patients

purpura

508

types of discoloration

1. Jaundice2. Purpura

509

loss of bloodcommon with brain tumors

hemorrhage

510

tissue is deformed or eaten away

tissue deformation

511

in the blood vascular system

extravascular obstruction

512

example of extravascular obstruction

Wilm's tumor

513

rare form of cancer...cancer in the kidneys...commonly found in children

Wilm's tumor

514

Predisposing factors of diseases of the heart & blood vessels

1. Heredity2. Obesity53. Diabetes4. Elevated cholesterol levels5. Social factors

515

condition or factors that make a person more susceptible to a disease.

Predisposing factors

516

Social factors regarding predisposing factors...

a) Smokingb) Substance abusec) Stress - type A personalityd) Diet

517

Types of Heart conditions....

1. Dilatation2. Hypertrophy3. Endocarditis4. Valvular defects5. Pericarditis6. Myocarditis7. Rheumatic heart disease8. Coronary artery disease9. Cardiac failure10. Myocardial infarcation11. Hypertensive heart disease12. Cardiomyopathy13. Carditis

518

Dilatation used as a verb...

dilation

519

usually a temporary condition...INCREASE in the LENGTH or STRETCHING of heart muscle fibers.

dilatation

520

usually a permanent condition...INCREASE in size of the heart muscle by an INCREASE in the SIZE of the heart cells itself.

hypertrophy

521

inflammation of the endocardium

endocarditis

522

inner most layer of the heart...the layer of the heart in which heart valves are made.

endocardium

523

Types of Valvular Defects...

1. insufficiency2. stenosis3. prolapse

524

incompetence...failure of a heart valve to close or seat properly.

insufficiency

525

narrowing...a reduction or narrowing in the size of the opening controlled by a heart valve.

stenosis

526

weakening...(collapse) in the wall of a heart cusp making up a heart valve.

prolapse

527

inflammation of the pericardium

pericarditis

528

sac surrounding the heart

pericardium

529

inflammation of the myocaredium

myocarditis

530

muscle layer of the heart

myocardium

531

this heart disease is CONTAGIOUS...caused by Streptococcus Pyogenes and Ashoff bodies.

Rheumatic heart disease

532

a strict pathogen

streptococcus pyogenes

533

scar tissue which form in persons who recover from the childhood disease rheumatic fever

ashoff bodies

534

a disease affecting the coronary arteries

coronary artery disease

535

disease of the major vascular system of the body that conveys blood...Veins, Arteries, & Capillaries

blood vessel disease

536

inflammation of the arteries

arteritis

537

hardening of the blood vessels.

arteriosclerosis

538

This is a CHRONIC or slowly progressive disease. The late stage of hardening of the arteries. Seen mostly in the femoral arteries.

Arteriosclerosis

539

Diseases of the THE BLOOD VESSELS

1. Arteritis2. Arteriosclerosis3. Aneurysm4. Phlebitis5. Varicose veins

540

weakness in the wall of an artery...found mostly at the splitting of OR just above the bifurcation of the Abdominal Aorta.

Aneurysm

541

inflammation of a vein

phlebitis

542

dilated or engorged superficial veins. Can NOT be surgically removed

varicose veins

543

varicose veins are also called...

varices

544

this is the earlier stage of hardening of the arteries that have the presence or formation of ATHEROMAS.

Atherosclerosis

545

fatty plaques

Atheromas

546

tends to form in Tortuous Arteries...

atherosclerosis

547

arteries that can quickly change the volume of blood flow that is flowing through them in a short period of time.

tortuous arteries

548

Atherosclerosis are related to all of the following PER OUR NOTES*****

Coronary ArteriesCerebral Arterial Arteries (circle of willis)

549

Inflammation of vein due to the presence of an attached blood clot

Thrombophlebitis

550

most patients with thrombophlebitis are put on...

blood thinners

551

Types of CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

1. Thrombosis2. Spasms3. Embolism

552

the presence of an attached blood clot during life in the coronary arteries

thrombosis

553

the presence of a free floating object in the blood stream

embolism

554

abnormal contraction of the heart muscle

spasms

555

spasms can also be called...

fibrillation

556

Groups of diseases of the blood

Reactive ChangeAnemiaHemopoietic disordersBleeding disorders

557

Types of Reactive Changes in diseases of the blood

1. Leukocytosis2. Leukopenia

558

a SUDDEN and TEMPORARY INCREASE in the total number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS, as part of a natural inflammatory response-injury

Leukocytosis

559

A decrease in the total number of white blood cells due to disease. Bone marrow not producing proper number of white blood cells.

Leukopenia

560

white blood cells...

leukocytes

561

The biggest cause of LEUKOPENIA is ___________________ not producing the proper number of ______________________.

Bone marrowWhite blood cells

562

a DECREASE in the total number of RED BLOOD cells, hemoglobin, or both.

anemia

563

this literally means, the absence of or lack of blood

anemia

564

Types of Anemia

1. Primary2. Secondary

565

a previously existing condition which causes anemia

secondary anemia

566

example of secondary anemia

leukemia

567

the first disease by which a person is diagnosed

primary anemia

568

formation of all blood cells that occurs in the bone marrow

hemopoiesis

569

type of hemopoietic disorders

1. Leukemia2. Polycythemia vera

570

Cancer of the blood - a malignant tumor of the blood forming organs characterized by excess production of improperly functioning white blood cells.

leukemia

571

A disease in which a person is producing excess numbers of red blood cells or erythrocytes. This causes blood to become thicker or increase viscosity which reduces the blood flow and increases the tendency to form clots.

Polycythemia vera

572

Polycythemia vera is also known as...

erythrocytosis

573

types of bleeding disorders

1. Hemophilia2. Purpura3. Thrombocytopenia

574

(an affinity for blood) Bleeders disease, a hereditary disease in male offspring characterized by the absence of an essential clotting factor. (factor 8)

hemophilia

575

Widespread hemorrhage, loss of blood scattered throughout the body.

Purpura

576

Decrease in the total number of thrombocytes or platelets due to disease. Thrombocytes initiates the clotting process.

Thrombocytopenia

577

liver, gallbladder, and pancreas which has as it’s purpose the breakdown of foods and liquids into useful soluble substances for distribution to the bloodstream throughout the body.

Accessory organs of digestion

578

specific diseases of the digestive system

1. Inflammatory/degenerative2. Genetic/developmental3. Obstruction

579

types of inflammatory/degenerative diseases

1. gingivitis2. pharyngitis3. esophagitis4. gastritis5. peptic ulcer6. enteritis7. colitis8. appendicitis9. hemorrhoids10. hepatitis11. cirrhosis12. cholecystitis13. choletithaiasis14. cholangitis15. pancreatitis16. peritonitis17. diverticulosis

580

Inflammation of the gums

Gingivitis

581

Inflammation of the pharynx - a sore throat

Pharyngitis

582

Inflammation of the muscular tube which conveys food from the throat to the stomach through the esophagus.

Esophagitis

583

example of esophagitis

bilemia

584

Inflammation of the stomach.

Gastritis

585

A localized area of necrotic epithelia (dead tissue) caused by the action of the enzyme pepsin.

Peptic ulcer

586

dead tissue

necrotic epithelia

587

a digestive enzyme

pepsin

588

where are peptic ulcers commonly found?

stomach or duodenum

589

Inflammation of the small intestine.

enteritis

590

Inflammation of one or more divisions of the colon. The colon is the longest division of the large intestines.

colitis

591

types of colitis

1. amebic2. ulcerative

592

inflammation of the longest division of the large intestine characterized by several localized areas of dead epithelial.

ulcerative colitis

593

a microscopic animal that has invaded and actively multiplying in the colon

amebic colitis

594

inflammation of the vermiform appendix, attached to the cecum

appendicitis

595

snakelike structure

vermiform

596

ulcerative colitis is a __________ disease

psychosomatic

597

self induced disease

psychosomatic disease

598

cure for ulcerative colitis...

coloscomy

599

pus in the pleural cavity

empyema

600

leading cause of death in 1900s

TB

601

an allergic disease in which a person has to be exposed to twice...can attack any part of the body but usually attacks the lungs.

TB

602

TB of the lungs is called...

pulmonary TB

603

most lethal form of TB

miliary TB

604

a group of a lung diseases caused by prolonged inhalation of a single foreign substance.CONFIRM DEFINITION

Pneumoconoses

605

???????? definition coal miners disease or black lung disease.

Anthracosis

606

caused by excess exposure to silica...inside ash trays of buildings & seen in occupation of sandblasting.

Silicosis

607

caused by the prolonged inhalation of asbestos. Ex: Roofers

Asbestosis

608

failure of the lung tissue to expand at birth

Atelectasis in INFANTS

609

the collapse of a lung due to complete bronchial obstruction

Atelectasis in ADULTS

610

over distention or rupture of the alveoli in the lungs caused by a partial or incomplete bronchial obstruction.

Emphysema

611

localized collection of pus in the lungs. Usually bacterial in nature.

lung abscess

612

commonly called a collapsed lung

Atelectasis in ADULTS

613

histoplasmosis is what type of disease

systemic Fungal disease

614

tiny air sacs in the lungs

alveoli

615

ring worm is what type of disease

superficial fungal disease

616

fungal disease classifications

superficialsystemic

617

failure of the roof of the mouth to close or form completely

cleft lip/palate

618

cleft lip/palate is commonly called

hare palate

619

Types of Genetic/developmental diseases

Cleft lip/palateCystic fibrosis

620

over secretion of an excessively thick mucus forming in the lower respiratory tract.

cystic fibrosis

621

cystic fibrosis is what type of disease?

hereditary

622

patients usually die from cystic fibrosis due to what reason....

the mucus so thick that even if they cough the substance blocks breathing.

623

Obstructive diseases of the respiratory tract.

airway obstructionCOPD

624

an obstruction within the air passageway

choking

625

an obstruction from outside the breathing tube

asphyxia & suffocation

626

COPD stands for...

chronic obstruction pulmonary disease

627

ex of COPD

chronic bronchitisemphysema

628

postmortem conditions of diseases of the respiratory tract

1. Cyanosis2. Emaciation3. Edema4. Hemorrhage5. Caviation

629

a reddish-blue discoloration seen tissues- caused by lack of oxygen.

cyanosis

630

loss of tissue. Most noticeable in the face and temporal region.

emaciation

631

excess fluid in pleural cavity or thoracic cavitygives the body a barrel-shaped chest appearance

hydrothorax/pleural effusion

632

examples of edema in postmortem conditions

hydrothoraxpleural effusion

633

loss of blood

hemorrhage

634

blood in the septum (phlem)...will see clotted during cavity treatment

hemoptosis

635

presence or formation of spaces or cavities in the lung tissue

cavitation

636

most common heart valve where valvular defects take place and why?

Mitral valve, because of its structure...only heart valve that has two distinct sections or cusps making it up

637

note that...

congestive heart failure- Usually occurs in adulthood. In adults the persons heart was not beating as fast as it should; swollen ankles are indicative of CHF; children- generally a result of improper structural changes that fail to occur at birth or shortly thereafter.

638

Death of heart muscle tissue caused by interference in blood supply. Commonly known as a heart attack; it could be mild (dead muscle tissue but not enough to kill the person).

myocardial infarction

639

hypertension or high blood pressure caused by a diseases of the heart. (Give patient a diuretic)

hypertensive heart disease

640

a disease of the heart muscle; can be born with this. If diagnosed early enough, the patient would be a candidate for a heart transplant)

cardiomyopathy

641

end stage of liver disease; in which the normal/ healthy liver cells are replaced by the surrounding supporting cells; are candidates for a liver transplant; appearance little bumps on the surface of the liver called a hob nail liver

Cirrhosis

642

dilated or engorged veins; located around the anal canal; can be internal or external (risk or danger is blood loss; blood in the stool “Melina”)

Hemorrhoids

643

inflammation of the liver (3types) would like to suffer from type A if diagnosed; vaccine to help with immunity;

Hepatitis

644

inflammation of the sac containing bile; inflammation of the gallbladder

Choleystitis

645

the presence or formation of cholelithis; referred to as gall stones

Cholelithiasis-

646

Inflammation of one or more of the bile ducts

Cholangitis-

647

inflammation of the pancreas; false membrane will form around the pancreas (heterocrine gland) causing blockage of the pancreatic duct by a gallstone (most lethal form of cancer)

Pancreatitis-

648

inflammation of the perineum; largest serous membranes (the membrane which lines the abdominal viscera/ organs)

Peritonitis-

649

the presence of one or more an intestinal hernia also referred to as diverticula/ diverticulum a weakness of the wall of the large intestine;

Diverticulosis-

650

a narrowing in the size of the opening controlled by the pyloric valve of the stomach, circular shaped valve that controls the passing of food from the stomach to the small intestines

Pyloric stenosis

651

Specific diseases of the digestive system *****Genetic/developmental*******

1. Pyloric Stenosis2. Hernia

652

abnormal protrusion of a body part of organ into an area where it’s not normally found;

Hernia

653

the stomach protruding into the thoracic cavity

Heiatel hernia

654

blockage within the digestive system; blocks the flow of food

Obstruction

655

types of Obstruction concerning the digestive system

1. Bile duct- 2. Volvulus- 3. Intussuception4. Adhesioins

656

obstruction or blockage due to gallstones

bile duct

657

obstruction or blockage due to a twisting of the intestines

volvulus

658

obstruction or blockage; telescoping of the intesitnes

intussecption

659

Obstruction or Blockage; scar tissue which form due to a previous disease or from surgery

adhesion

660

a postmortem condition caused by disease of the digestive system; the evacuation of any substance after death.

purge

661

a postmortem condition caused by disease of the digestive system; this will call more blood clots

rapid coagilation of blood

662

Specific diseases of the respiratory tract Inflammatory/degenerative.......the infection or inflammation of lung tissue itself.

pneumonia

663

3 types of pneumonia

lobarbronchial viral

664

a type of pneumonia; infection confined to one or more lobes of the lung tissue.

lobar pneumonia

665

a type of pneumonia; infection of the lung tissue that began in the bronchi.

bronchial pneumonia

666

Postmortem conditions associated with the diseases of the respiratory systemthe presence or formation of spaces or cavities in the lung tissue. Seen in patients with TB.

caviation