Flashcards in 3rd Quarter Pathology Test 5 Deck (153):
Predisposing factors of diseases of the heart & blood vessels
4. Elevated cholesterol levels
5. Social factors
condition or factors that make a person more susceptible to a disease.
Social factors regarding predisposing factors...
b) Substance abuse
c) Stress - type A personality
Types of Heart conditions....
4. Valvular defects
7. Rheumatic heart disease
8. Coronary artery disease
9. Cardiac failure
10. Myocardial infarcation
11. Hypertensive heart disease
Dilatation used as a verb...
usually a temporary condition...INCREASE in the LENGTH or STRETCHING of heart muscle fibers.
usually a permanent condition...INCREASE in size of the heart muscle by an INCREASE in the SIZE of the heart cells itself.
inflammation of the endocardium
inner most layer of the heart...the layer of the heart in which heart valves are made.
Types of Valvular Defects...
incompetence...failure of a heart valve to close or seat properly.
narrowing...a reduction or narrowing in the size of the opening controlled by a heart valve.
weakening...(collapse) in the wall of a heart cusp making up a heart valve.
inflammation of the pericardium
sac surrounding the heart
inflammation of the myocaredium
muscle layer of the heart
this heart disease is CONTAGIOUS...caused by Streptococcus Pyogenes and Ashoff bodies.
Rheumatic heart disease
a strict pathogen
scar tissue which form in persons who recover from the childhood disease rheumatic fever
a disease affecting the coronary arteries
coronary artery disease
disease of the major vascular system of the body that conveys blood...Veins, Arteries, & Capillaries
blood vessel disease
inflammation of the arteries
hardening of the blood vessels.
This is a CHRONIC or slowly progressive disease. The late stage of hardening of the arteries. Seen mostly in the femoral arteries.
Diseases of the THE BLOOD VESSELS
5. Varicose veins
weakness in the wall of an artery...found mostly at the splitting of OR just above the bifurcation of the Abdominal Aorta.
inflammation of a vein
dilated or engorged superficial veins. Can NOT be surgically removed
varicose veins are also called...
this is the earlier stage of hardening of the arteries that have the presence or formation of ATHEROMAS.
tends to form in Tortuous Arteries...
arteries that can quickly change the volume of blood flow that is flowing through them in a short period of time.
Atherosclerosis are related to all of the following PER OUR NOTES
Cerebral Arterial Arteries (circle of willis)
Inflammation of vein due to the presence of an attached blood clot
most patients with thrombophlebitis are put on...
Types of CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
the presence of an attached blood clot during life in the coronary arteries
the presence of a free floating object in the blood stream
abnormal contraction of the heart muscle
spasms can also be called...
Groups of diseases of the blood
Types of Reactive Changes in diseases of the blood
a SUDDEN and TEMPORARY INCREASE in the total number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS, as part of a natural inflammatory response-injury
A decrease in the total number of white blood cells due to disease.
Bone marrow not producing proper number of white blood cells.
white blood cells...
The biggest cause of LEUKOPENIA is ___________________ not producing the proper number of ______________________.
White blood cells
a DECREASE in the total number of RED BLOOD cells, hemoglobin, or both.
this literally means, the absence of or lack of blood
Types of Anemia
a previously existing condition which causes anemia
example of secondary anemia
the first disease by which a person is diagnosed
formation of all blood cells that occurs in the bone marrow
type of hemopoietic disorders
2. Polycythemia vera
Cancer of the blood - a malignant tumor of the blood forming organs characterized by excess production of improperly functioning white blood cells.
A disease in which a person is producing excess numbers of red blood cells or erythrocytes.
This causes blood to become thicker or increase viscosity which reduces the blood flow and increases the tendency to form clots.
Polycythemia vera is also known as...
types of bleeding disorders
(an affinity for blood) Bleeders disease, a hereditary disease in male offspring characterized by the absence of an essential clotting factor. (factor 8)
Widespread hemorrhage, loss of blood scattered throughout the body.
Decrease in the total number of thrombocytes or platelets due to disease. Thrombocytes initiates the clotting process.
liver, gallbladder, and pancreas which has as it’s purpose the breakdown of foods and liquids into useful soluble substances for distribution to the bloodstream throughout the body.
Accessory organs of digestion
specific diseases of the digestive system
types of inflammatory/degenerative diseases
5. peptic ulcer
Inflammation of the gums
Inflammation of the pharynx - a sore throat
Inflammation of the muscular tube which conveys food from the throat to the stomach through the esophagus.
example of esophagitis
Inflammation of the stomach.
A localized area of necrotic epithelia (dead tissue) caused by the action of the enzyme pepsin.
a digestive enzyme
where are peptic ulcers commonly found?
stomach or duodenum
Inflammation of the small intestine.
Inflammation of one or more divisions of the colon. The colon is the longest division of the large intestines.
types of colitis
inflammation of the longest division of the large intestine characterized by several localized areas of dead epithelial.
a microscopic animal that has invaded and actively multiplying in the colon
inflammation of the vermiform appendix, attached to the cecum
ulcerative colitis is a __________ disease
self induced disease
cure for ulcerative colitis...
pus in the pleural cavity
leading cause of death in 1900s
an allergic disease in which a person has to be exposed to twice...can attack any part of the body but usually attacks the lungs.
TB of the lungs is called...
most lethal form of TB
a group of a lung diseases caused by prolonged inhalation of a single foreign substance.
???????? definition coal miners disease or black lung disease.
caused by excess exposure to silica...inside ash trays of buildings & seen in occupation of sandblasting.
caused by the prolonged inhalation of asbestos. Ex: Roofers
failure of the lung tissue to expand at birth
Atelectasis in INFANTS
the collapse of a lung due to complete bronchial obstruction
Atelectasis in ADULTS
over distention or rupture of the alveoli in the lungs caused by a partial or incomplete bronchial obstruction.
localized collection of pus in the lungs. Usually bacterial in nature.
commonly called a collapsed lung
Atelectasis in ADULTS
histoplasmosis is what type of disease
systemic Fungal disease
tiny air sacs in the lungs
ring worm is what type of disease
superficial fungal disease
fungal disease classifications
failure of the roof of the mouth to close or form completely
cleft lip/palate is commonly called
Types of Genetic/developmental diseases
over secretion of an excessively thick mucus forming in the lower respiratory tract.
cystic fibrosis is what type of disease?
patients usually die from cystic fibrosis due to what reason....
the mucus so thick that even if they cough the substance blocks breathing.
Obstructive diseases of the respiratory tract.
an obstruction within the air passageway
an obstruction from outside the breathing tube
asphyxia & suffocation
COPD stands for...
chronic obstruction pulmonary disease
ex of COPD
postmortem conditions of diseases of the respiratory tract
a reddish-blue discoloration seen tissues- caused by lack of oxygen.
loss of tissue. Most noticeable in the face and temporal region.
excess fluid in pleural cavity or thoracic cavity
gives the body a barrel-shaped chest appearance
examples of edema in postmortem conditions
loss of blood
blood in the septum (phlem)...will see clotted during cavity treatment
presence or formation of spaces or cavities in the lung tissue
most common heart valve where valvular defects take place and why?
Mitral valve, because of its structure...only heart valve that has two distinct sections or cusps making it up
congestive heart failure- Usually occurs in adulthood. In adults the persons heart was not beating as fast as it should; swollen ankles are indicative of CHF; children- generally a result of improper structural changes that fail to occur at birth or shortly thereafter.
Death of heart muscle tissue caused by interference in blood supply. Commonly known as a heart attack; it could be mild (dead muscle tissue but not enough to kill the person).
hypertension or high blood pressure caused by a diseases of the heart. (Give patient a diuretic)
hypertensive heart disease
a disease of the heart muscle; can be born with this. If diagnosed early enough, the patient would be a candidate for a heart transplant)
end stage of liver disease; in which the normal/ healthy liver cells are replaced by the surrounding supporting cells; are candidates for a liver transplant; appearance little bumps on the surface of the liver called a hob nail liver
dilated or engorged veins; located around the anal canal; can be internal or external (risk or danger is blood loss; blood in the stool “Melina”)
inflammation of the liver (3types) would like to suffer from type A if diagnosed; vaccine to help with immunity;
inflammation of the sac containing bile; inflammation of the gallbladder
the presence or formation of cholelithis; referred to as gall stones
Inflammation of one or more of the bile ducts
inflammation of the pancreas; false membrane will form around the pancreas (heterocrine gland) causing blockage of the pancreatic duct by a gallstone (most lethal form of cancer)
inflammation of the perineum; largest serous membranes (the membrane which lines the abdominal viscera/ organs)
the presence of one or more an intestinal hernia also referred to as diverticula/ diverticulum a weakness of the wall of the large intestine;
a narrowing in the size of the opening controlled by the pyloric valve of the stomach, circular shaped valve that controls the passing of food from the stomach to the small intestines
Specific diseases of the digestive system *****Genetic/developmental*******
1. Pyloric Stenosis
abnormal protrusion of a body part of organ into an area where it’s not normally found;
the stomach protruding into the thoracic cavity
blockage within the digestive system; blocks the flow of food
types of Obstruction concerning the digestive system
1. Bile duct-
obstruction or blockage due to gallstones
obstruction or blockage due to a twisting of the intestines
obstruction or blockage; telescoping of the intesitnes
Obstruction or Blockage; scar tissue which form due to a previous disease or from surgery
a postmortem condition caused by disease of the digestive system; the evacuation of any substance after death.
a postmortem condition caused by disease of the digestive system; this will call more blood clots
rapid coagilation of blood
Specific diseases of the respiratory tract Inflammatory/degenerative.......the infection or inflammation of lung tissue itself.
3 types of pneumonia
a type of pneumonia; infection confined to one or more lobes of the lung tissue.
a type of pneumonia; infection of the lung tissue that began in the bronchi.