3rd Quarter Pathology Test 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3rd Quarter Pathology Test 5 Deck (153):
1

Predisposing factors of diseases of the heart & blood vessels

1. Heredity
2. Obesity5
3. Diabetes
4. Elevated cholesterol levels
5. Social factors

2

condition or factors that make a person more susceptible to a disease.

Predisposing factors

3

Social factors regarding predisposing factors...

a) Smoking
b) Substance abuse
c) Stress - type A personality
d) Diet

4

Types of Heart conditions....

1. Dilatation
2. Hypertrophy
3. Endocarditis
4. Valvular defects
5. Pericarditis
6. Myocarditis
7. Rheumatic heart disease
8. Coronary artery disease
9. Cardiac failure
10. Myocardial infarcation
11. Hypertensive heart disease
12. Cardiomyopathy
13. Carditis

5

Dilatation used as a verb...

dilation

6

usually a temporary condition...INCREASE in the LENGTH or STRETCHING of heart muscle fibers.

dilatation

7

usually a permanent condition...INCREASE in size of the heart muscle by an INCREASE in the SIZE of the heart cells itself.

hypertrophy

8

inflammation of the endocardium

endocarditis

9

inner most layer of the heart...the layer of the heart in which heart valves are made.

endocardium

10

Types of Valvular Defects...

1. insufficiency
2. stenosis
3. prolapse

11

incompetence...failure of a heart valve to close or seat properly.

insufficiency

12

narrowing...a reduction or narrowing in the size of the opening controlled by a heart valve.

stenosis

13

weakening...(collapse) in the wall of a heart cusp making up a heart valve.

prolapse

14

inflammation of the pericardium

pericarditis

15

sac surrounding the heart

pericardium

16

inflammation of the myocaredium

myocarditis

17

muscle layer of the heart

myocardium

18

this heart disease is CONTAGIOUS...caused by Streptococcus Pyogenes and Ashoff bodies.

Rheumatic heart disease

19

a strict pathogen

streptococcus pyogenes

20

scar tissue which form in persons who recover from the childhood disease rheumatic fever

ashoff bodies

21

a disease affecting the coronary arteries

coronary artery disease

22

disease of the major vascular system of the body that conveys blood...Veins, Arteries, & Capillaries

blood vessel disease

23

inflammation of the arteries

arteritis

24

hardening of the blood vessels.

arteriosclerosis

25

This is a CHRONIC or slowly progressive disease. The late stage of hardening of the arteries. Seen mostly in the femoral arteries.

Arteriosclerosis

26

Diseases of the THE BLOOD VESSELS

1. Arteritis
2. Arteriosclerosis
3. Aneurysm
4. Phlebitis
5. Varicose veins

27

weakness in the wall of an artery...found mostly at the splitting of OR just above the bifurcation of the Abdominal Aorta.

Aneurysm

28

inflammation of a vein

phlebitis

29

dilated or engorged superficial veins. Can NOT be surgically removed

varicose veins

30

varicose veins are also called...

varices

31

this is the earlier stage of hardening of the arteries that have the presence or formation of ATHEROMAS.

Atherosclerosis

32

fatty plaques

Atheromas

33

tends to form in Tortuous Arteries...

atherosclerosis

34

arteries that can quickly change the volume of blood flow that is flowing through them in a short period of time.

tortuous arteries

35

Atherosclerosis are related to all of the following PER OUR NOTES
*****

Coronary Arteries
Cerebral Arterial Arteries (circle of willis)

36

Inflammation of vein due to the presence of an attached blood clot

Thrombophlebitis

37

most patients with thrombophlebitis are put on...

blood thinners

38

Types of CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

1. Thrombosis
2. Spasms
3. Embolism

39

the presence of an attached blood clot during life in the coronary arteries

thrombosis

40

the presence of a free floating object in the blood stream

embolism

41

abnormal contraction of the heart muscle

spasms

42

spasms can also be called...

fibrillation

43

Groups of diseases of the blood

Reactive Change
Anemia
Hemopoietic disorders
Bleeding disorders

44

Types of Reactive Changes in diseases of the blood

1. Leukocytosis
2. Leukopenia

45

a SUDDEN and TEMPORARY INCREASE in the total number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS, as part of a natural inflammatory response-injury

Leukocytosis

46

A decrease in the total number of white blood cells due to disease.
Bone marrow not producing proper number of white blood cells.

Leukopenia

47

white blood cells...

leukocytes

48

The biggest cause of LEUKOPENIA is ___________________ not producing the proper number of ______________________.

Bone marrow
White blood cells

49

a DECREASE in the total number of RED BLOOD cells, hemoglobin, or both.

anemia

50

this literally means, the absence of or lack of blood

anemia

51

Types of Anemia

1. Primary
2. Secondary

52

a previously existing condition which causes anemia

secondary anemia

53

example of secondary anemia

leukemia

54

the first disease by which a person is diagnosed

primary anemia

55

formation of all blood cells that occurs in the bone marrow

hemopoiesis

56

type of hemopoietic disorders

1. Leukemia
2. Polycythemia vera

57

Cancer of the blood - a malignant tumor of the blood forming organs characterized by excess production of improperly functioning white blood cells.

leukemia

58

A disease in which a person is producing excess numbers of red blood cells or erythrocytes.
This causes blood to become thicker or increase viscosity which reduces the blood flow and increases the tendency to form clots.

Polycythemia vera

59

Polycythemia vera is also known as...

erythrocytosis

60

types of bleeding disorders

1. Hemophilia
2. Purpura
3. Thrombocytopenia

61

(an affinity for blood) Bleeders disease, a hereditary disease in male offspring characterized by the absence of an essential clotting factor. (factor 8)

hemophilia

62

Widespread hemorrhage, loss of blood scattered throughout the body.

Purpura

63

Decrease in the total number of thrombocytes or platelets due to disease. Thrombocytes initiates the clotting process.

Thrombocytopenia

64

liver, gallbladder, and pancreas which has as it’s purpose the breakdown of foods and liquids into useful soluble substances for distribution to the bloodstream throughout the body.

Accessory organs of digestion

65

specific diseases of the digestive system

1. Inflammatory/degenerative
2. Genetic/developmental
3. Obstruction

66

types of inflammatory/degenerative diseases

1. gingivitis
2. pharyngitis
3. esophagitis
4. gastritis
5. peptic ulcer
6. enteritis
7. colitis
8. appendicitis
9. hemorrhoids
10. hepatitis
11. cirrhosis
12. cholecystitis
13. choletithaiasis
14. cholangitis
15. pancreatitis
16. peritonitis
17. diverticulosis

67

Inflammation of the gums

Gingivitis

68

Inflammation of the pharynx - a sore throat

Pharyngitis

69

Inflammation of the muscular tube which conveys food from the throat to the stomach through the esophagus.

Esophagitis

70

example of esophagitis

bilemia

71

Inflammation of the stomach.

Gastritis

72

A localized area of necrotic epithelia (dead tissue) caused by the action of the enzyme pepsin.

Peptic ulcer

73

dead tissue

necrotic epithelia

74

a digestive enzyme

pepsin

75

where are peptic ulcers commonly found?

stomach or duodenum

76

Inflammation of the small intestine.

enteritis

77

Inflammation of one or more divisions of the colon. The colon is the longest division of the large intestines.

colitis

78

types of colitis

1. amebic
2. ulcerative

79

inflammation of the longest division of the large intestine characterized by several localized areas of dead epithelial.

ulcerative colitis

80

a microscopic animal that has invaded and actively multiplying in the colon

amebic colitis

81

inflammation of the vermiform appendix, attached to the cecum

appendicitis

82

snakelike structure

vermiform

83

ulcerative colitis is a __________ disease

psychosomatic

84

self induced disease

psychosomatic disease

85

cure for ulcerative colitis...

coloscomy

86

pus in the pleural cavity

empyema

87

leading cause of death in 1900s

TB

88

an allergic disease in which a person has to be exposed to twice...can attack any part of the body but usually attacks the lungs.

TB

89

TB of the lungs is called...

pulmonary TB

90

most lethal form of TB

miliary TB

91

a group of a lung diseases caused by prolonged inhalation of a single foreign substance.

CONFIRM DEFINITION

Pneumoconoses

92

???????? definition coal miners disease or black lung disease.

Anthracosis

93

caused by excess exposure to silica...inside ash trays of buildings & seen in occupation of sandblasting.

Silicosis

94

caused by the prolonged inhalation of asbestos. Ex: Roofers

Asbestosis

95

failure of the lung tissue to expand at birth

Atelectasis in INFANTS

96

the collapse of a lung due to complete bronchial obstruction

Atelectasis in ADULTS

97

over distention or rupture of the alveoli in the lungs caused by a partial or incomplete bronchial obstruction.

Emphysema

98

localized collection of pus in the lungs. Usually bacterial in nature.

lung abscess

99

commonly called a collapsed lung

Atelectasis in ADULTS

100

histoplasmosis is what type of disease

systemic Fungal disease

101

tiny air sacs in the lungs

alveoli

102

ring worm is what type of disease

superficial fungal disease

103

fungal disease classifications

superficial
systemic

104

failure of the roof of the mouth to close or form completely

cleft lip/palate

105

cleft lip/palate is commonly called

hare palate

106

Types of Genetic/developmental diseases

Cleft lip/palate
Cystic fibrosis

107

over secretion of an excessively thick mucus forming in the lower respiratory tract.

cystic fibrosis

108

cystic fibrosis is what type of disease?

hereditary

109

patients usually die from cystic fibrosis due to what reason....

the mucus so thick that even if they cough the substance blocks breathing.

110

Obstructive diseases of the respiratory tract.

airway obstruction
COPD

111

an obstruction within the air passageway

choking

112

an obstruction from outside the breathing tube

asphyxia & suffocation

113

COPD stands for...

chronic obstruction pulmonary disease

114

ex of COPD

chronic bronchitis
emphysema

115

postmortem conditions of diseases of the respiratory tract

1. Cyanosis
2. Emaciation
3. Edema
4. Hemorrhage
5. Caviation

116

a reddish-blue discoloration seen tissues- caused by lack of oxygen.

cyanosis

117

loss of tissue. Most noticeable in the face and temporal region.

emaciation

118

excess fluid in pleural cavity or thoracic cavity
gives the body a barrel-shaped chest appearance

hydrothorax/pleural effusion

119

examples of edema in postmortem conditions

hydrothorax
pleural effusion

120

loss of blood

hemorrhage

121

blood in the septum (phlem)...will see clotted during cavity treatment

hemoptosis

122

presence or formation of spaces or cavities in the lung tissue

cavitation

123

most common heart valve where valvular defects take place and why?

Mitral valve, because of its structure...only heart valve that has two distinct sections or cusps making it up

124

note that...

congestive heart failure- Usually occurs in adulthood. In adults the persons heart was not beating as fast as it should; swollen ankles are indicative of CHF; children- generally a result of improper structural changes that fail to occur at birth or shortly thereafter.

125

Death of heart muscle tissue caused by interference in blood supply. Commonly known as a heart attack; it could be mild (dead muscle tissue but not enough to kill the person).

myocardial infarction

126

hypertension or high blood pressure caused by a diseases of the heart. (Give patient a diuretic)

hypertensive heart disease

127

a disease of the heart muscle; can be born with this. If diagnosed early enough, the patient would be a candidate for a heart transplant)

cardiomyopathy

128

end stage of liver disease; in which the normal/ healthy liver cells are replaced by the surrounding supporting cells; are candidates for a liver transplant; appearance little bumps on the surface of the liver called a hob nail liver

Cirrhosis

129

dilated or engorged veins; located around the anal canal; can be internal or external (risk or danger is blood loss; blood in the stool “Melina”)

Hemorrhoids

130

inflammation of the liver (3types) would like to suffer from type A if diagnosed; vaccine to help with immunity;




Hepatitis

131

inflammation of the sac containing bile; inflammation of the gallbladder






Choleystitis

132

the presence or formation of cholelithis; referred to as gall stones

Cholelithiasis-

133

Inflammation of one or more of the bile ducts

Cholangitis-

134

inflammation of the pancreas; false membrane will form around the pancreas (heterocrine gland) causing blockage of the pancreatic duct by a gallstone (most lethal form of cancer)

Pancreatitis-

135

inflammation of the perineum; largest serous membranes (the membrane which lines the abdominal viscera/ organs)

Peritonitis-

136

the presence of one or more an intestinal hernia also referred to as diverticula/ diverticulum a weakness of the wall of the large intestine;

Diverticulosis-

137

a narrowing in the size of the opening controlled by the pyloric valve of the stomach, circular shaped valve that controls the passing of food from the stomach to the small intestines

Pyloric stenosis

138

Specific diseases of the digestive system *****Genetic/developmental*******

1. Pyloric Stenosis
2. Hernia

139

abnormal protrusion of a body part of organ into an area where it’s not normally found;


Hernia

140

the stomach protruding into the thoracic cavity

Heiatel hernia

141

blockage within the digestive system; blocks the flow of food

Obstruction

142

types of Obstruction concerning the digestive system

1. Bile duct-
2. Volvulus-
3. Intussuception
4. Adhesioins

143

obstruction or blockage due to gallstones

bile duct

144

obstruction or blockage due to a twisting of the intestines

volvulus

145

obstruction or blockage; telescoping of the intesitnes

intussecption

146

Obstruction or Blockage; scar tissue which form due to a previous disease or from surgery

adhesion

147

a postmortem condition caused by disease of the digestive system; the evacuation of any substance after death.

purge

148

a postmortem condition caused by disease of the digestive system; this will call more blood clots

rapid coagilation of blood

149

Specific diseases of the respiratory tract Inflammatory/degenerative.......the infection or inflammation of lung tissue itself.

pneumonia

150

3 types of pneumonia

lobar
bronchial
viral

151

a type of pneumonia; infection confined to one or more lobes of the lung tissue.

lobar pneumonia

152

a type of pneumonia; infection of the lung tissue that began in the bronchi.

bronchial pneumonia

153

Postmortem conditions associated with the diseases of the respiratory systemthe presence or formation of spaces or cavities in the lung tissue. Seen in patients with TB.

caviation