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Flashcards in Path New Material Deck (133):
1

DISEASES OF THE URINARY SYSTEM (9)

a. Uremia
b. Glomerulonephritis
c. Pyelonephritis
d. Pyelitis
e. Hydronephrosis
f. Nephrolithiasis
g. Ureteritis
h. Cystitis
i. Urethritis

2

a disease of the urinary system; the end stage of renal failure, in which the patient dies from excess waste products in the blood. Indicated by odor of urine.

Uremia

3

a disease of the urinary system; inflammation of the little tuft of capillaries located within the structural and functional unit of the kidneys.

Glomerulonephritis

4

a disease of the urinary system; inflammation of the structural and functional unit of the kidneys caused by pyogenic or pus forming bacteria

Pyelonephritis

5

a disease of the urinary system; inflammation of the renal pelvis. The central collection area for urine.

Pyelitis

6

a disease of the urinary system; over distention of renal pelvis due to blockage or obstruction in the ureter.

Hydronephrosis

7

a disease of the urinary system; the presence or formation of nephroliths (kidney stones)

Nephrolithiasis

8

kidney stones

Renal calculi

9

a single kidney stone

Renal calcus

10

a disease of the urinary system; inflammation of one or both of the tubes that convey urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder

Ureteritis

11

a disease of the urinary system; inflammation of the urinary bladder. Two possible causes: Not emptying bladder completely after urination and alteration in the cells that make up the bladder (transitional cell carcinoma??? –bladder cancer)

Cystitis

12

a disease of the urinary system; inflammation of the urethra - the single tube that conveys urine from the bladder to outside the body.

Urethritis

13

Genetic/developmental conditions of urinary system (3)

a. Polycystic kidneys
b. Hypoplasia
c. Dysplasia

14

a genetic/developmental condition of urinary system; several cysts or enclosed sac like pouches that form in one or both of the kidneys causing them not to function properly

Polycystic kidneys

15

a genetic/developmental condition of urinary system; under development of a kidney. One or both of the kidneys are smaller than normal from birth. It was never of normal size

Hypoplasia

16

a genetic/developmental condition of urinary system; literally bad growth; a person has bad functioning kidneys. Abnormal development of a body (tissue) part or organ – in this case the kidneys, not functioning properly.

Dysplasia

17

types of Organ failure of the urinary system (2)

Acute renal failure
Chronic renal failure

18

Organ failure of the urinary system; sudden onset and short duration.
Failure to remove waste product from blood

Acute renal failure

19

Organ failure of the urinary system; slow onset and long duration.

Chronic renal failure

20

Postmortem conditions of diseases of the urinary system (5)

1. Edema - in the kidneys
2. Uremia - distinct odor from the body.
3. Jaundice - due to kidney dysfunction.
4. Dehydration - in other parts of the body - face.
5. Odor: ammonia neutralizes formaldehyde; as such, stronger solution is needed for embalming. Indicates kidney failure.

21

DISEASES OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM (10)

a. Endometritis
b. Endocervicitis
c. Salpingitis
d. Oophoritis
e. Vaginitis
f. Gonorrheal and chlamydial infection
g. Syphilis
h. Herpes infection
i. Ectopic pregnancy
j. Eclampsia

22

disease of female the reproductive system; inflammation of the innermost layer of the uterus

Endometritis

23

disease of the female reproductive system; inflammation of the endocervix, the innermost layer of the lower constricted neck-like portion of the uterus.

Endocervicitis

24

disease of the female reproductive system; inflammation of the fallopian tubes. Could cause a woman to become permanently sterile. Site of fertilization

Salpingitis

25

disease of the female reproductive system; inflammation of one or both of the ovaries. Could be a cyst, ovarian cancer, or excess scar tissue

Oophoritis

26

disease of the female reproductive system; inflammation of the vagina or birth canal

Vaginitis

27

(2) diseases of the female reproductive system; (leading reported) - sexually transmitted diseases.

NGU & NSU- most reported

Gonorrheal &
Chlamydial infection

28

disease of the female reproductive system; sexually transmitted disease, a spiral shaped bacteria

Syphilis

29

disease of the female reproductive system; - virus, sexually transmitted infection.

Herpes infection

30

disease of the female reproductive system; exterior, any time a fertilized egg plants itself in any part of the body other than the uterus. Most common is called a tubal ectopic pregnancy. Another place for an ectopic pregnancy would be the middle of peritoneum

Ectopic pregnancy

31

disease of the female reproductive system; the toxcemia of pregnancy that could occur in the last trimester of pregnancy. Does not always present itself, but if it does it causes coma, high blood pressure and death.

Eclampsia

32

Hyperplastic/neoplastic diseases of the female reproductive system (3)

Endometriosis
Dermoid cysts
Cancer

33

Hyperplastic/neoplastic diseases of the female reproductive system; a condition where the presence of endometrial tissue is in parts of the body other than the uterus.

Endometriosis

34

Hyperplastic/neoplastic diseases of the female reproductive system; an enclosed sack-like pouch contains tissue not normally found. a rare ovarian cyst that contains a waxy tissue and other structures not normally found - like teeth.

Dermoid cysts

35

Hyperplastic/neoplastic diseases of the female reproductive system; Lung cancer has surpassed breast cancer in women as the leading cause of death. Cervical cancer usually results in a hysterectomy

Cancer - breast or cervical

36

(3) Postmortem conditions of diseases of the female reproductive system

1. Rapid blood coagulation
2. Edema (ascites)
3. Infection - a need to disinfect the body.

37

1st area to decompose in a pregnant woman

pregnant uterus

38

Last area to decompose in a non-pregnant woman

non-pregnant uterus

39

DISEASES OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Specific Diseases Inflammatory/degenerative (3)

Orchitis
Prostatitis
Hydrocele

40

DISEASES OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Specific Diseases Inflammatory/degenerative; inflammation of one or more of the testes.

Orchitis

41

DISEASES OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Specific Diseases Inflammatory/degenerative; inflammation of the prostate gland.

Prostatitis

42

DISEASES OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Specific Diseases Inflammatory/degenerative; excess edematous fluid in a saculated cavity, specifically the scrotum.

Hydrocele

43

DISEASES OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Hyperplastic/neoplastic (2)

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
Carcinoma

44

DISEASES OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Hyperplastic/neoplastic; usually after 60 the prostate gland has enlarged in size due to the natural aging process.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

45

DISEASES OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Hyperplastic/neoplastic; testes, prostate gland - malignant cancer of the testes or prostate gland. Spread by the lymph system.

Carcinoma

46

Postmortem conditions of male reproductive system (3)

Edema – hydro seal (excessive fluid in the sacculated sac) Rapid blood coagulation
Discolorations

47

any type of wound or injury

Trauma

48

temporary, immediate absence of brain function following an injury without organic lesion.

(Side effects seeing stars)

Concussion

49

a bruising of the brain

Contusion

50

loss of blood within the cranial cavity

Intracranial hemorrhage

51

types of intracranial hemorrhage (3)

Extradural (epidural)
Subdural
Subarachnoid

52

a type of intracranial hemorrhage; loss of blood outside the dura matter but inside the cranium.

extradural (epidural)

53

- a type of intracranial hemorrhage; loss of blood within the cranial cavity located under the dura matter. Most common type of intercranial hemorrhage and usually caused by a mechanical blow.

subdural

54

a type of intracranial hemorrhage; loss of blood within the cranial cavity under the arachnoid layer

subarachnoid

55

most common type of intracranial hemorrhage

subdural

56

the worst consequence of a disease of the nervous system

death

57

Inflammatory/degenerative diseases of the nervous system (13)

1. Meningitis
2. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) apoplexy = stroke
3. Encephalitis
4. Myelitis
5. Hydrocephalus
6. Neuritis
7. Epilepsy
8. Cerebral palsy
9. Multiple sclerosis (M.S.)
10. Parkinson’s disease
11. Alzheimer’s disease
12. Creutzfeldt - Jakob (CJ) disease
13. Rabies (hydrophobia)

58

Inflammatory/degenerative disease of the nervous system; usually caused by Neisseria meningitides. Inflammation of one or more of the Meninges.

Meningitis

59

Inflammatory/degenerative disease of the nervous system; A circulatory sudden interruption of the blood flow occurring in the brain.

Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) = apoplexy = stroke
ALL SYNONYMOUS TERMS

60

predisposing factors of CVA - apoplexy- stroke (3)

1. transient ischemic attack (s) TIA
2. thrombus- attacjed blood clot
3. embolus- free floating object in the blood system

61

consequences of - CVA - apoplexy- stroke VARY, but they could be... (2)

1. Hemorrhage -
Stroke -there is damage to the brain. Ischemic-will cause no damage to the brain

2. Infarction (encephalomalacia)

62

Inflammatory/degenerative disease of the nervous system; viral (virus) infection transmitted by a mosquito. Inflammation of the brain.

Encephalitis

63

encephalitis is transmitted by

culex mosquito

64

WEE

Western equine encephalitis

65

EEE

Eastern equine encephalitis

66

SLE

Saint Louis encephalitis

67

Inflammatory/degenerative disease of the nervous system; Inflammation of the spinal cord – any type of spinal cord injury

Myelitis

68

Inflammatory/degenerative disease of the nervous system; literally, water on the brain; usually results from blockage (occlusion) of the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), especially between the 3rd and 4th ventricles.

Hydrocephalus

69

Inflammatory/degenerative disease of the nervous system; inflammation of a neuron (structural and functional unit of the nervous system). Consist of different type of parts

Neuritis

70

Inflammatory/degenerative disease of the nervous system; Chronic disease of the nervous system, characterized by violent convulsions and/or temporary loss of consciousness

Epilepsy

71

two types of seizures

grand mal
petit mal

72

a type of seizure; Most serious and severe. Person will experience severe convulsions, pass out, become unconscious. Some will bite their tongue.

Grand mal seizure

73

a type of seizure; Milder form; characterized by dizziness or brief unconsciousness.

Petit mal seizure

74

Inflammatory/degenerative disease of the nervous system; spastic paralysis or impairment of voluntary muscle control; positional deformities. Primarily affects young adults and children caused by some sort of brain disease that occurred before birth or shortly after birth

Cerebral palsy

75

Inflammatory/degenerative disease of the nervous system; great crippler of young adults, in which myelin sheath (insulating layer around nerves) is destroyed, thus short- circuiting normal transmission of nerve impulses. There is an impairment of both motor and sensory impulses. Characterized by muscular weakness, tremors, paralysis, and vision problems. This is classified as a chronic degenerative disease.

Multiple sclerosis (M.S.)

76

Inflammatory/degenerative disease of the nervous system; seen in people ages 50-65; extreme shakiness. This is also a degenerative disease characterized by shakiness of the hands

Parkinson’s disease

77

Inflammatory/degenerative disease of the nervous system; chronic, general atrophy of brain and accompanying decrease in mental capacity. Mood change and other mental disturbances. Characterized by the disintegration of the neurons in the cortex of the brain. Could be caused by a conventional virus

Alzheimer’s disease

78

Inflammatory/degenerative disease of the nervous system; HIGHLY contagious; earlier and more lethal form of brain dementia; caused by a protein like particle called a prion. A slow virus

Creutzfeldt - Jakob (CJ) disease

79

Inflammatory/degenerative disease of the nervous system; neurotropic viral infection; 100% mortality, if it develops in humans; only positive diagnosis is discovery of Negri bodies, seen only in the brain tissue within 4 hours of the time of death.

Rabies (hydrophobia)

80

DISEASES OF THE BONES (4)

1. Osteomyelitis
2. Rickets (children) or osteomalacia (adults)
3. Osteoporosis
4. Paget’s disease (osteitis deformans)

81

disease of the bones; inflammation of the spongy bone and marrow, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

Osteomyelitis

82

Disease of the bones; a softening of the bones (boa legs). In adults, the bones have a tendency to break. Deficiency of calcium in the body.

Rickets (children)
Osteomalacia (adults)

83

disease of the bones; rarefaction of bone; absolute decrease in bone mass throughout body; particularly problematic in post menopausal women. Decrease of bone mass. Most commonly found in post-menopausal women.

Osteoporosis

84

disease of the bones; degenerative disease destructive stage which sometimes follows and accompanies osteoporosis; a chronic condition with the cause unknown. This condition predisposes to malignancy development in the bone tissue - osteoporosis.

Paget’s disease (osteitis deformans)

85

DISEASES OF THE JOINTS

Bursitis Arthritis

86

disease of the joints; an inflammation of a bursa (the sac filled with synovial fluid which lines frequently used joints, such as the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee). It is a chronic irritation of the area affected.

Bursitis

87

disease of the joints; Inflammation of a joint

Arthritis

88

two types of arthiritis

Rheumatoid arthritis
Osteo arthritis

89

a type of arthritis; A chronic inflammation of a joint. Affects females more than males. Usually over age of 40. The inflammation is bi-lateral - both sides. Usually the first occurrence will be in the hands and wrists. (Knuckles)

Rheumatoid arthritis

90

- a type of arthritis; also called degenerative joint disease - chronic breaking down of joint tissue. More commonly in older people and primarily affects the weight bearing joints – hip and knee. Usually under age of 40.

Osteoarthritis

91

Genetic/developmental diseases of the bones and joints (2)

Abnormal curvatures of the spine
Achondroplasia

92

Genetic/developmental diseases of the bones and joints; Abnormal curvatures of the spine (3)

Scoliosis
Kyphosis
Lordosis

93

Abnormal curvatures of the spine; exaggerated lateral curvature of the spine - curves to one side or the other.

Scoliosis

94

Abnormal curvatures of the spine; abnormal thoracic curvature of the spine (hunchback)

Kyphosis

95

Abnormal curvatures of the spine; abnormal lumbar curvature of the spine (swayback)

Lordosis

96

Genetic/developmental diseases of the bones and joints; - literally, absence of growth of cartilage; frequently seen accompanying dwarfism. Primarily associated with the lack of development in the long bones

Achondroplasia

97

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; thyroid gland; hypofunction (decrease in the production of hormones) seen in children. Congenital and develops early life.

Cretinism

98

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; thyroid gland; hypofunction (decrease in the production of hormones) seen in adults. Characterized by the slowing of metabolism which results in weight gain. They also can have the characteristic of mental dullness and a general sluggishness.

Myxedema

99

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; thyroid gland; (hyperthyroidism, (increase in production of hormones) exophthalmic goiter) - overactive thyroid gland, resulting in hypertension, wide open eyes, profuse sweating attacks. More common in females. Results in an over active thyroid gland, hypertension, an increase metabolism that results in a weight loss, weakness and nervousness

Grave’s disease

100

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; thyroid gland; enlargement of the thyroid gland due to deficiency of iodine (I) in the diet.

Simple goiter

101

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; Pituitary gland; excess growth hormone secretion too early in life. (hyperfunction) prior to bone ossification.

Giantism

102

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; Pituitary gland; hypofunction (decrease in the production of the hormone) (not enough growth hormone being produced or released at the proper time).

Dwarfism

103

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; Pituitary gland; excess secretion of the growth hormone released after normal ossification is complete; results in progressive enlargement of the head, hands, face, and feet. A hyperfunction after normal bone ossification.

Acromegaly

104

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; Pituitary gland; decreased production of antidiuretic hormone, causing excess thirst and polyuria - urination.

Diabetes insipidus

105

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; pancreas; hypofunction not enough insulin being produced. Characteristics: causes a build up of sugar - Hyperglycemia which results in an excess amount of sugar in the urine called glyclosuremia.

Diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes)

106

two types of diabetes mellitus

juvenile
adult

107

most serious type of diabetes mellitus which usually requires insulin injections and controlling of the diet. Beneath age of 30

juvenile

108

usually less serious type of diabetes mellitus Found in mature individuals and does not require insulin injections. Controlled with low sugar diet and oral medication.

adult

109

complication of patients with diabetes mellitus (2)

1. Hemorrhage, especially within retinas of eyes.

2.Vascular obstruction, leading to atherosclerosis and possibly forms of gangrene (dry or moist); at first, frequently seen as a diabetic ulcer, particularly of the toes. May be genetic in nature.

110

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; pancreas; the main malignancy is Adenocarcinoma. It has a high mortality rate. It metastasizes to the stomach, liver, and duodenum

Carcinoma of the pancreas

111

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; parathyroid glands; spastic twitching in body. A decrease in the amount of hormones causing a decrease in the amount of calcium in the bloodstream. It affects the neurons and causes twitching. (Not to be confused with Parkinson’s disease)

Hypoparathyroidism (tetany)

112

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; parathyroid glands; overactive, causing too much Ca to be removed from bones (thus, prone to fractures) and excess Ca prone person to renal calculi (nephroliths). An excessive amount of hormones causing an increase in the amount of calcium in the bloodstream

Hyperparathyroidism

113

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; adrenal glands; hypofunction of adrenal cortex; outstanding feature is a typical bronzing of the skin. 50 % of patients diagnosed have Tb of their adrenal glands; spread from lungs or intestines (if drinking unpasteurized milk). A 100% of patients diagnosed will die within a year. A decrease in the adrenal cortex. Characterized by digestive disturbances, low blood pressure, dehydration, emaciating, and general body weakness.

Addison’s disease

114

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; adrenal glands; hyperfunction of adrenal cortex, resulting in dorsal cervical fat pad (“buffalo hump”). Causes an increase in the lipids of the blood. High blood pressure, fatigue, and muscular weakness. Usually seen in adult women

Cushing’s syndrome

115

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM; adrenal glands; rare; bilateral destruction of adrenal glands; acute, fulminating (sudden and overwhelming) form of meningococcemia. An organism that results in a blood infection causing death. These are petechial hemorrhages (pin point) of the skin and a severe hemorrhage of the adrenal gland.

Waterhouse - Friderichsen Syndrome

116

ductless glands. Largest of the endocrine gland. Most active when you wake up in the morning

thyroid gland

117

master gland - secretes the growth hormone

Pituitary gland

118

Responsible for producing insulin

Pancreas (Isles of Langerhans)

119

control calcium (Ca) metabolism in body

Parathyroid glands

120

control 3 S’s (sex, sugar, and salt).

Adrenal (suprarenal) glands

121

orchitis is caused by.... (3)

(1) Trauma (kick the groin)
(2) Severe case of the mumps
(3) An untreated sexually transmitted disease

122

symptoms of prostatitis...

bathroom frequency
feeling of not completely emptying bladder
due to cancer of the prostate

123

commonly called mini strokes....
These are the temporary, short term reduction of blood supply into the brain (arterial blood supply). (External- speech loss or speech impediment)

transient ischemic attacks (TIA)

124

- death of brain tissue caused by interference of blood supply; Softening of the brain tissue

Infarction (encephalomalacia)

125

IUD use can cause this condition.

endometritis

126

Diaphragm use and spermicide use can this condition.

Endocervicitis

127

Virus that causes Herpes

herpes simplex II

128

excess fluid in the peritoneal and abdominal cavities.

ascites

129

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is commonly diagnosed with...

DRE- digital rectal exam

130

This is the most lethal site of cancer in men.

prostate (carcinoma)

131

Commonly transmitted through the respiratory system and spread through the blood or lymph systems.

meningitis

132

(only one that releases an endotoxin)

Neisseria meningitides

133

Largest of the zoonotic infections - primarily from migratory birds (herron, etc.) or horses (equine).

encephalitis