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Flashcards in Microbiology Exam 1 Deck (115):
1

scientific study of MO’s and their effect on other living organisms (study of small life).


Microbiology

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MO stands for

Microorganism

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Classification or naming of all living things

Taxonomy

4

Ability to exist in either one cell or multi cell form

DIMORPHISM

5

Study of external structure and form of organism without regard to its function
*generally indicated by the genus name of MO

Morphology

6

white blood cell eating

Phagocytosis

7

likelihood disease causes infection to human of MO

Virulence

8

DIVISIONS OF MICROBIOLOGY:

1. BACTERIOLOGY
2. RICKETTSIOLOGY
3. VIROLOGY
4. PROTOZOOLOGY
5. MYCOLOGY

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Study of bacteria

BACTERIOLOGY

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Study of Rickettsia (infection usually from bugs or insects)

RICKETTSIOLOGY

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Study of viruses (smallest organisms known to man, that cannot be viewed by
compound microscope).

VIROLOGY

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Study of protozoa (smallest form of animal life – i.e. ameba)

PROTOZOOLOGY

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Study of fungi (plural)or fungus (singular) (study of yeasts and mold)

MYCOLOGY –

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fungi have the ability to exist in one cell or multi-cell form, called

DIMORPHISM

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7 Classification of Living Things


Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

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of all living things is always Capitalized.

Genus (name)

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the lowest level classification of any living thing.

species

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is always in small letters.

species

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If the________ name does not tell us an _______ it causes, it will usually tell us a _____________

species
infection
laboratory characteristic

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grows in clusters ( yellow pus)

staph

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grows in chains

strept

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What percentage of microorganisms are non-pathegentic

87%

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What percentage can cause infection to man

13%

24

most bacteria reproduce by binary fission ​(simple transverse division); an “A” sexual means

​Bacterial typical reproduction -​ .

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bacteria lacks a true nucleous

prokaryotic

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staph, strept
infection

bacteria

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famous in humans for causing an infection called primary atypical pneumonia. No cell wall, smallest free living organism known to man. (SMALLEST FREE LIVING ORGANISM).

mycoplasmas

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febrile infections mostly spread by insects, e.g., typhus fever.
The infection accompanying these is high fever and last a longer period of time. Flea born or rat, also transmitted by louse or lice. (Sr. Anthony Ricketts).

Rickettsia

29

Strict parasite, smaller than bacteria but larger than viruses. Transmitted by seedling birds. NGU – non gonococcal urethritis

Chlamydia - parrot fever, NGU

30

smallest microorganism known to man. Measles, mumps, flu, hepatitis, smallpox.

viruses

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smallest form of animal life - malaria, amebic dysentery

protozoa

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yeast and molds; athlete’s foot, thrush, PCP.
Ability to exist in more than one form – unicellular or multicellular

fungi

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a small protein like infectious particle
that is resistant to most procedures that modify nucleic acids. Syndrome – set of signs associated with disease.

Prion - creutzfeldt - Jakob (CJ)

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Of the eight (8) different families or groups of microorganisms that are a major health importance, which cause the greatest majority of infection in man

bacteria

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8 different families or groups of microorganisms of major health importance

Bacteria
Mycoplasmas
Rickettsia
Chlamydia
Viruses
Protozoa
Fungi
Prion








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What does non pathogenic mean?

do not cause infection in humans

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study of external structure and form of any organism without regard to its function.

morphology

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largest unit of measurement

micron
25,000th of an inch

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smallest unit of measurement

angstrom
2.5 millionth of an inch

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medium unit of measurement

nanometer
250,000th of an inch

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How many main shapes of bacteria are there?

3

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a single spherical (round) shaped bacteria.

coccus (singular)
Cocci-two or more

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a single rod (capsule) shaped bacteria.

bacillus (singular)
Bacilli - two or more

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a spiral shaped bacteria.

spirillum (singular)
Spirilla two or more

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comma shaped spirillum bacteria

Vibrio
Example: Cholera

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corkscrew shaped bacteria

Spirochete
Example: Syphilis

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pairs - a variation of round shaped bacteria

Diplococci

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grows in clusters of round shaped bacteria - like grapes

Staphylococci

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grow together in chains

Streptobacilli

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the outermost layer which gives shape and integrity (strength) to bacteria; its makeup used to differ among microorganisms; e.g. high lipid (fat) for TB; protein in gram stain (blue if yes, red if no). This test shows if there is protein in the bacteria of TB

cell wall

50

a thinner, inner layer; controls entry and exit into the bacteria. Regulate entry / exit of food

cell membrane

51

any living substance present in the cell

cytoplasm

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This Jelly like material is located around the outside of certain bacteria.. It protects it against a natural process of the body, phagocytosis. Thus enhancing virulence of M.O.

capsule (slime layer)

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when the body attempts to destroy anything foreign, this is known as

phagocytosis

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surrounds, ingests and destroys anything foreign. A natural process which your body attempts to accomplish. An attempt to try to protect your body against anything foreign. Thus any organism that invades your body and has a slime capsule is more likely to cause infection because of the slime structure. It will take the bodies white blood cells longer to defend against the organism.

phagocytosis
cell ingestion

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the likelihood an organism will cause infection in man. The presence of a slime layer will enhance the likelihood the bacteria will cause infection. Relative power to produce a disease.

virulence

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located on outside of certain bacteria; protects cells from phagocytosis, thus enhancing virulence of the microorganisms

capsule
(slime layer)

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best means of protection any microorganism can possess; not a means of reproduction; only one per cell, when formed; Bacillus and Clostridium only two bacteria that could form spores.

Endospore - (Inside)

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only two bacteria that could form spores

Bacillus and Clostridium

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- grows in the presence of oxygen

Bacillus aerobic

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- grows without the presence of oxygen.

Clostridium anaerobic

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aureus is to what...

Staphylococcus

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any bacteria that could never form endospores, or any bacteria that can produce endospores, but currently is not producing them. Never form endospores, a bacteria that does not have a genus name

vegetative bacteria

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any bacteria currently producing endospores. This occurs only under adverse living conditions of the bacteria. Never more than one spore at a time.

sporulating bacteria

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when a free endospore forms new vegetative cells when good living conditions return

germinating bacteria

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used for movement of bacteria; long, whip like structures attached to the outside of the cell. There are many variations as to how many and where they are located. (e.g. monotrichous and peritrichous) Move to another food source or away from the enemy.

flagella

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One (long single) whip like structure

Monotrichous

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Several whip like structures

Peritrichous

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shorter than Flagella and used to aid in attachment of an organism to the site of infection; e.g. Gonorrhea.

Pili
“Little Hairs”

69

This means a MUST behavior

Strict or obligate

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staph, strept. Infection.

Bacteria

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famous in humans for causing an infection called primary atypical pneumonia. No cell wall, smallest free living organism known to man. (SMALLEST FREE LIVING ORGANISM).

Mycoplasmas

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febrile infections mostly spread by insects, e.g., typhus fever.
The infection accompanying these is high fever and last a longer period of time. Flea born or rat, also transmitted by louse or lice. (

Rickettsia

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Who is rickettsia named after?

Sr. Anthony Ricketts

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parrot fever, NGU. Strict parasite, smaller than bacteria but larger than viruses. Transmitted by seedling birds. NGU – non gonococcal urethritis

Chlamydia

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- smallest microorganism known to man. That can not be seen with the ordinary compound microscope.
Ex: Measles, mumps, flu, hepatitis, smallpox.

Viruses

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smallest form of animal life - malaria, amebic dysentery.

Protozoa

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yeast and molds; athlete’s foot, thrush, PCP.
Ability to exist in more than one form – unicellular or multicellular

Fungi

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* It tells about the morphology - the external structure or form.

Genus

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*It will tell one of the names an infection will cause.

species

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Name for any living thing will ALWAYS be what???

CAPITALIZED

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Smallest FREE living organism

Mycoplasmas

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pneumoniae is to what...

Streptococcus

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meningitidis is to what...

Neisseria

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typhi is to what...

Salmonella

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influenzae is to...

Hemophilus

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Endospore formation only happens under...

Adverse conditions

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Also known as cell injestion

Phagocytosis

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Pus indicates that...

Infection is still present

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- a visible growth of bacteria growing on a culture medium ​(nutrient, broth, blood agar).


Bacterial colony

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- the material you attempt to grow bacteria.... Nutrient, broth, ​blood agar.

Medium

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- to grow in a laboratory setting bacteria in a medium of nutrient, ​broth, ​or blood agar.

Culture

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- all bacteria - pathogens are so classified and must have a source of carbon. Bacteria that obtain their food from inorganic matter. They manufacture their own carbon.

Autotrophic bacteria

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- all organisms that cause​infection in man are classified as heterotrophic and obtain their food from organic matter - food that contains carbon. Humans contain carbon - glucose.

Heterotrophic bacteria

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a must behavior - a bacteria that ​must obtain its food from dead organic matter.

Strict or (obligate) saprophytes

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- must obtain their food from ​living organic matter. viruses.


Strict or (obligate) parasites

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- bacteria that can obtain their food from ​dead or living organic matter.

Facultative bacteria

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bacteria that must have presence of oxygen to live.

Strict (obligate) aerobes -

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bacteria that must have absence of oxygen to live.

Strict (obligate) anaerobes -

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bacteria that must have the presence of oxygen to live, but at a level less than that required of humans

​Microaerophiles

100

bacteria that can live in the presence or absence of oxygen.

​Facultative bacteria

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Excess water

​Edema

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loss of water

Dehydration

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pH stands for...

percentage of HYDROGEN ion in solution



104

Any reading above 7 is...

​slightly alkaline for most pathogens.

105

The living human body's pH is...

7.4 slightly alkaline.

106

Pathogens are slightly...

alkaline

107

The only normal pH is...

Water

108

The pH of milk is about...

13

109

The pH of blood is about...

7.3-7.4

110

The pH of a body that is stiff as a board is...

5 (slightly acidic)

111

Battery acid pH is...

1 (highly acidic)

112

The higher alkaline the more...

Bitter the taste

113

Smallest form of animal life

Protozoa

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In regards to BACTERIA...if there are two or more the answer ends with a...

Vowel