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Flashcards in Pathology Exam 2 Deck (148):
1

types of cellular reaction to any type of injury

???

2

2 types of reversible tissue changes

progressive tissue changes
regressive tissue changes

3

this reversible tissue change usually implies an increase in size

progressive tissue change

4

this reversible tissue change usually implies a decrease in size

regressive tissue change

5

an irreversible change to injury

death

6

Regressive changes (4 types)

Degeneration (intracellular)
Infiltration (intercellular)
Necrosis
Atrophy

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type of regressive tissue change in which we have the accumulation or buildup of a substance intracellularly within the protoplasm of cells.

Degeneration

8

Types of degeneration

(a) Cellular (cloudy) swelling -

(b) Fatty degeneration -

(c) Amyloid disease - .


9

most common type of degeneration. Similar to edema (excess amounts of tissue fluids which bathe and surround the body cells.) This fluid is between cells. Intracellular, cloudy swelling. The swelling would be transient or temporary.

Cellular (cloudy) swelling -

10

fatty change - fatty metamorphosis – build up or accumulation of fat within the protoplasm of normal cells. Fat in the liver cells affects the liver.
Liver dysfunction

Fatty degeneration

11

accumulation or buildup of amyloid, a waxy starch-like substance within the normal protoplasm of cells. The amyloid is being deposited within the protoplasm of normal cells

Amyloid disease

12

Two most common types of amyloid diseases reported:

TB - Typically, in adults, it begins in the lungs.
Osteomyelitis – inflammation of the spongy bone marrow inside bones.

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a type of regressive tissue change, in which we have an accumulation or buildup of a substance between the cells

Infiltration (intercellular)

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What is the difference between degeneration and infiltration?

where the substances are being deposited

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a type of infiltration; the accumulation of pigmented or colored substance between cells.

Pigmentation

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pigmentation originated outside the body

Exogenous

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a color change along the gum line due to lead

plumbism

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black lung disease

anthracosis

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the active ingredient of pepto-bismol will cause color change in the small intestines

bismuth poisoning

20

abnormal buildup of a pigmented or colored substance naturally produced within the body, e.g. jaundice, freckles, moles.

Endogenous

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abnormal accumulation or buildup of calcium salts between cell fibers, as in sclerotic vessels, the way the body heals bone fractures.

Calcification
(calcareous infiltration)

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abnormal accumulation or excess of uric acid, especially seen in the big toe

Gout

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types of infiltration (3)

pigmentation
calcification
gout

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another name for birthmarks

Albenism (albino)

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a type of regressive tissue change where there is a localized area of dead tissue in the living body.

Necrosis

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causes of necrosis (4)

(1) Insufficient blood supply.
(2) Physical agent - temperature extremes, radiation.
(3) Chemical agents
(4) Loss of nerve supply

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types of necrosis (3)

(1) Caseous necrosis

(2) Gangrene

(3) Decubitus ulcer

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a type of necrosis - Cheeselike in appearance as seen in T.B.

Caseous necrosis

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ischemic necrosis plus putrefaction

gangrene

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reduction in arterial blood supply.

Ischemic

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the decomposition of proteins in an anaerobic environment (absence of oxygen).

Putrefaction

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organisms that obtain their food from dead matter

Saprophytes

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commonly called true gangrene – The foreword definition is ischemic necrosis plus putrefaction, since saprophytes are present; foul odor present; no line of demarcation between dead tissue and functional tissue. This type of gangrene spreads very quickly.

moist gangrene

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In humans, moist gangrene is most common where?

extremities or the viscera (organs)

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false gangrene; no saprophytes present; no order; nice line of demarcation. This type of gangrene spreads slowly.

dry gangrene

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only gangrene that is infectious in nature, caused by Clostridium perfringens (a bacteria which can cause spores) during life; microorganisms causes tissue gas in death.

gas gangrene

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types of gangrene (3)

moist
dry
gas

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type of necrosis; commonly called bedsores which are caused by pressure points which restrict blood flow. (Most commonly seen in bed ridden patients.) They don’t respond well to vascular embalming.

Decubitus ulcer

39

a type of regressive change; absence or lack of growth. A decrease in size of a body part or organ that previously was of normal size. (shrink)

atrophy

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types of atrophy (2)

physiological atrophy
pathological atrophy

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a type of atrophy; a decrease in size of a body part or organ due to decreased functional demands

physiological atrophy

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an example of physiological atrophy; located at the base of the neck. Largest and most active during infancy. (T-cell lymphocytes)

thymus gland

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the progressive shrinkage of all organs as part of the natural aging process

senile atrophy

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All ______ will atrophy or shrink as a part of the natural aging process

organs

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another example of physiological atrophy; reduction in breast size after lactation

*

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decrease in size of a body part or organ due to disease – (emaciation) anorexia nervosa; cancer; disuse. Disease of a body part (muscle) which will decrease in size

pathological atrophy

47

the body’s total response to any injury

inflammation

48

functions of inflammation

protection of the body, if possible -

a. Destroy the causative agent.
b. Limit the area affected.
c. Begin the process of repair - the process to replace destroyed cells with new ones (scar tissue), but not the same as the destroyed cells.

49

Causes of inflammation

a. Physical irritants - extremes of temperature - hot or cold.
Radiation which is cumulative.

b. Chemical irritants - an exposure to chemical.

c. Infectious agents - any type of microscopic pathogens.

d. Immunological reactions - allergic reaction to a immunological shot (autoimmune disease).

50

Process of inflammation

a. Hyperemia (congestion)

b. Exudation





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vascular. Excess blood to the injured body part or organ. The first phase in the inflammatory process. Whole blood is shipped to area of injury by the arteries. Ship whole blood to area of injury first.

Hyperemia (congestion)

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The second phase of the inflammatory process. The oozing of fluids at the level of the capillaries.

Exudation

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the liquid that is oozed at the level of the capillaries

exudate

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Three types of exudates

Purulent (suppurative)

Hemorrhagic

Serous

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Exudates which contain pus (dead and living white blood cells and dead and living bacteria).

Purulent (suppurative)

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exudate which contains blood.

Hemorrhagic

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exudate which does not contain pus.

Serous

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An outstanding feature of serous

blisters

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Cardinal signs and/or symptoms of inflammation – (Mr. Vesless) these should be temporary.

Heat
Redness
Swelling
Pain
Altered function

60

Latin word meaning heat

calor

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Latin word meaning redness

rubor

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Latin word meaning swelling

tumor

63

Latin word meaning pain

dolor

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Latin word meaning altered function

functio laesa

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Inflammatory lesions (8)

a. Abscess

b. Phlegmon - cellulitis,

c. Vesicle

d. Furuncle

e. Carbuncles

f. Fistula

g. Ulcer

h. Pustule

66

localized collection of pus.

abscess

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a diffuse or wide spread inflammation of subcutaneous connective tissue. Usually appears as a red streak that is spreading rapidly just beneath the surface of the skin. (not to be confused with Bourbon nose)

Phlegmon
(cellulitis)

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medical name for blister, a slight elevation on the surface of the skin filled with serous or non-purulent fluid (does not contain pus); usually caused by second degree burns due to hot liquids or pressure points

Vesicle

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single non-communicating boil, a boil is the name commonly given to an abscess of a hair follicle or sweat gland. (Acne, pimple, zit, white head)

Furuncle

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several communicating boils where the drainage of the hair follicle or sweat gland are shared.

Carbuncles

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abnormal passageway. The most common site is the large intestine. Can occur between parts of a body or from a body part to the outside

Fistula

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localized area of necrotic epithel

ulcer

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three common sites for ulcers

1. Upper GI tract, stomach or duodenum
2. Toes on diabetics
3. Decubitus ulcer - bedsore

74

elevation of the surface of the skin which contains pus. (Pimple, whitehead, or black head) usually an oil gland.

Pustule

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Acne, pimple, zit, white head are examples of

furuncle

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Pimple, whitehead, or black head are examples of

pustule

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the outcome of the inflammation phase (3)

1. Resolution

2. Regeneration

3. Repair

78

part of the outcome of inflammation phase which signals an end of the exudation stage or inflammation stage.

resolution

79

Two basic methods by which your body completes inflammation

Regeneration
Repair

80

the replacement of damaged or diseased cells with the exact same type of tissue

Regeneration

81

two types of regeneration

a. Physiological Regeneration

b. Pathological Regeneration

82

the replacement of damaged or diseased cells with the exact same type of tissue; due to increased functional demand.

Physiological Regeneration

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the replacement of damaged or diseased cells with the exact same type of tissue; due to disease (example: damage or disease of the skin, specifically burns)

Pathological Regeneration

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connective tissue cells. The replacement of damaged or diseased tissue with healthy new cells; most commonly connective tissue cells or by surgery – This results in scar tissue.

Repair

85

Nervous system inflammation

Encephalitis
Myelitis
Meningitis
Poliomyelitis
Neuritis

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inflammation of the brain

encephalitis

87

inflammation of the spinal cord

myelitis

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inflammation of the 3 layer membrane of the brain and spinal cord

meningitis

89

inflammation of the gray matter portion of the spinal cord.

Poliomyelitis

90

inflammation of a neuron or nerve cell

Neuritis

91

Respiratory system inflammation

Rhinitis
Pharyngitis
Sinusitis
Laryngitis
Pleuritis (pleurisy)
Tracheitis
Bronchitis
Pneumonitis (pneumonia)

92

inflammation of the nasal mucosa (mucusmembrane of the lining of the nasal cavity) nose.

Rhinitis

93

inflammation of the pharynx - a sore throat.

Pharyngitis

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inflammation of one or more sets of the paranasal sinuses. (near or along the nasal cavities)

Sinusitis

95

inflammation of the larynx or voice box.

Laryngitis

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inflammation of the pleura - a thin membrane that surrounds the lungs. (pleural space or cavity)

Pleuritis (pleurisy)

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inflammation of the trachea or windpipe.

Tracheitis

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inflammation of one or both of the bronchi (two) or bronchus (one)

Bronchitis

99

inflammation of or infection of lung tissue itself.

Pneumonitis (pneumonia)

100

3 types of Pneumonitis (pneumonia)

(1) lobar pneumonia - one portion of the lung.
(2) bronchial pneumonia
(3) viral pneumonia

101

Digestive system inflammation

Stomatitis
Glossitis
Gingivitis
Esophagitis
Gastritis
Enteritis
Diverticulitis
Colitis

Proctitis
Peritonitis
Pancreatitis


Hepatitis
Cholecystitis
Cholangitis
Appendicitis

102

inflammation of the mouth

Stomatitis

103

inflammation of the tongue

Glossitis

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inflammation of the gums

Gingivitis

105

inflammation of the esophagus - the muscular tube that conveys food from the throat to the stomach

Esophagitis

106

inflammation of the stomach

Gastritis

107

inflammation of the small intestines.

Enteritis

108

inflammation of the diverticulum or intestinal hernia

Diverticulitis

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inflammation of the colon - the longest division of the large intestines

Colitis

110

inflammation of the rectum

Proctitis

111

inflammation of the peritoneum - the membrane which surrounds the abdominal viscera.

Peritonitis

112

inflammation of the pancreases - a heterocrine gland

Pancreatitis

113

inflammation of the liver

Hepatitis

114

inflammation of the sac containing bile or gallbladder.

Cholecystitis

115

inflammation of one or more of the bile duct

Cholangitis

116

inflammation of the vermiform (snakelike) appendix.

Appendicitis

117

2 types of colitis

(1) amebic
(2) ulcerative (psychosomatic disorder)

118

functions of pancreas

1. break downs food
2. insulin – released into blood to control sugar levels.

119

Genitourinary System inflammation

Pyelitis
Pyelonephritis
Glomerulonephritis
Ureteritis
Cystitis
Urethritis
Orchitis
Prostatitis
Oophoritis
Salpingitis
Endometritis
Endocervicitis
Vaginitis

120

inflammation of the renal pelvis.

Pyelitis

121

inflammation of the structural and functional unit of the kidney caused by pyogenic pus forming bacteria.

Pyelonephritis

122

inflammation of the little tufted capillaries (glomerulus) of the structural and functional unit of the kidneys.

Glomerulonephritis

123

inflammation of the tube that urine between the kidney and urinary bladder conveys.

Ureteritis

124

inflammation of the urinary bladder.

Cystitis

125

inflammation of the single tube that conveys urine from the urinary bladder to outside the body.

Urethritis

126

inflammation of one or both of the male gonads (testis).

Orchitis

127

inflammation of the prostate gland.

Prostatitis

128

inflammation of one or both of the ovaries (female sex gland).

Oophoritis

129

inflammation of one or both of the fallopian tubes.

Salpingitis

130

inflammation of the endometrium, the inner most or vascular layer of the uterus

Endometritis

131

inflammation of the endocervic the inner most layer of the lower neck structure of the cervix.

Endocervicitis

132

inflammation of the Vagina or birth canal.

Vaginitis

133

Cardiovascular System inflammation

Pericarditis
Myocarditis
Endocarditis
Arteritis
Phlebitis .
Thrombophlebitis
Cholangitis

134

inflammation of the pericardium - the sack surrounding the heart. (Pericardium- sack surrounding the heart)

Pericarditis

135

inflammation of the muscle layer of the heart. (Left ventricle has the greatest thickness of myocardium)

Myocarditis

136

inflammation of the endocardium inner most layer of the heart. Layer of the heart in which heart valves are made. (Endocardium- innermost layer of the heart)

Endocarditis

137

inflammation of the artery - Angiogram can cause arteritis.

Arteritis

138

inflammation of the vein

Phlebitis

139

inflammation of the vein because of the presence of an attached blood clot during life. This clot is called a thrombus.

Thrombophlebitis

140

inflammation of a vessel (passageway) through which bile flows (one or more of the bile ducts.)

Cholangitis

141

Skin and Skeletomuscular System inflammation

Dermatitis
Bursitis
Osteomyelitis
Arthritis

142

inflammation of the skin – Most common form is contact dermatitis ex: poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac.

Dermatitis

143

inflammation of the bursa - the tiny sac filled with a lubricant for the joints. Bursa- tiny sac filled with a lubricant for the joints.

Bursitis

144

inflammation of the spongy bone marrow

Osteomyelitis

145

inflammation of the joints

Arthritis

146

Lymphatic System inflammation

Tonsilitis
Lymphangitis

147

inflammation of the one or more of the three sets of tonsils. Tissue between the mouth and throat.

Tonsilitis

148

inflammation of the lymph vessel.

Lymphangitis