Flashcards in Pathology Exam 2 Deck (148):
types of cellular reaction to any type of injury
2 types of reversible tissue changes
progressive tissue changes
regressive tissue changes
this reversible tissue change usually implies an increase in size
progressive tissue change
this reversible tissue change usually implies a decrease in size
regressive tissue change
an irreversible change to injury
Regressive changes (4 types)
type of regressive tissue change in which we have the accumulation or buildup of a substance intracellularly within the protoplasm of cells.
Types of degeneration
(a) Cellular (cloudy) swelling -
(b) Fatty degeneration -
(c) Amyloid disease - .
most common type of degeneration. Similar to edema (excess amounts of tissue fluids which bathe and surround the body cells.) This fluid is between cells. Intracellular, cloudy swelling. The swelling would be transient or temporary.
Cellular (cloudy) swelling -
fatty change - fatty metamorphosis – build up or accumulation of fat within the protoplasm of normal cells. Fat in the liver cells affects the liver.
accumulation or buildup of amyloid, a waxy starch-like substance within the normal protoplasm of cells. The amyloid is being deposited within the protoplasm of normal cells
Two most common types of amyloid diseases reported:
TB - Typically, in adults, it begins in the lungs.
Osteomyelitis – inflammation of the spongy bone marrow inside bones.
a type of regressive tissue change, in which we have an accumulation or buildup of a substance between the cells
What is the difference between degeneration and infiltration?
where the substances are being deposited
a type of infiltration; the accumulation of pigmented or colored substance between cells.
pigmentation originated outside the body
a color change along the gum line due to lead
black lung disease
the active ingredient of pepto-bismol will cause color change in the small intestines
abnormal buildup of a pigmented or colored substance naturally produced within the body, e.g. jaundice, freckles, moles.
abnormal accumulation or buildup of calcium salts between cell fibers, as in sclerotic vessels, the way the body heals bone fractures.
abnormal accumulation or excess of uric acid, especially seen in the big toe
types of infiltration (3)
another name for birthmarks
a type of regressive tissue change where there is a localized area of dead tissue in the living body.
causes of necrosis (4)
(1) Insufficient blood supply.
(2) Physical agent - temperature extremes, radiation.
(3) Chemical agents
(4) Loss of nerve supply
types of necrosis (3)
(1) Caseous necrosis
(3) Decubitus ulcer
a type of necrosis - Cheeselike in appearance as seen in T.B.
ischemic necrosis plus putrefaction
reduction in arterial blood supply.
the decomposition of proteins in an anaerobic environment (absence of oxygen).
organisms that obtain their food from dead matter
commonly called true gangrene – The foreword definition is ischemic necrosis plus putrefaction, since saprophytes are present; foul odor present; no line of demarcation between dead tissue and functional tissue. This type of gangrene spreads very quickly.
In humans, moist gangrene is most common where?
extremities or the viscera (organs)
false gangrene; no saprophytes present; no order; nice line of demarcation. This type of gangrene spreads slowly.
only gangrene that is infectious in nature, caused by Clostridium perfringens (a bacteria which can cause spores) during life; microorganisms causes tissue gas in death.
types of gangrene (3)
type of necrosis; commonly called bedsores which are caused by pressure points which restrict blood flow. (Most commonly seen in bed ridden patients.) They don’t respond well to vascular embalming.
a type of regressive change; absence or lack of growth. A decrease in size of a body part or organ that previously was of normal size. (shrink)
types of atrophy (2)
a type of atrophy; a decrease in size of a body part or organ due to decreased functional demands
an example of physiological atrophy; located at the base of the neck. Largest and most active during infancy. (T-cell lymphocytes)
the progressive shrinkage of all organs as part of the natural aging process
All ______ will atrophy or shrink as a part of the natural aging process
another example of physiological atrophy; reduction in breast size after lactation
decrease in size of a body part or organ due to disease – (emaciation) anorexia nervosa; cancer; disuse. Disease of a body part (muscle) which will decrease in size
the body’s total response to any injury
functions of inflammation
protection of the body, if possible -
a. Destroy the causative agent.
b. Limit the area affected.
c. Begin the process of repair - the process to replace destroyed cells with new ones (scar tissue), but not the same as the destroyed cells.
Causes of inflammation
a. Physical irritants - extremes of temperature - hot or cold.
Radiation which is cumulative.
b. Chemical irritants - an exposure to chemical.
c. Infectious agents - any type of microscopic pathogens.
d. Immunological reactions - allergic reaction to a immunological shot (autoimmune disease).
Process of inflammation
a. Hyperemia (congestion)
vascular. Excess blood to the injured body part or organ. The first phase in the inflammatory process. Whole blood is shipped to area of injury by the arteries. Ship whole blood to area of injury first.
The second phase of the inflammatory process. The oozing of fluids at the level of the capillaries.
the liquid that is oozed at the level of the capillaries
Three types of exudates
Exudates which contain pus (dead and living white blood cells and dead and living bacteria).
exudate which contains blood.
exudate which does not contain pus.
An outstanding feature of serous
Cardinal signs and/or symptoms of inflammation – (Mr. Vesless) these should be temporary.
Latin word meaning heat
Latin word meaning redness
Latin word meaning swelling
Latin word meaning pain
Latin word meaning altered function
Inflammatory lesions (8)
b. Phlegmon - cellulitis,
localized collection of pus.
a diffuse or wide spread inflammation of subcutaneous connective tissue. Usually appears as a red streak that is spreading rapidly just beneath the surface of the skin. (not to be confused with Bourbon nose)
medical name for blister, a slight elevation on the surface of the skin filled with serous or non-purulent fluid (does not contain pus); usually caused by second degree burns due to hot liquids or pressure points
single non-communicating boil, a boil is the name commonly given to an abscess of a hair follicle or sweat gland. (Acne, pimple, zit, white head)
several communicating boils where the drainage of the hair follicle or sweat gland are shared.
abnormal passageway. The most common site is the large intestine. Can occur between parts of a body or from a body part to the outside
localized area of necrotic epithel
three common sites for ulcers
1. Upper GI tract, stomach or duodenum
2. Toes on diabetics
3. Decubitus ulcer - bedsore
elevation of the surface of the skin which contains pus. (Pimple, whitehead, or black head) usually an oil gland.
Acne, pimple, zit, white head are examples of
Pimple, whitehead, or black head are examples of
the outcome of the inflammation phase (3)
part of the outcome of inflammation phase which signals an end of the exudation stage or inflammation stage.
Two basic methods by which your body completes inflammation
the replacement of damaged or diseased cells with the exact same type of tissue
two types of regeneration
a. Physiological Regeneration
b. Pathological Regeneration
the replacement of damaged or diseased cells with the exact same type of tissue; due to increased functional demand.
the replacement of damaged or diseased cells with the exact same type of tissue; due to disease (example: damage or disease of the skin, specifically burns)
connective tissue cells. The replacement of damaged or diseased tissue with healthy new cells; most commonly connective tissue cells or by surgery – This results in scar tissue.
Nervous system inflammation
inflammation of the brain
inflammation of the spinal cord
inflammation of the 3 layer membrane of the brain and spinal cord
inflammation of the gray matter portion of the spinal cord.
inflammation of a neuron or nerve cell
Respiratory system inflammation
inflammation of the nasal mucosa (mucusmembrane of the lining of the nasal cavity) nose.
inflammation of the pharynx - a sore throat.
inflammation of one or more sets of the paranasal sinuses. (near or along the nasal cavities)
inflammation of the larynx or voice box.
inflammation of the pleura - a thin membrane that surrounds the lungs. (pleural space or cavity)
inflammation of the trachea or windpipe.
inflammation of one or both of the bronchi (two) or bronchus (one)
inflammation of or infection of lung tissue itself.
3 types of Pneumonitis (pneumonia)
(1) lobar pneumonia - one portion of the lung.
(2) bronchial pneumonia
(3) viral pneumonia
Digestive system inflammation
inflammation of the mouth
inflammation of the tongue
inflammation of the gums
inflammation of the esophagus - the muscular tube that conveys food from the throat to the stomach
inflammation of the stomach
inflammation of the small intestines.
inflammation of the diverticulum or intestinal hernia
inflammation of the colon - the longest division of the large intestines
inflammation of the rectum
inflammation of the peritoneum - the membrane which surrounds the abdominal viscera.
inflammation of the pancreases - a heterocrine gland
inflammation of the liver
inflammation of the sac containing bile or gallbladder.
inflammation of one or more of the bile duct
inflammation of the vermiform (snakelike) appendix.
2 types of colitis
(2) ulcerative (psychosomatic disorder)
functions of pancreas
1. break downs food
2. insulin – released into blood to control sugar levels.
Genitourinary System inflammation
inflammation of the renal pelvis.
inflammation of the structural and functional unit of the kidney caused by pyogenic pus forming bacteria.
inflammation of the little tufted capillaries (glomerulus) of the structural and functional unit of the kidneys.
inflammation of the tube that urine between the kidney and urinary bladder conveys.
inflammation of the urinary bladder.
inflammation of the single tube that conveys urine from the urinary bladder to outside the body.
inflammation of one or both of the male gonads (testis).
inflammation of the prostate gland.
inflammation of one or both of the ovaries (female sex gland).
inflammation of one or both of the fallopian tubes.
inflammation of the endometrium, the inner most or vascular layer of the uterus
inflammation of the endocervic the inner most layer of the lower neck structure of the cervix.
inflammation of the Vagina or birth canal.
Cardiovascular System inflammation
inflammation of the pericardium - the sack surrounding the heart. (Pericardium- sack surrounding the heart)
inflammation of the muscle layer of the heart. (Left ventricle has the greatest thickness of myocardium)
inflammation of the endocardium inner most layer of the heart. Layer of the heart in which heart valves are made. (Endocardium- innermost layer of the heart)
inflammation of the artery - Angiogram can cause arteritis.
inflammation of the vein
inflammation of the vein because of the presence of an attached blood clot during life. This clot is called a thrombus.
inflammation of a vessel (passageway) through which bile flows (one or more of the bile ducts.)
Skin and Skeletomuscular System inflammation
inflammation of the skin – Most common form is contact dermatitis ex: poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac.
inflammation of the bursa - the tiny sac filled with a lubricant for the joints. Bursa- tiny sac filled with a lubricant for the joints.
inflammation of the spongy bone marrow
inflammation of the joints
Lymphatic System inflammation
inflammation of the one or more of the three sets of tonsils. Tissue between the mouth and throat.