Pathology Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology Exam 3 Deck (76):
1

A circulatory disturbance
A disease in which a person has excess amounts of tissue fluid present in the body

Edema (Dropsy)

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substance which bathes and surrounds the body cells.

Tissue fluids

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causes of edema

a. Increased permeability of the capillaries. The capillaries are allowing too much fluid in and not enough out. The cells are swelling.

b. Increased capillary pressure due to venous obstruction or heart failure.

c. Inflammatory conditions - due to injury.

d. Fluid / electrolyte problems – post surgical problems

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Examples of edema

Anasarca
Ascites
Hydrothorax
Hydropericardium
Hydrocele
Hydro-cephalus

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Type of edema
generalized edema – edema scattered throughout the entire body

Anasarca

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Type of edema
excess tissue fluid in the abdominal cavity or peritoneal cavity.

Ascites

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Type of edema
excess tissue fluid in the thoracic or plural cavity.

Hydrothorax

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Type of edema
excess tissue fluid in the sack that surrounds the heart.

Hydropericardium

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Type of edema
excess fluid or edema of a sacculated cavity. Affects the scrotum in males

Hydrocele

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Type of edema
excess fluid in the cranial cavity - water on the brain. Affects the nervous system. Most commonly reported more in children than adults.

Hydro-cephalus

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A circulatory disturbance
excess blood in a body part or organ

Hyperemia (congestion)

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types of hyperemia

Physiological hyperemia
Pathological hyperemia
Active hyperemia
Passive hyperemia

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types of hyperemia
e.g., blushing - excess blood in a body part or organ due to increased functional demand.

Physiological hyperemia

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types of hyperemia
e.g., cyanosis - excess blood in a body part or organ due to disease

Pathological hyperemia

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types of hyperemia
excess blood in a body part or organ brought there by the arteries

Active hyperemia

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types of hyperemia
excess blood in a body part or organ due to venous obstruction, an obstruction which is present in the veins. Passive hyperemia is always pathologic.

Passive hyperemia

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reddish blue discoloration seen in the tissues due to lack of oxygen

Cyanosis

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a circulatory disturbance
a reduction in the arterial blood supply to a body part or organ

Ischemia

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the most common cause of ischemia is?

the presence of an attached blood clot present in an artery.

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if left untreated, what is the effect of ischemia?

death - infarction (death of tissue due to interference of blood supply).

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a circulatory disturbance
the process by which there is the presence of an attached blood clot during life.

Thrombosis

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single blood clot

Thrombus

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two or more blood clots

Thrombi

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causes of thrombosis (4)

a. Injuries to blood vessels.
b. Slower or reduced rate of blood flow.
c. Alterations in blood composition.
d. Blood diseases - becoming thin from within such as leukemia.

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locations of thrombi

a. Veins
b. Arteries
c. chambers of the heart

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the most common site for thrombi

veins

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thrombi in the lower extremities would cause

DVT
deep vein thrombosis

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the least common site for thrombi

chambers of the heart

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the chambers of the heart is the least common site for thrombi. Why?

they were shipped to the heart from another part of the body

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when a thrombi changes location it becomes?

mural

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a thrombi becoming mural (or changing location) is the greatest risk because?

the attached blood clot has become infected, and once it becomes infected, it will spread

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consequences of thrombi depend on what?

where it is located

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a consequence of thrombosis
thrombosis present in the artery – causes reduction in arterial blood supply. Restricts blood flow

ischemia

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the most common consequence of thrombosis. Present in the vein.

Passive hyperemia

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a consequence of thrombosis
death of the tissue caused by interference in blood supply - ischemic necrosis + putrefaction

gangrene

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a circulatory disturbance
the process by which there is a free floating object in the blood stream during life.

Embolism

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a single free floating object in the blood during life

embolus

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one or more objects in the blood during life

emboli

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types of embolism

a. Fragments of thrombi
b. Bacteria
c. Tumors
d. Animal parasites
e. Fat
f. Gas
g. Foreign bodies

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types of embolism
a clot that detaches or breaks off. The most common type of an embolism.

Fragments of thrombi

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types of embolism
present in the blood stream during life. Blood poisoning

Bacteria

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types of embolism
swelling; an abnormal growth. Malignant or non-malignant. Begins as free floating in the blood stream. Spread by the blood or lymph system.

Tumors

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types of embolism
free floating in the blood stream.

Animal parasites

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types of embolism
fat cells free floating in the blood stream.

Fat

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types of embolism
air free floating in the blood stream.

gas

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types of embolism
small pieces of glass or metal free floating in the blood stream.

Foreign bodies

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Consequences of embolism

a. Ischemia - reduction in arterial blood supply.
b. Infarction - localized area of dead tissue caused by interference of blood supply.
c. Spread of infection or neoplasm (new growth).
d. Necrosis - dead tissue, i.e. heart.

48

a circulatory disturbance
loss of blood from the vascular system. A human can lose no more than half (1/2) without irreversible damage or death.

hemorrhage

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Methods of hemorrhage

Rhexis or Diapedesis

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loss of blood by rupture of a blood vessel. Rupture of one of the chambers of the heart

rhexis

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loss of blood by squeezing through the pores of the capillaries

Diapedesis

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Causes of hemorrhage

a. Trauma - wound or injury
b. Vascular diseases of the blood vessels
c. Hypertension - high blood pressure
d. Blood diseases - plethora - excess amount of circulating blood

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Related terms (3)
Size of the hemorrhage

Petechia
Echymosis
Hematoma

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pinpoint hemorrhages;, smallest of the hemorrhages in terms of size; commonly seen in cancer patients
(think of petite)

Petechia

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medium sized hemorrhage (bruise or black and blue spot). Most famous sites- long term IV or a shiner (black eye)

Echymosis

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a tumor like mass of lost blood.
Largest of the hemorrhages in terms of size
(Pool of blood such as a gun shot wound).
(hema-huge-largest)

Hematoma

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Location of the hemorrhage (10)

Epistaxis
Hemoptysis
Hematemesis
Melena
Hemothorax
Hemoperitoneum
Hematuria
Exsanguination
Hemopericardium
Hemophilia

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Location of the hemorrhage
nose bleed, blood coming from the nasal cavity

Epistaxis

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Location of the hemorrhage
blood brought up in sputum from the respiratory tract. (Emphysema)

Hemoptysis

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Location of the hemorrhage
vomiting of blood. Blood in the vomit from the digestive tract.

Hematemesis

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Location of the hemorrhage
the presence of blood in feces (the stool.) Intestinal tract, the stool color changes from brown to black. (Colon cancer, diverticulitis)

Melena

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Location of the hemorrhage
the presence of blood in the thoracic cavity or plural cavity.

Hemothorax

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Location of the hemorrhage
the presence of blood in the peritoneal cavity or abdominal cavity.

Hemoperitoneum

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Location of the hemorrhage
the presence of blood in the urine or urinary tract, urinary tract infection.

Hematuria

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Location of the hemorrhage
massive loss of blood which usually results in death or irreversible damage. The body cannot loose more than 1/2 of the blood volume, without death or irreversible damage

Exsanguination

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Location of the hemorrhage
excess blood in the sack surrounding the heart.

Hemopericardium

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Location of the hemorrhage
an affinity for blood. The bleeder’s disease. A heredity disease only found in males characterized by the absence or a deficiency of an essential clotting factor, factor 8.

Hemophilia

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Postmortem conditions in regards to circulatory disturbances

1. Diminished circulation
2. Abscesses
3. Hemorrhages
4. Emaciation/ Dehydration
5. Rapid decomposition
6. Discoloration Intravascular and/or extravascular.


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diminished circulation postmortem is due to

the hardening of the arteries

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a postmortem circulatory disturbance
localized collection of pus

abscess

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occurring postmortem
massive loss of blood can cause generalized circulatory shock.

hemorrhages

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the wasting away or loss of tissue

emaciation

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loss of moisture from the body.

dehydration

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postmortem hypostasis which causes livor mortis (reddish blue discoloration) which is an intravascular blood discoloration. Can be usually removed by embalming.

******

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blood discoloration after death outside the intravascular system. This is a cosmetic problem.

extravascular

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National board question: What is considered the most permanent blood discoloration?

Post mortem extravascular (post mortem stain)