Flashcards in Embalming 2 Final Exam Deck (57):
action of a force against an opposing force (a force applied or acting against resistance).
whatever pressure is necessary to overcome initial vascular resistance and distribute embalming solution to all areas of the dead human body (ideal pressure) – adjective to describe pressure
Recommended (ideal) pressure
speed at which fluid is injected measure in ounces per minute.Controlled by a valve on the embalming machine which controls the flow of fluid muck like a water faucet.
RATE OF FLOW
– that which will ensure uniform distribution without causing (promoting) over distention (swelling).
Ideal rate of flow
PSI stands for
pounds per square inch
METHODS OF CREATING PRESSURE
1. Gravity Injector Method 2. HAND PUMP 3. Bulb Syringe 4. Motorized Force Pump
a method of creating pressure; consist of a glass bottle (PERCOLATOR), rubber tubing and a device to suspend the bottle above the point of injection
Gravity Injector Method
Pressure is increased _____________for every foot of elevation above the point of injection.
.43 pounds, (approximately ½)
how many inches (feet) above injection creates 1 pound of pressure
28 inches (2.33 feet)
how many inches (feet) above injection creates 2 pound of pressure
56 inches (4.66 feet)
how many inches (feet) above injection creates 3 pound of pressure
84 inches (7.00 feet)
The percolator is elevated 5 feet above point of injection, how much injection pressure is created? lbs.
5 x .43 = 2.15
To create 3 pounds of injection pressure how many feet, above the point of injection would the percolator need to be raised?
3 / .43 = 6.97 feet.
a method of creating pressure; consist of a hand operated pump, tubing and a goose neck arrangement and glass fluid bottle. This apparatus is used for creating injection pressure can be used for aspiration.Over sized hypodermics syringe attached to bottle and used to create injection pressure or create pressure for aspiration.
a method of creating pressure; used in combo with hand pump or percolator. Self contained soft rubber, manual pump. Used only to deliver fluid. Simplest form of injection apparatus, consist of a bulb type rubber syringe and rubber tubing.
a method of creating pressure; (centrifugal) – most commonly used method of creating injection pressure.
Motorized Force Pump
Types of Motorized Force Pump
PULSATING and NON-PULSATING
type of motorized force pump; fluid is injected in spurts
type of motorized force pump; fluid is injected on a continuous basis
pressure indicated by the injector gauge needle when the injector motor is running and the arterial tubing is clamped off
pressure indicated by the injector gauge needle when the arterial tube is open and the arterial solution is flowing into the body. (Does not mean the actual pounds per pressure)
difference between potential and actual pressures. P-A=DThis is the actual pressure at which the fluid is flowing into the dead human body
Considerations for Force Pump
ReliableWide pressure range- same as a high as 200 pounds. Constant pressureLarge unit volume- usually at least three gallons.
Precautions for force pumps
Needs frequent servicing Requires constant attention of the operator.
FACTORS AFFECTING INJECTION PRESSURE Intravascular Influence
1. Condition of the vessels- normal versus sclerotic. 2. Local congestion of blood in the area- prevents the flow of additional fluid in an area
FACTORS AFFECTING INJECTION PRESSUREExtravascular influence
1. Weight on the viscera- pressing mainly on the descending aorta.- *if embalming from the femoral – viscera will be embalmed first causing problems for circulation toward the head. Viscera may begin to harden.2. Gas in the viscera – pressure against the descending aorta.3. Tumors – pressing against the outside wall of the arteries4. Ascites – excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity, not inside the blood vessels. Substance that has clear amber or straw colored fluid released when trocar is inserted into the body5. Contact pressure – bandages, clothing, etc., also – contact with certain areas of the body with the embalming table and positioning devices.6. Edema of the extremities – caused by heart or kidney failure or venous obstruction.7. Swollen ankles or tissue may have complications during embalming.
the length of time between death and embalming
POST MORTEM INTERVAL
1. Presence of Rigor Mortis – body is highly acidic, once rigor is relieved body is alkaline again.2. State of decomposition – still attempt vascular embalming, always try to keep decomposition from advancing any further.3. Discoloration – blood pools to the lower region of the position of the body.4. Livor Mortis or Cadaveric Lividity
The dilution attained as the embalming solution is mixed in the embalming machine. This is determined by the embalming analysis and prepared by the embalmer.
To determine the strength of a primary dilution, the following formula may be employed:
C × V = C’ × V’ (c prime × v prime)
the strength of the concentrated fluid (index) on the bottle of fluid
the amount (volume) of the concentrated fluid. The number of ounces of fluid to be used. Has to be expressed in ounces. Remember to multiply! The standard bottle of fluid is 16 ounces.
the strength of the diluted fluid. The mixture of fluid and water in the embalming machine. Don’t convert this from a percentage!!!
C’ (C prime)
In Texas, the recommended minimum strength for embalming is
the amount of the diluted fluid. Has to be expressed in ounces
V’ (V prime)
1 gallon of solution is the same as how many ounces?
In Texas, the amount of diluted fluid or V' (V prime) is determined how?
by the weight of the body
the recommended ratio of fluid is? State of Texas
inject one gallon of diluted fluid for every 50 pounds of body weight
the recommended strength of injection solution is
1.5 - 2 %
How much of a 20 index fluid will it take to make 2 gallons of a 2% injection solution?
C = 20 (index) V = ? C’ = 2% V’ = 256 oz. C x ? C’x V’ 20 x V = 2 x 256 You must multiply both sides of the equal sign. 20 x V = 512 You must then isolate the unknown (V). To do that, you divide both sides of the equal sign by 20. V/20 = 512/20 V = 512/20 V = 25.6 ouncesIt will take 25.6 ounces of a 20 index solution to make two gallons of a 2% injection solution
36 (index) = C 8 ounces of fluid = V Make one gallon injection solution 128 oz. = V’x C’ = ? C x V = C’x V’
C X V = ? X V 36 x 8 = 228 x C’ x 128 oz. 288/128 = 2.25 = C’ 128/128 2.25 = C’
The weakening of the embalming fluid by the fluids in the body, both vascular and interstitial
Conditions that will cause this to vary secondary dilution
(1) Edema - any form of edema; localized or generalized will increase the amount of secondary dilution that the embalmer would expect.(2) Dehydration - will decrease the amount of secondary dilution that the embalmer would expect.
The movement of embalming (arterial) solution from the point of injection throughout the arterial system and into the capillaries.One of the factors arterial embalming is based on.
The movement of molecules or other particles in solution from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration until a uniform concentration is reached.
4 basic processes by which fluid diffusion is accomplished
Pressure Filtration OsmosisDialysisGravity filtration
1 of the 4 basic processes by which fluid diffusion is accomplished; The positive intravascular pressure causing passage of embalming fluid through the capillary wall to mix with the interstitial fluids.The movement from an intravascular to an extra vascular position
1 of the 4 basic processes by which fluid diffusion is accomplished; The passage of a solvent from a solution of lesser to one of greater solute concentration when the two solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane.Process by which most embalming chemicals move from the interstitial fluids through the cell wall and into the cell.Possible solutions encountered in osmosis hypotonic solution
a term associated with osmosis; - A solution having a LESSER concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared. This solution will move toward the more concentrated solution (try to create a state of equilibrium - balance between the two).
a term associated with osmosis; A solution having an equal concentration of dissolved solute to that to which it is compared. Tends to be no movement, since the two solutions are already in a state of equilibrium/balance.
a term associated with osmosis; A solution having a GREATER concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared. WILL NOT MOVE; instead the other solution will move toward it to create equilibrium/balance.
1 of the 4 basic processes by which fluid diffusion is accomplished;
Separation of substances in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane
1 of the 4 basic processes by which fluid diffusion is accomplished;
The extravascular movement of preservative fluids by gravitational force to the dependent areas of the body
Signs of fluid distribution and diffusion
1. Distention of superficial vessels. 2. Large volume of blood drainage. 3. Reduction of intravascular blood discoloration. 4. Dye tracing 5. Loss of elasticity of tissue (firming) 6. Drying of tissues 7. Tissue distention - seen in the lips and finger tips. 8. Bleaching of the tissues.
Methods of improving fluid distribution
1. Increase the rate of flow2. Increase the injection pressure3. Restrict the drainage - this will increase intravascular pressure.4. Massage the body.5. Lower the arms.
rupture of a red blood cell when placed in a hypotonic solution