Pathology Exam 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology Exam 4 Deck (90):
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An abnormal new growth

Neoplasms (tumors)

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enclosed sack like pouches that have a definite wall; usually containing a liquid, solid or semi-solid material

cysts

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neoplasms are also called

tumors

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a type of cyst present on the ovary. Most are caused by excess scar tissue from the deterioration of a graafian follicle

Ovarian cyst (dermoid)

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a rare ovarian cyst that contains a waxy tissue and other structures not normally found in the body - like teeth or hair follicles

Dermoid cyst

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an abnormal sack like structure located on a sebaceous or oil gland.

Sebaccous cyst (wen)

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another name for Sebaccous cyst

wen

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the manner or method in which the growth occurs

Non-neoplastic changes

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three types of non-neoplastic changes

Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Metaplasia

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a non-neoplastic change; excess growth; an increase in size of a body part or organ by an increase in size of the cells already present.

Hypertrophy

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three types of hypertrophy

Physiological hypertrophy
Pathological hypertrophy
Compensatory hypertrophy

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a type of hypertrophy; an increase in size of a body part or organ due to increased functional demand. Examples: The increase in size of the female uterus in preparation of pregnancy, breast tissue due to lactation.

Physiological hypertrophy

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a type of hypertrophy;an increase in size of a body part or organ due to disease - tumors. Example: Wilm’s tumor, a rare tumor of the kidney in children.

Pathological hypertrophy

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a type of hypertrophy;an increase in size of a body part or organ to compensate or make up for the loss of a similar or paired organ. Example: removal of a kidney, the other kidney would compensate; also the lungs, the lungs have the ability to work after the other has been removed

Compensatory hypertrophy

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a non-neoplastic change; excess growth; an increase in size of a body part or organ by an increase in the total number of cells making it up.

Hyperplasia

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a non-neoplastic change; the replacement of one type of tissue with another type of tissue not normally found in that part of the body. Example: oat cell carcinoma

Metaplasia

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Classification of neoplasms or tumors

Clinical
Histological

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the state of a disease

clinical classification
benign or malignant

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GENERALLY a suffix of oma. Generally this type of tumor will not kill.

benign

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malignant tumor of connective tissue (bone cancer) occurs in persons under 30

sarcoma

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malignant tumor of tissue of epithelial tissue (breast cancer or lung cancer) occurring in persons between 45- 60.

carcinoma

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when a tumor is classified by tissue of origin; what tissue it originated first. Shown by its prefix

histological

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ALL of this type of tumor, if left untreated will kill

malignant

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benign tumor characteristics(5)

1. Grow by expansion.
2. Don’t metastasize - don’t spread.
3. Don’t recur after surgery - removal or treatment.
4. Don’t cause great tissue damage.
5. Resemble original tissue of origin.

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malignant tumor characteristics(5)

1. Grow by the process called infiltration. They take over existing tissue.
2. Mestatasize (spread) - the process by which a malignancy spreads itself to other parts of the body. Usually by means of the lymph or blood stream.
3. Can reoccur after surgery.
4. Cause extensive tissue damage.
5. No resemblance to original tissue of origin.

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lining tissue. Also the inner most tissue.

Epithelial tissue

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BENIGN NEOPLASMS of Epithelial tissue (3)

1) Adenoma
2) Papilloma (polyp) .
3) Nevus (mole)

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glandular - a benign tumor of glandular epithelial.

Adenoma

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a benign tumor of epithelial that appears as a pedestal stalk like growth. Most frequently in the nasal cavity or intestinal track

Papilloma (polyp)

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a benign pigmented tumor. A shade of brown or black. Localized and well defined.

Nevus (mole)

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another name for papilloma

polyp

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another name for nevus

mole

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a benign tumor of muscle tissue

myoma

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benign neoplasms of muscle tissue (2)

Rhabdomyoma - skeletal -
Leiomyoma - smooth -

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a benign tumor of skeletal muscle tissue.

Rhabdomyoma

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a benign tumor of smooth muscle tissue.

Leiomyoma

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a benign tumor of connective tissue

oma

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benign neoplasms of connective tissue (5)

1) Osteoma - bone - .
2) Chondroma - cartilage -
3) Lipoma - fat -
4) Angioma - vascular tissue -
5) Fibroma - fibrous tissue -

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a benign tumor of bone

Osteoma

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a benign tumor of cartilage.

Chondroma

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a benign tumor of fatty connective tissue.

Lipoma

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a benign tumor of vascular tissue.

Angioma

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two types of angioma

Hemangioma
Lymphangloma

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a benign tumor of blood vascular tissue. Birthmarks - usually a shade of red.

Hemangioma

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a benign tumor of lymph vascular tissue - usually a shade of white or yellow.

Lymphangioma

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a benign tumor of fibrous connective tissue.

Fibroma

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any benign tumor that originate in nervous tissue;movement of neurons

neuroma

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three tumors that end in oma, which indicates a malignant tumor.

Melanoma
Lymphomagioma

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indicate a malignant tumor that originates in any type of epithelial tissue.

Carcinoma

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malignant neoplasms of epithelial tissue

1) Melanoma - pigmented -
2) Squamous cell (makes up skin tissue).
3) Adenocarcinoma - gland -
4) Transitional cell carcinoma -
5) Bascel cell carcinoma -

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a malignant pigmented tumor. One of three tumors that end in oma, which indicates a malignant tumor.

Melanoma

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A malignant tumor of squamous cell epithelia – The common name given is skin cancer.

Squamous cell

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a malignant tumor of glandular epithelia. Breast cancer - the most famous form.

Adenocarcinoma

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a malignant tumor of transitional cell epithelia. Bladder cancer most common form.

Transitional cell carcinoma

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a malignant tumor of bascel cell epithelia tissue. The most lethal site of malignancy is lung cancer in both sexes. The most lethal site in children is leukemia.

Bascel cell carcinoma

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Most frequently reported form of malignant tumor in adults.

squamous cell cancer
(skin cancer)

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breast cancer is the most common form of this malignant tumor

Adenocarcinoma

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bladder cancer is the most common form of this malignant tumor

Transitional cell carcinoma

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- indicate malignant tumor of any type of connective tissue in persons under 30

sarcoma

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malignant neoplasms of connective tissue (6)

1) Osteosarcoma
2) Chondrosarcoma
3) Liposarcoma
4) Fibrosarcoma
5) Angiosarcoma
6) Lymphoma

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malignant tumor of bone. Bone cancer

Osteosarcoma

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malignant tumor of cartilage

Chondrosarcoma

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malignant tumor of fatty connective tissue.

Liposarcoma

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malignant tumor of fibrous connective tissue.

Fibrosarcoma

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malignant tumor of vascular tissue - blood or lymph

Angiosarcoma

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two types of angiosarcoma

Hemangiosarcoma
Lymphangiosarcoma

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malignant tumor of blood vascular tissue.

Hemangiosarcoma

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malignant tumor of lymph vascular tissue.

Lymphangiosarcoma

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malignant tumor of lymphoid tissue. One of three tumors that end in oma, which indicates a malignant tumor.

Lymphoma

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an example of a lymphoma; An enlarged cervical lymphoid usually on the left side of the neck in young adult males

Hodgkin’s disease. .

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an example of a lymphoma; still have a malignant tumor, but it does not present themselves in young males; an example would be a malignant tumor in spleen

Non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma

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What do you call a tumor that infiltrates fatty connective tissue?

Liposarcoma

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The largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body

spleen

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The largest and most active lymphoid tissue during infancy

thymus gland

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used for malignant tumor of muscle tissue as well as connective tissue

sarcoma

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malignant tumor of muscle tissue

myosarcoma

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two types of myosarcome

Rhabdomyosarcoma
Leiomyosarcoma

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malignant tumor of skeletal muscle tissue

Rhabdomyosarcoma

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malignant tumor of visceral (smooth) muscle tissue Example: esophageal cancer

Leiomyosarcoma

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malignant tumor of nervous tissue. One of three tumors that end in oma, which indicates a malignant tumor. The most common example would be brain tumor

glioma

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Postmortem conditions of malignant tumors

a. Emaciation (cachexia)
b. Discoloration -abnormal color changec. Hemorrhage
d. Tissue deformation
e. Extravascular obstruction f. Dehydration

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a postmortem condition of malignant tumorswasting away; the loss of tissue. It is most noticeable in the temporal bone region.

emaciation(cachexia)

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Postmortem condition of malignant tumorsa type of discoloration; indicate liver dysfunction - a shade of green or yellow.

Jaundice

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Postmortem condition of malignant tumorsa type of discoloration;petechial size - wide spread pinpoint hemorrhages; petite or smallest of the hemorrhages. Seen in long-term chemotherapeutic patients.

Purpura

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Postmortem condition of malignant tumorsloss of blood; an example would be brain tumor.

Hemorrhage

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Postmortem condition of malignant tumorstissue is deformed or eaten away.

Tissue deformation

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Postmortem condition of malignant tumorsin the blood vascular system. Example: Wilm’s tumor

Extravascular obstruction

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rare form of cancer; cancer in the kidneys, commonly found in children

Wilm’s tumor

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a postmortem condition of malignant tumorsloss of moisture

Dehydration

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Which form of tumor can you live linger with? sarcoma or carcinoma?

carcinoma