Flashcards in 3rd Quarter Pathology Test 2 Deck (187):
types of cellular reactions (manners by which a body would respond to injury)
regressive tissue changesprogressive tissue changes
an increase in size is what type of cellular reaction?
progressive tissue changes
a decrease in size is what type of cellular reaction?
regressive tissue changes
Types of regressive tissue changes
type of regressive tissue change in which there is an accumulation or buildup of a substance INTRACELLULARLY (within) the protoplasm of cells.
we diffrentiate types of degeneration according to the type of _________ that is _______
most common type of degeneration.similar to edema. this fluid is between cells. Intracellular, cloudy swelling, There is a temporary accumulation or buildup of fluid within the protoplasm of cells.
cellular (cloudy) swelling
fatty change-fatty metamorphosis-abnormal accumulation of fat within the protoplasm of normal cells.
fat in liver cells affects the _______. This would be called __________
liverliver dysfunction (fatty liver degeneration)
intracellular accumulation or buildup of amyloid within the normal protoplasm of cells.Commonly seen in TB - Typically, in adults, it begins in the lungs. Osteomyelitis - inflammation of the spongey bone marrow inside bones. Infectious disease.
a waxy starch like substance
These two disease are commonly seen in relation to amyloid disease...
type of regressive tissue change in which there is an accumulation or buildup of a substance intercellularly (between the cells)
means within the cells
means between the cells
inflammation of the spongey bone marrow inside bones. Infectious disease.
accumulation or buildup of a pigmented or colored substance
types of infiltration
accumulation of a pigmented or colored substance which originated outside the body
tattoos, plumbism, (color change along gum line from high elements of lead) anthracosis (cole miner's disease-black lung), bismuth poisoning (caused from high dosages over time of bismuth-pepto) are examples of...
a disease that causes a color change along the gum line...from high elements of lead is called
cole miner's disease also called black lung disease is...
abnormal accumulation of pigmented or colored substance that is naturally present or produced within the body
jaundice, freckles, moles, albinism, birthmarks
types of pigmentation
increased localized amounts of melanin. Usually a lighter shade of brown.
benign pigmented tumors usually a darker shade of brown.
complete absence of melanin production
these are usually shades of red (port wine color)type of benign tumor of blood vascular tissue.
accumulation or buildup of calcium salts between the cell fibers, as in sclerotic vessels.This is also the natural way the body heals bone fractures.
calcification is also known as...
excess uric acid, especially seen in big toe
process by which you have a localized area of necrotic or dead tissue present during life
causes of necrosis..
1. insufficient blood supply2. physical agent-temperature extremes, radiation3. chemical gents4. loss of nerve supply
type of dead tissue which is cheese-like in appearance. Has a unique odor. As seen in TB
difference between infarction and necrosis...
need to look up
types of necrosis
most famous type of necrosis.
types of gangrene
true gangrene, since saprophytes are present and invade the tissue. There is a foul odor present since saprophytes are present. This is the worst possible type of gangrene
It fits this four word definition...ischemic necrosis (localized area of dead tissue that has been caused by the reduction in arterial blood supply ) plus putrefaction. This is why it is considered true.
Which gangrene is commonly called TRUE GANGRENE?
localized area of dead tissue present in a living body
reduction in arterial blood supply
the decomposition of proteins in an anaerobic environment (absence of oxygen)
4 word definition for true gangrene?
ischemic necrosis plus putrefaction
organisms that obtain their food from dead matter
false gangrene; no saprophytes present; no order; nice line of demarcation.
since saprophytes have not invaded dry gangrene it spreads_________
only type that is infectious, caused by clostridium perfringens during life; microorganisms cause tissue gas in death
a bacteria which can cause spores
which type of gangrene is the ONLY type that is infectious
gas gangrene is caused by which of the following type of microorganisms
bedsores caused by pressure points which restrict blood flow.
dead epithelial tissue
absence or lack of growthA decrease in size of a body part or organ that previously was of normal size.
decrease in size of a body part or organ due to decreased functional demand
types of atrophy
types of gangrene
types of degeneration
cellularfatty degeneration amyloid disease
forms of physiological atrophy
thymus glandsenile atrophybreasts after lactation
located at the base of the neck. Largest and most active during infancy.
the progressive shrinkage of all organs as part of the natural aging process.
decrease in size due to disease
examples of pathological atrophyCHECK ACCURACY OF THIS CARD
anorexia nervosa cancerdisease of a body part (muscle) which will decrease in size.
body’s total response to any injury.
Function of inflammation
protection of the body
If possible, inflammation will...
a. Destroy the causative agent.b. Limit the area affected.c. Begin the process of repair - the process to replace destroyed cells with new ones (scar tissue), but not the same as the destroyed cells.
Causes of inflammation
1. Physical irritants2. Chemical irritants3. Infectious agents4. Immunological reaction
extremes of temperature - hot or cold.Radiation which is cumulative.
an exposure to chemical.
any type of microscopic pathogens.
allergic reaction to a immunological shot (autoimmune disease).
Process of inflammation
1. Hyperemia (congestion) vascular2. Exudation
The shipment of access blood to the injured body part or organ.
Hyperemia (congestion) vascular
the oozing of fluids at the level of the capillaries.
the liquid that is oozed in inflammation
Types of exudates....
1. Purulent (suppurative)2. Hemorrhagic3. Serous
exudates which contain pus
dead and living white blood cells and dead and living bacteria
exudate which contains blood
exudate which does not contain pus, it is clear
cardinal signs and/or symptoms with inflammation should be __________________
cardinal signs and/or symptoms of inflammation
Heat Redness Swelling PainAltered function
concerning inflammation....CALOR (INCREASED TEMPERATURE)
concerning inflammation...TUMOR (SHOULD BE TEMPORARY)
concerning inflammation...FUNCTIO LAESA
localized collection of pus.
cellulitis, a diffuse or wide spread inflammation of subcutaneous connective tissue. Appears as a red streak located and growing just under the surface of the skin.
blister, a small or slight elevation on the surface of the skin filled with serous or non-purulent fluid (does not contain pus).
non-communicating boil, an abscess of a hair follicle or sweat gland.
several communicating boils where the drainage of the hair follicle or sweat gland are shared.
abnormal passageway. Occurs mostly in the lower digestive tract. Can occur between parts of a body or from a body part to the outside.
localized area of necrotic opithel - three common sites
3 common sites of ulcers
1. Upper GI tract, stomach or duodenum2. Toes on diabetics3. Decubitus ulcer - bedsore
Slight elevation of the surface of the skin which contains pus. (Pimple, whitehead, or black head) usually an oil gland.
outcomes of inflammation
types of regeneration
a part of the outcome which signals the end of the exudation stage or inflammation stage.
the replacement of damaged or diseased cells with the exact cells making it up.
Regeneration due to increased functional demand.
Regeneration due to disease
connective tissue cells. The replacement of damaged or diseased cells with healthy new cells with connective tissue cells or by surgery -results in scar tissue.
bladder or sac
types of inflammation in the nervous system
inflammation of the brain
inflammation of the spinal cord.
inflammation of the 3 layer membrane of the brain and spinal cord.
inflammation of the gray matter portion of the spinal cord.
inflammation of a neuron or nerve cell.
types of inflammation in the respiratory system
inflammation of the nasal mucosa
(mucusmembrane of the lining of the nasal cavity)
inflammation of the pharynx a sore throat
inflammation of one or more sets of the paranasal sinuses
near or along the nasal cavities
inflammation of the larynx or voice box
inflammation of the pleura
pleuritis is also called...
a thin membrane that surrounds the lungs
pleura (pleural space or cavity)
inflammation of the trachea or windpipe
inflammation of one or both of the bronchi (two) or bronchus (one)
inflammation of or infection of lung tissue itself
types of pneumonitis
lobar pneumonia (one portion of the lung)bronchial pneumoniaviral pneumonia
types of inflammation in the digestive system
inflammation of the mouth
inflammation of the tongue
inflammation of the gums
inflammation of the esophagus
muscular tube that conveys food from the throat to the stomach
inflammation of the stomach
inflammation of the small intestines
inflammation of the diverticulum or intestinal hernia
inflammation of the colon
longest division of the large intestines
types of colitis
amebiculcerative (psychosomatic disorder)
inflammation of the rectum
inflammation of the peritoneum
membrane which surrounds the abdominal viscera
inflammation of the pancreas
a heterocrine gland that breaks down food and releases insulin into blood to control sugar levels
inflammation of the liver
inflammation of the sac containing bile or gallbladder
inflammation of one or more of the bile ducts
inflammation of the vermiform appendix
Types of inflammation in the Genital & Urinary System
Pyelitis Pyelonephritis Glomerulonephritis Ureteritis Cystitis Urethritis Orchitis Prostatitis Oophoritis Salpingitis Endometritis Endocervicitis Vaginitis
inflammation of the renal pelvis.
inflammation of the structural and functional unit of the kidney caused by pyogenic bacteria.
inflammation of the Vagina or birth canal.
inflammation of the endocervic
the inner most layer of the lower neck structure of the cervix.
inflammation of the little tufted capillaries of the structural and functional unit of the kidneys.
little tufted capillaries of kidneys
inflammation of the tube that urine between the kidney and urinary bladder conveys.
inflammation of the urinary bladder.
inflammation of the endometrium, the inner most or vascular layer of the uterus
inflammation of one or both of the fallopian tubes.
inflammation of the single tube that conveys urine from the urinary bladder to outside the body.
inflammation of one or both of the male gonads (testis).
inflammation of the prostate gland.
inflammation of one or both of the ovaries (female sex gland).
types of inflammation of the Cardiovascular System
- inflammation of the vein caused by an attached blood clot during life.
- inflammation of the vein.
- inflammation of the artery
what can cause arteritis
inflammation of the pericardium
the sack surrounding the heart.
inflammation of the muscle layer of the heart.
- inflammation of the inner most layer of the heart. The heart valves are made from this tissue.
types of inflammation of the Skin and Skeletomuscular System
inflammation of the skin - contact delayed reaction.
inflammation of the bursa
- the tiny sac filled with a lubricant for the joints.
- inflammation of the sponge bone and marrow.
- inflammation of the joints.
types of inflammation of the Lymphatic System
- inflammation of the lymph vessel.