3rd Quarter Pathology Test 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3rd Quarter Pathology Test 2 Deck (187):
1

types of cellular reactions (manners by which a body would respond to injury)

regressive tissue changesprogressive tissue changes

2

an increase in size is what type of cellular reaction?

progressive tissue changes

3

a decrease in size is what type of cellular reaction?

regressive tissue changes

4

Types of regressive tissue changes

degeneration infiltrationnecrosisatrophy

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type of regressive tissue change in which there is an accumulation or buildup of a substance INTRACELLULARLY (within) the protoplasm of cells.

degeneration

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degeneration is....

intracellular

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we diffrentiate types of degeneration according to the type of _________ that is _______

substanceaccumulated

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most common type of degeneration.similar to edema. this fluid is between cells. Intracellular, cloudy swelling, There is a temporary accumulation or buildup of fluid within the protoplasm of cells.

cellular (cloudy) swelling

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fatty change-fatty metamorphosis-abnormal accumulation of fat within the protoplasm of normal cells.

fatty degeneration

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fat in liver cells affects the _______. This would be called __________

liverliver dysfunction (fatty liver degeneration)

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intracellular accumulation or buildup of amyloid within the normal protoplasm of cells.Commonly seen in TB - Typically, in adults, it begins in the lungs. Osteomyelitis - inflammation of the spongey bone marrow inside bones. Infectious disease.

Amyloid disease

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a waxy starch like substance

amyloid

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These two disease are commonly seen in relation to amyloid disease...

TBOsteomyelitis

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type of regressive tissue change in which there is an accumulation or buildup of a substance intercellularly (between the cells)

Infiltration

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means within the cells

intracellular

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means between the cells

intercellular

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inflammation of the spongey bone marrow inside bones. Infectious disease.

Osteomyelitis

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accumulation or buildup of a pigmented or colored substance

pigmentation

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types of infiltration

pigmentationcalcification gout

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accumulation of a pigmented or colored substance which originated outside the body

exogenous pigmentation

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tattoos, plumbism, (color change along gum line from high elements of lead) anthracosis (cole miner's disease-black lung), bismuth poisoning (caused from high dosages over time of bismuth-pepto) are examples of...

exogenous pigmentation

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a disease that causes a color change along the gum line...from high elements of lead is called

plumbism

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cole miner's disease also called black lung disease is...

anthracosis

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abnormal accumulation of pigmented or colored substance that is naturally present or produced within the body

endogenous pigmentation

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jaundice, freckles, moles, albinism, birthmarks

endogenous pigmentation

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types of pigmentation

exogenousendogenous

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increased localized amounts of melanin. Usually a lighter shade of brown.

freckles

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benign pigmented tumors usually a darker shade of brown.

moles

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complete absence of melanin production

albinism

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these are usually shades of red (port wine color)type of benign tumor of blood vascular tissue.

birthmarks

31

accumulation or buildup of calcium salts between the cell fibers, as in sclerotic vessels.This is also the natural way the body heals bone fractures.

calcification

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calcification is also known as...

calcareous infiltration

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excess uric acid, especially seen in big toe

gout

34

process by which you have a localized area of necrotic or dead tissue present during life

necrosis

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causes of necrosis..

1. insufficient blood supply2. physical agent-temperature extremes, radiation3. chemical gents4. loss of nerve supply

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type of dead tissue which is cheese-like in appearance. Has a unique odor. As seen in TB

caseous necrosis

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difference between infarction and necrosis...

need to look up

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types of necrosis

caseousgangreneDecubitus ulcer

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most famous type of necrosis.

gangrene

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types of gangrene

moistdry gas

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true gangrene, since saprophytes are present and invade the tissue. There is a foul odor present since saprophytes are present. This is the worst possible type of gangrene

moist

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It fits this four word definition...ischemic necrosis (localized area of dead tissue that has been caused by the reduction in arterial blood supply ) plus putrefaction. This is why it is considered true.

moist gangrene

43

Which gangrene is commonly called TRUE GANGRENE?

moist gangrene

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localized area of dead tissue present in a living body

necrosis

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reduction in arterial blood supply

ischemic

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the decomposition of proteins in an anaerobic environment (absence of oxygen)

putrefaction

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4 word definition for true gangrene?

ischemic necrosis plus putrefaction

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organisms that obtain their food from dead matter

saprophytes

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false gangrene; no saprophytes present; no order; nice line of demarcation.

dry gangrene

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since saprophytes have not invaded dry gangrene it spreads_________

slowly

51

only type that is infectious, caused by clostridium perfringens during life; microorganisms cause tissue gas in death

gas gangrene

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a bacteria which can cause spores

perfringens

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which type of gangrene is the ONLY type that is infectious

gas gangrene

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gas gangrene is caused by which of the following type of microorganisms

bacteria (perfringens)

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bedsores caused by pressure points which restrict blood flow.

decubitus ulcer

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dead epithelial tissue

ulcer

57

absence or lack of growthA decrease in size of a body part or organ that previously was of normal size.

atrophy

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decrease in size of a body part or organ due to decreased functional demand

physiological atrophy

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types of atrophy

physiologicalpathological

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types of gangrene

moistdry gas

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types of degeneration

cellularfatty degeneration amyloid disease

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forms of physiological atrophy

thymus glandsenile atrophybreasts after lactation

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located at the base of the neck. Largest and most active during infancy.

Thymus gland

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the progressive shrinkage of all organs as part of the natural aging process.

Senile atrophy

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decrease in size due to disease

pathological atrophy

66

examples of pathological atrophyCHECK ACCURACY OF THIS CARD

anorexia nervosa cancerdisease of a body part (muscle) which will decrease in size.

67

body’s total response to any injury.

INFLAMMATION

68

Function of inflammation

protection of the body

69

If possible, inflammation will...

a. Destroy the causative agent.b. Limit the area affected.c. Begin the process of repair - the process to replace destroyed cells with new ones (scar tissue), but not the same as the destroyed cells.

70

Causes of inflammation

1. Physical irritants2. Chemical irritants3. Infectious agents4. Immunological reaction

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extremes of temperature - hot or cold.Radiation which is cumulative.

Physical irritants

72

an exposure to chemical.

Chemical irritants

73

any type of microscopic pathogens.

Infectious agents

74

allergic reaction to a immunological shot (autoimmune disease).

Immunological reaction

75

Process of inflammation

1. Hyperemia (congestion) vascular2. Exudation

76

The shipment of access blood to the injured body part or organ.

Hyperemia (congestion) vascular

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the oozing of fluids at the level of the capillaries.

Exudation

78

the liquid that is oozed in inflammation

Exudate

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Types of exudates....

1. Purulent (suppurative)2. Hemorrhagic3. Serous

80

exudates which contain pus

purulent (suppurative)

81

dead and living white blood cells and dead and living bacteria

pus

82

exudate which contains blood

hemorrhagic

83

exudate which does not contain pus, it is clear

serous

84

cardinal signs and/or symptoms with inflammation should be __________________

temporary

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cardinal signs and/or symptoms of inflammation

Heat Redness Swelling PainAltered function

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concerning inflammation....CALOR (INCREASED TEMPERATURE)

HEAT

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concerning inflammation...RUBOR

REDNESS

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concerning inflammation...TUMOR (SHOULD BE TEMPORARY)

SWELLING

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concerning inflammation...DOLOR

PAIN

90

concerning inflammation...FUNCTIO LAESA

ALTERED FUNCTION

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Inflammatory lesions

abscessphlegmonvesiclefurunclecarbunclesfistulaulcerpustule

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localized collection of pus.

Abscess

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cellulitis, a diffuse or wide spread inflammation of subcutaneous connective tissue. Appears as a red streak located and growing just under the surface of the skin.

Phlegmon

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blister, a small or slight elevation on the surface of the skin filled with serous or non-purulent fluid (does not contain pus).

Vesicle

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non-communicating boil, an abscess of a hair follicle or sweat gland.

Furuncle

96

several communicating boils where the drainage of the hair follicle or sweat gland are shared.

Carbuncles

97

abnormal passageway. Occurs mostly in the lower digestive tract. Can occur between parts of a body or from a body part to the outside.

Fistula

98

localized area of necrotic opithel - three common sites

Ulcer

99

3 common sites of ulcers

1. Upper GI tract, stomach or duodenum2. Toes on diabetics3. Decubitus ulcer - bedsore

100

Slight elevation of the surface of the skin which contains pus. (Pimple, whitehead, or black head) usually an oil gland.

Pustule

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outcomes of inflammation

resolutionregenerationrepair

102

types of regeneration

physiological pathological

103

a part of the outcome which signals the end of the exudation stage or inflammation stage.

Resolution

104

the replacement of damaged or diseased cells with the exact cells making it up.

Regeneration

105

Regeneration due to increased functional demand.

Physiological

106

Regeneration due to disease

Pathological

107

connective tissue cells. The replacement of damaged or diseased cells with healthy new cells with connective tissue cells or by surgery -results in scar tissue.

Repair

108

itis means...

inflammation

109

cyst means...

bladder or sac

110

chole means....

bile

111

types of inflammation in the nervous system

encephalitismyelitismeningitispoliomyelitisneuritis

112

inflammation of the brain

Encephalitis

113

inflammation of the spinal cord.

Myelitis

114

inflammation of the 3 layer membrane of the brain and spinal cord.

Meningitis

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inflammation of the gray matter portion of the spinal cord.

Poliomyelitis

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inflammation of a neuron or nerve cell.

Neuritis

117

types of inflammation in the respiratory system

rhinitispharyngitissinusitislaryngitispleuritistracheitisbronchitispneumonitis

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inflammation of the nasal mucosa

Rhinitis

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(mucusmembrane of the lining of the nasal cavity)

nasal mucosa

120

inflammation of the pharynx a sore throat

pharyngitis

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inflammation of one or more sets of the paranasal sinuses

sinusitis

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near or along the nasal cavities

paranasal sinuses

123

inflammation of the larynx or voice box

laryngitis

124

inflammation of the pleura

pleuritis

125

pleuritis is also called...

pleurisy

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a thin membrane that surrounds the lungs

pleura (pleural space or cavity)

127

inflammation of the trachea or windpipe

tracheitis

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inflammation of one or both of the bronchi (two) or bronchus (one)

bronchitis

129

inflammation of or infection of lung tissue itself

pneumonitis

130

types of pneumonitis

lobar pneumonia (one portion of the lung)bronchial pneumoniaviral pneumonia

131

types of inflammation in the digestive system

stomatitisglossitisgingivitisesophagitisgastritisenteritisdiverticulitiscolitisproctitisperitonitispancreatitishepatitischolecystitischolangitisappendicitis

132

inflammation of the mouth

stomatitis

133

inflammation of the tongue

glossitis

134

inflammation of the gums

gingivitis

135

inflammation of the esophagus

esophagitis

136

muscular tube that conveys food from the throat to the stomach

esophagus

137

inflammation of the stomach

gastritis

138

inflammation of the small intestines

enteritis

139

inflammation of the diverticulum or intestinal hernia

diverticulitis

140

inflammation of the colon

colitis

141

longest division of the large intestines

colon

142

types of colitis

amebiculcerative (psychosomatic disorder)

143

inflammation of the rectum

proctitis

144

inflammation of the peritoneum

peritonitis

145

membrane which surrounds the abdominal viscera

peritoneum

146

inflammation of the pancreas

pancreatitis

147

a heterocrine gland that breaks down food and releases insulin into blood to control sugar levels

pancreas

148

inflammation of the liver

hepatitis

149

inflammation of the sac containing bile or gallbladder

cholecystitis

150

inflammation of one or more of the bile ducts

cholangitis

151

inflammation of the vermiform appendix

appendicitis

152

snakelike

vermiform

153

Types of inflammation in the Genital & Urinary System

Pyelitis Pyelonephritis Glomerulonephritis Ureteritis Cystitis Urethritis Orchitis Prostatitis Oophoritis Salpingitis Endometritis Endocervicitis Vaginitis

154

inflammation of the renal pelvis.

Pyelitis

155

inflammation of the structural and functional unit of the kidney caused by pyogenic bacteria.

Pyelonephritis

156

inflammation of the Vagina or birth canal.

Vaginitis

157

inflammation of the endocervic

Endocervicitis

158

the inner most layer of the lower neck structure of the cervix.

endocervic

159

pus forming

pyogenic

160

inflammation of the little tufted capillaries of the structural and functional unit of the kidneys.

Glomerulonephritis

161

little tufted capillaries of kidneys

(glomerulus)

162

inflammation of the tube that urine between the kidney and urinary bladder conveys.

Ureteritis

163

inflammation of the urinary bladder.

Cystitis

164

inflammation of the endometrium, the inner most or vascular layer of the uterus

Endometritis

165

inflammation of one or both of the fallopian tubes.

Salpingitis

166

inflammation of the single tube that conveys urine from the urinary bladder to outside the body.

Urethritis

167

inflammation of one or both of the male gonads (testis).

Orchitis

168

inflammation of the prostate gland.

Prostatitis

169

inflammation of one or both of the ovaries (female sex gland).

Oophoritis

170

types of inflammation of the Cardiovascular System

pericarditismyocarditisendocarditisarteritisphlebitisthrombophlebitis

171

- inflammation of the vein caused by an attached blood clot during life.

Thrombophlebitis

172

- inflammation of the vein.

Phlebitis

173

- inflammation of the artery

Arteritis

174

what can cause arteritis

angiograms

175

inflammation of the pericardium

Pericarditis

176

the sack surrounding the heart.

pericardium

177

inflammation of the muscle layer of the heart.

Myocarditis

178

- inflammation of the inner most layer of the heart. The heart valves are made from this tissue.

Endocarditis

179

types of inflammation of the Skin and Skeletomuscular System

dermatitisbursitisosteomyelitisarthritis

180

inflammation of the skin - contact delayed reaction.

Dermatitis

181

inflammation of the bursa

Bursitis

182

- the tiny sac filled with a lubricant for the joints.

bursa

183

- inflammation of the sponge bone and marrow.

Osteomyelitis

184

- inflammation of the joints.

Arthritis

185

types of inflammation of the Lymphatic System

tonsillitislymphangitis

186

- inflammation of the lymph vessel.

Lymphangitis

187

-inflammation of the one or more of the three sets of tonsils. Tissue between the mouth and throat.

Tonsillitis