Flashcards in 3rd Quarter Embalming 2 Test 1 Deck (159):
They are injected to disinfect, temporarily preserve and restore the dead human body without causing objectionable change in the tissues.
Vascular (arterial) fluids
Generally classified by index: (the number of grams of formaldehyde gas dissolved in 100 ml of water; usually given in a percentage).
Vascular (arterial) fluids
Arterial fluid classification by index
Having an index of 28 - 36. Causes a rapid tissue coagulation.Causes a definite degree of firmness, used most often on “special cases.” (decomposition, edema, outgoing, drowning, etc.)37% by weight and 40 % by volume
Having an index of 19 - 27.Sometimes referred to as semi-firming or cosmetic fluid. (Oil based / cosmetic fluid).Results in a moderate firming of tissues. Normal Cases
Medium (cosmetic arterial fluid)
Any fluid with an index of 10 - 18. Produces a minimum firmness of tissues.Infant cases or adults 80 lbs or less.An index of 8 is the lowest that it would go.
Chemical which inactivates saprophytic bacteria, renders unsuitable for nutrition the media upon which bacteria thrive, and which will arrest decomposition by altering enzymes of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissue to a form less susceptible to decomposition.
1. Inactivated the chemical group of proteins (muscles)2. Inhibits further decomposition3. Inactivates some enzymes4. Kills some microorganisms – not all5. Destroys odorsThese are actions or methods of __________
General formula (R-CHO) common name Formaldehyde.
HCHO or CH 2 0In its free state it is a gas – soluble in water which forms a formula. Water is the universal solvent. Every solvent has a different saturation rate.
Colorless gasHas an irritating and unpleasant odor – pungent Freely soluble in water Combines with tissue protein Is a MONOALDEHYDE (one functional aldehyde group; H-"CHO")These are characteristics of ___________
Formaldehyde is produced by the
partial oxidation of methylalcohol (methanol)
a dehydrating chemical
another member of the formaldehyde family that consists of two functional aldehyde grouops
Gluteraldehyde is classified as a.....
Gluteraldehyde reacts with.....
protein over a wide pH range
Rigor mortis is a post mortem chemical change with a pH of....
general formula R-OH with name ending in “-OL”
Two members of the alcohol family
Methanol or wood alcohol
Used commercially to manufacture formaldehydeAntipolymerizing agent (Added to prevent poloritization)
(ethanol or grain alcohol)
obtained by the distillation of coal tar. Formula:
uses of Phenol in the prep room
phenol when used to prevent leakage on embalmed bodies would be a.....
phenol when injected, not used as a surface application would be a....
Chemicals added for the purpose of destroying disease causing microorganisms.
2 examples of supplementary germicides
Glutaraldehyde Quaternary ammonium compounds
better disinfectant used as a supplementary germicide.
agents that are usually used for disinfection of skin, oral, nasal cavities, and instruments.EXAMPLES: Benzalkonium Chloride & Zephrian Chloride
Quaternary ammonium compounds
Chemicals which retard the tendency of blood to become more viscous by natural postmortem processes or prevent adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals.
This process is primarily accomplished by breaking down the calcium in the blood and water. Also known as water conditioners or water softeners. These chemicals help keep blood in a liquid state.
Examples of anticoagulants:
Sodium citrateSodium salt of EDTA
EDTA stands for....
EthylenediaminetetrasodiumacetateNOT FOR TESTING PURPOSES
Has dual purpose in the embalming process. White, odorless, crystalline or granular material is often used for its anticoagulation. This compound inactivates calcium in the blood as well as in the water supply. W/O calcium, blood coagulation does not occur.
2nd chemical that has dual purpose in the embalming process. Very effective sequestering or chelating agents, means – they are readily combined with calcium ions to prevent blood coagulation and also to remove hardness chemicals from the water supply.
Sodium salt of EDTA
Liquids that serve as a solvent for the numerous ingredients that are incorporated into embalming fluids.They must serve as the carrier of the components found in the arterial solution.
The most common vehicle used for embalming chemicals is ____________
________ will also serve as a _______.
any solution in which alcohol is the vehicle is known as a _____.
most common use of alcohol as a vehicle would be ____________
Chemicals having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant odor.
PERFUMING AGENTS OR MASKING AGENTS
Examples of perfuming agents
Methylsalicylate (oil of wintergreen)Benzaldehyde (oil of almonds)Oil of sassafrasOil of cloves
Perfuming agents _______________ the effects that formaldehyde has on the operator.
do not eliminate
Substances which will, upon being dissolved, impart a definite color to the embalming solution and/or tissues.
DYES (coloring agents)
Classifications of Dyes (coloring agents)
Cosmetic (active)Non-cosmetic (inactive)
will impart a color to the body tissue
cosmetic dye (active)
will stain the concentrated arterial fluid
non-cosmetic dye (inactive)
examples of dyes
1. Eosin - red2. Ponceau red - red3. Erythrosine - brown-red tint.
A chemical that reduces the molecular cohesion of a liquid so that it can flow through smaller apertures.
surfactants are also called...
surface tension reducerswetting agentssurface active agents
Surfactants are used in __________________________
promoting fluid diffusion
chemicals in dishwashing detergents that prevent spots on glasses
example of surfactants
An example of sulfonate oils is what?
sodium lauryl sulfate (coconut oil)
This is the 2nd definition for___________.Chemicals which control the rate and extent of the embalming operation.
Types of modifying agents
A chemical that increases the ability of embalmed tissue to retain moisture (chemical that helps to control dehydration)
Humectants (moisture retainers)
examples of buffers
Boraxcitrates sodium salt of EDTA sodium phosphates
Chemicals used as humectants:
a. Glycerol – thick substance, Contains 3 OH b. Sorbitol- Contains 5 OH c. Lanolin’s – emollient, massage stuff, liquid based.d. Glycols – has 2 OH groups – active ingredients in radiator fluid.
Name 3 chemicals used as humectants that are part of the alcohol family.
Chemicals that will affect the acid-base balance (pH) within embalming solutions and in the embalmed tissue.
1. Preservatives (alcohols, aldehydes, phenol)2. Germicides3. Vehicle (primarily alcohols)4. Perfuming agentsThis is the composition of _____________
reduces the hardening and graying action of formaldehyde
1. Anticoagulants2. Surfactants3. Humectants4. Vehicle (primarily water)5. Water conditioning agents5. Contain NO preservatives (very little, if any)These are components of ______________
What are the two uses of Sodium citrate and Sodium salt of EDTA?
Bleaching agentsHigh concentration of dyeLow formaldehyde (HCHO) contentThese are components of _____________
Formulated to produce maximum disinfection and preservation with a minimum amount of fluid.
Plaster of Paris - dehydrating agentParaformaldehyde - disinfectantWood powder - moisture absorbentThese are compositions of __________
Fluid injected primarily to prepare the vascular system and body tissues for the injection of the preservative vascular solution. These fluids will also help keep the blood in a liquid state.
A special vascular fluid with special bleaching and coloring qualities for use on bodies with jaundice; usually with a low formaldehyde content.Most are red in color
A chemical in powder form that has the ability to absorb moisture and has a limited amount of disinfection ability.
pre-injection is done _________ you add any chemical that contains ______________
This fluid contains copious (abundant) amounts of anticoagulants and very little, if any, preservatives.
a fluid(s) used primarily to supplement and enhance the action of the vascular (arterial) solution
humectants (moisture retainers)buffersanticoagulants (water conditioning agent)surfactants or surface active agentsThese are types of ______________
Types of arterial fluid preservatives...
aldehydesalcoholsphenolic compounds (phenol)
glutaraldehydequaternary ammonium compounds (quats)
control the rate and extent of embalming
examples of chemicals used as humectants
glycolsglycerolsorbitallanolins (only one not a member of alcohol family)
insure that regardless of what the pH is at the time of embalming, it will not affect embalming.
buffers (confirm this definition)
examples of chemicals used as buffers
boraxsodium phosphatessodium citrate (has 2 uses)sodium salt of EDTA (has 2 uses)
chemicals which prevent blood from clottingonly work on post-mortem clots
which chemicals use a dual purpose...as buffers and anticoagulants?
sodium citratesodium salt of EDTA
surface active agents (wetting agents)
examples of chemicals used as surfactants
sulfonatesodium laurylsulfate (most common used- for testing purposes)
A chemical that reduces the molecular cohesion of a liquid so that it can flow through smallerareas
surfactants (get definition)
methylsalicylate benzaldehydeoils of sassafrasoil of cloves
perfuming agents/masking agents
methylsalicylate is also called...
oil of wintergreen
benzaldehyde is also called
oil of almonds
which vehicle is most common for vascular fluids?
which vehicle is most common for cavity fluid?
any substance that hinders/imperils life or health when absorbed into the body
poisonous substance produced by higher plants, animals, or bacteria that is toxic or poisonous to humans.
amount of poison or radiation necessary to kill 50% or 1/2 of the group to which it has been given
LD-50 stands for...
lethal dose 50%,
smallest dose of poison or radiation on record that causes death.
MLD stands for...
Minimum Lethal Dose
poisonous substance only released from within the cell when the organism producing it is destroyed.
common example of endotoxin
botcholism, cholera, staph (ptomaine), food poisoning, tetanus, diphtheria are examples of....
liquid used in liptense, external sealers, primarily used as solvents.
chemicals that have the presence of at least one halogen. Group 7 element on the periodic table.
Common name for alkyl halides is
Common type of alkyl halides used as a disinfectant
Common type alkyl halides used as a solvent or used as instrument disinfection
used in powder form, added to jaundice fluids as active red dye
amaranth is also known as_____________
(red dye #2)
white crystal solid substance, added to hardening compounds & preservative powders. Used as a herbicide
active ingredient in many disinfectants terminal disinfection used in prep-room, used to neutralize formaldehyde.
ammonia is also known as...
How would you clean up a formaldehyde spill?
neutralize it with ammonia
derived from a tree with the same name, acts as a key tone hazardous chemical
given name because it is derived from coal tar
cresol (look up)
used as a disinfectant/deodorizer air freshener
Cresol/Lysol (look up)
light brown powder used as a fungicide and bactericide. it kills bacteria and fungusit can also prevent future mold growth
colorless liquid used as a solvent
colorless oily liquid used as a solvent
clear liquid with fruit like odor. Sometimes used as a perfuming agent.used in sealing, clearing out layers & cavity fluids – true seal.
used as anticoagulant in pre-injection or with co-injection chemicals as buffer.
EDTA (Sodium salt)
in free state gas, soluble in water, used as preservative
colorless liquid used as solvent and bleaching agent. Acidic when less than pH 7
The most formaldehyde that can be dissolved in water?
37% by weight and 40% by volume in 100 milliliters of water.
means (ant) in Latin active ingredient in fire ant bites and bee stingssubstance formed in the decomposition of formaldehyde
one of two supplementary germicides. a far superior disinfectant than formaldehyde.
has 5 carbon atoms, there is no standard for it.
Dihydroxy alcohols...chemicals used as humectants (moisture retainers) in embalming fluids.active ingredient in anti-freeze
alcohols who have 2 OH groups used as humectants in ethylene glycols – Xerex, Prestone, Peak (antifreeze).
chemical name for hypochlorites
household name for hypochlorites
never clean a cavity fluid using undiluted bleach, because it will cause ______________.Which is a harmful orange colored gas.
substance used as a propellant in aerosol spray products ex: Lysol
bleach used to clean the prep room should be diluted with ____________. ______ part bleach ___________ part water.
colorless liquid similar to acetone that is used as solvent
methyl ethyl ketone
used to clean cosmetic brushes
common names for mineral spirits....
turpentine and paint thinner
injected to help rebuild where tissue has been lost.
The chemical name for nitrocellulose.....
colorless liquid used as an insecticide chemical, many embalming manufactures add to preservative powders.
colorless solid used as a stripping agent. pH below 7 (acidic)
used as mold preventative agent.
paradichlorobenzene – Common name is moth balls &
white solid form of formaldehyde...major preservative used in preservative powders
Common name for paradichlorobenzene is
two primary uses in prep-room is as a cauterizing agent (prevents leakage) or bleaching agent. Do it as injection not a cavity pack where applied to skin. It is rust in color
Most prep-rooms keep this in solid granular powder form, to create a cast of a broken area for restorative work.Primary hardening agent of hardening compound.
plaster of paris
used as a source of power
common name for propane is....
flesh colored or white color drying powder / finishing powder
quartz/talc is also known as.....
used for supplementary germicide
quaternary ammonium compounds Brand names: Benzalkonium Zephrian Chloride
colorless liquid used as solvent and in liquid cosmetics.
TNT stands for...
Tri nitro toluene
A chemical in powder form; typically used for surface embalming of remains.Will help to control maggots and vermin. Usually has a high concentration of preservative - ParaformaldehydeThey do not have the absorbent and drying qualities.