EMBALMING 2- EXAM 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EMBALMING 2- EXAM 1 Deck (108):
1

What are the different types of embalming chemicals we discussed?

vascular (arterial) fluids
cavity fluids
pre-injection fluids
co injection fluids
jaundice fluids
hardening compounds
preservative powders
sealing agents
surface applications

2

injected to disinfect, temporarily preserve and restore the dead human body without causing objectionable change in the tissues

vascular (arterial) fluids

3

vascular (arterial) fluids are generally classified by what?

index

4

the number of grams of formaldehyde gas dissolved in 100 ml of water; usually given in a percentage

index

5

having an index of 28 - 36. Causes a rapid tissue coagulation.
Causes a definite degree of firmness, used most often on “special cases.” (Decomposition, edema, outgoing, drowning, etc.)

strong (high) index

6

A strong or high index would consist of ____% by weight and ___ % by volume

37
40

7

having an index of 19 - 27.
Sometimes referred to as semi-firming or cosmetic fluid. Active shades of orange or red dye. (Oil based / cosmetic fluid).
Results in a moderate firming of tissues. Normal Cases

medium (cosmetic arterial fluid)

8

any fluid with an index of 10 - 18. Produces a minimum firmness of tissues.
Infant cases or adults 80 lbs or less

weak

9

What are the components of vascular (arterial) fluids?

preservative
supplementary germicide
anticoagulants
vehicle
perfuming agents, deodorants, or masking agents
dyes
surfactants
modifying agents

10

Chemical which inactivates saprophytic bacteria, render unsuitable for nutrition the media upon which bacteria thrive, and which will arrest decomposition by altering enzymes of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissue to a form less susceptible to decomposition. One of the components of arterial fluids

preservative

11

actions of preservative chemicals

1. Inactivates the chemical group of proteins or amino acids
2. Inhibits further decomposition
3. Inactivates some enzymes
4. Kills some microorganisms – not all
5. Destroys odors

12

examples of preservatives

aldehydes
alcohol
phenol

13

an example of a preservative: deprived of hydration, its common name is formaldehyde

aldehydes

14

produced by the partial oxidation of methanol

formaldehyde

15

in its free state, formaldehyde is a _______, it is __________ in water which forms a ________. __________ is the universal solvent. Every solvent has a different ___________ rate

gas
soluble
formula
water
saturation

16

Characteristic of formaldehyde

Colorless gas
Has an irritating and unpleasant odor – pungent
Freely soluble in water
Combines with tissue protein
Is a monoaldehyde (one functional aldehyde group)

17

classified as a dialdehyde (Two functional aldehyde groups) Five carbons rather than one

Gluteraldehyde

18

2 types of alcohols (also examples of preservatives)

Methyalcohol (methanol or wood alcohol)

Ethyalcohol (ethanol or grain alcohol)

19

an alcohol that has two primary uses
- used commercially to manufacture formaldehyde
- is also an antipolymerizing agent (ensures it stays in its liquid state)

Methyalcohol (methanol or wood alcohol)

20

an example of a preservative: obtained by the distillation of coal tar.
- Used as cauterizer to prevent leakage on embalmed bodies
- Also, a bleaching agent - inject it do not use as a surface application

phenol

21

One of the components of arterial fluids. Chemicals added for the purpose of destroying disease causing microorganisms

Supplementary GERMICIDES

22

Examples of supplementary germicides

Glutaraldehyde
Quaternary ammonium compounds –

23

better disinfectant used as a supplementary germicide

Glutaraldehyde

24

agents that are usually used for disinfection of skin, oral, nasal cavities, and instruments. EXAMPLES: Benzalkonium and Zephrian

Quaternary ammonium compounds –

25

Chemicals which retard the tendency of blood to become more viscous (thicker) by natural postmortem processes or prevent adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals. This process is primarily accomplished by breaking down the calcium in the blood and water. One of the components of arterial fluids.
- Also known as water conditioners or water softeners.
- These chemicals help keep blood in a liquid state

ANTICOAGULANTS

26

Examples of anticoagulants:

Sodium citrate– .

Sodium salt of EDTA = (Ethylenediaminetetrasodiumacetate) –

27

an example of an anticoagulant: white, odorless, crystalline or granular material is often used for its anticoagulation. This compound inactivates calcium in the blood as well as in the water supply. W/O calcium, blood coagulation does not occur

Sodium citrate

28

an example of an anticoagulant: very effective sequestering or chelating agents, means – they are readily combined with calcium ions to prevent blood coagulation and also to remove hardness chemicals from the water supply.

Sodium salt of EDTA

29

One of the components of arterial fluids. Liquids that serve as a solvent for the numerous ingredients that are incorporated into embalming fluids.
They must serve as the carrier of the components found in the arterial solution.

Alcohols

vehicle

30

most common vehicle

water

31

will also serve as a vehicle. (Tincture solution). Its most common use of as a vehicle would be cavity fluid

alcohol

32

One of the components of arterial fluids. Chemicals having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant odor.
Odorless or fume less chemicals

PERFUMING AGENTS, DEODRANTS OR MASKING AGENTS

33

Examples of perfuming agents (4)

Methylsalicylate (oil of wintergreen)
Benzaldehyde (oil of almonds)
Oil of sassafras
Oil of cloves

34

do not eliminate the effects that formaldehyde has on the operator.

Perfuming agents

35

One of the components of arterial fluids Substances which will, upon being dissolved, impart a definite color to the embalming solution and/or tissues.

DYES (coloring agents)

36

dye that will impart a color to the body tissue

Cosmetic dyes (active)

37

dye that will stain the concentrated arterial fluid.

Non-cosmetic dyes (inactive)

38

EXAMPLES OF DYES (3)

Eosin - red
Ponceau red - red
Erythrosine - brown-red tint

39

One of the components of arterial fluids Also called - surface tension reducers, wetting agents, and surface active agents. A chemical that reduces the molecular cohesion of a liquid so that it can flow through smaller apertures.
Used in promoting fluid diffusion.
Chemicals in dishwashing detergents that prevent sports on glasses

SURFACTANTS

40

Example of surfactants (wetting agents)

Sulfonate oils - an example is sodium lauryl sulfate (coconut oil)

41

One of the components of arterial fluids. Chemicals added to the embalming solution to deal with varying demands based upon the type of embalming, the environment, and the embalming fluid to be used. Chemicals which control the rate and extent of the embalming operation

MODIFYING AGENTS

42

Two modifying agents used in embalming fluids

Humectants
Buffers

43

A chemical used as a modifying agent that increases the ability of embalmed tissue to retain moisture (chemical that helps to control dehydration). Emaciated cases

humectant

44

Chemicals used as humectants are:

Glycerol (glycerin) – thick stuff, member of alcohol family
Sorbitol
Lanolin’s – massage stuff, liquid based.
Glycols – has 2 OH groups – active ingredients in antifreeze

45

Chemicals used as modifying agents that will affect the acid-base balance (pH) within embalming solutions and in the embalmed tissue.

buffers

46

Chemicals used as buffers

Borax – reduces the hardening & graying action of formaldehyde.
Citrates
Sodium salt of EDTA
Sodium Phosphates -

47

Formulated to produce maximum disinfection and preservation with a minimum amount of fluid.

cavity fluids

48

Composition of cavity fluid.

Preservatives
Germicides
Vehicle (primarily alcohols)
Perfuming agents

49

Fluid injected primarily to prepare the vascular system and body tissues for the injection of the preservative vascular solution. These fluids will also help keep the blood in a liquid state.

PRE-INJECTION FLUIDS

50

Components of pre-injection fluids

Anticoagulants
Surfactants
Humectants
Vehicle (primarily water)
Water conditioning agents

51

_________ fluids do not contain low preservatives

Pre-injection

52

A fluid(s) used primarily to supplement and enhance the action of the vascular (arterial) solution.

CO-INJECTION FLUIDS

53

A special vascular fluid with special bleaching and coloring qualities for use on bodies with jaundice; usually with a low formaldehyde content

JAUNDICE FLUIDS

54

Components of jaundice fluids:

Bleaching agents
High concentration of dye
Low formaldehyde (HCHO) content

55

A chemical in powder form that has the ability to absorb moisture and has a limited amount of disinfection ability in a small amount.

HARDENING COMPOUNDS

56

composition of hardening compounds


Plaster of Paris - dehydrating agent (hardening compound)
Paraformaldehyde - disinfectant
Wood power – dehydrating agent (moisture absorbent)
Alum- dehydrating agent

57

A chemical in powder form; typically used for surface embalming of remains.
Will help to control maggots and vermin.

Usually has a high concentration of preservative - Paraformaldehyde
They do not have the absorbent and drying qualities.

PRESERVATIVE POWDERS

58

Materials used to provide a barrier or seal against any type of leakage of fluid or blood.

SEALING AGENTS

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types of sealing agents

Powder
Spray
Liquids

60

Either in a liquid or gel form, used to dry and harden lesions, excisions and cavities.

SURFACE APPLICATIONS

61

aldehyde, alcohols, phenolic compounds

preservatives

62

quaternary ammonium compounds -
glutaldehyde –

supplementary germicides

63

10 minutes disinfectant, longer it begins to break down metal.

glutaldehyde –

64

water conditioning agents, prevents blood from clotting more

anticoagulants

65

sodium citrate
sodium salt of EDTA

anticoagulants

66

sulfonates sodium lauylsulfate

surfactants or surface active agents

67

eosine
ponceau red
erythronsine

dyes

68

active dyes are what color?

red orange

69

benzaldehyde - almond
olives of cloves
oil of sassafras
methylsalicylate – oil of wintergreen

deodorants – perfuming agents / masking agents

70

dilute substance of other fluids

vehicles

71

any substance that imperils health or life when absorbed into the body

Poison

72

poisonous substance produced by higher plants, animals, or bacteria that is toxic or poisonous to humans

Toxin

73

– Lethal Dose 50%, amount poison necessary to kill 50% or ½ of the group to whom it has been given

LD – 50

74

smallest dose of poison or radiation on record that process death.

MLD – Minimum Lethal Dose

75

liquid used in lip tense, external sealers, primarily used as solvents.

acetones

76

used commercially to manufacture formaldehyde 2 – used as antipolymerizing agent, prevent para formaldehyde solid form of formaldehyde 3 – ethanol used as preservatives, vehicle in cavity fluids.

alcohols

77

halogens – salt formers

alkyl halides

78

used in powder form, added to jaundice fluids as active red dye

amaranth (red dye #2)

79

white crystal solid substance, used as a herbicide; added to preservative powders and hardening compounds

amitrole

80

terminal disinfection used in prep-room, neutralizes formaldehyde (cavity fluid spills), acid to base = salts (urotropin) plus water

ammonia -NH3

81

from a tree it is derived, acts as key tone hazardous chemical

camphor

82

used as a disinfectant / deodorizer air freshener

cresol –lysol

83

light brown powder used as fungicide (used to kill fungus)

dichlorophene

84

colorless liquid used as solvent

diethanol amine

85

colorless OILY liquid used as a solvent

diethyl formamide

86

clear liquid with fruit like odor used as a perfuming agent

ethyl acetate

87

used as anticoagulant in pre-injection with co-injection chemicals used as buffer.

EDTA (Sodium salts)

88

in free state gas, soluble in water, used as preservative

formaldehyde

89

colorless liquid used as solvent . Acidic when less than pH 7. Active ingredient in bee stings and fire ant bites. Substance formed in the decomposition of formaldehyde.

formic acid

90

one of two supplementary germicides. A far superior disinfectant than formaldehyde. Has 5 carbon atoms

glutaraldehyde

91

used as humectants in embalming fluids. (Emicated and dehydrated cases) (Example: antifreeze).

glycols (dihydroxy alcohols)

92

bleaches

hypochlorites

93

gas that can be released if you add Clorox to a formaldehyde spill

Phosgene

94

substance used as a propellant in aerosol spray products

isobutane

95

colorless liquid, similar to acetone that is used as solvent

methyl ethyl ketone

96

used to clean cosmetic brushes

mineral spirits (paint thinner, turpentine)

97

injection to help rebuild where tissue has been lost

. nitrocellulose (tissue builder)

98

colorless liquid used an insecticide chemical, added to preservative powders. (Topical embalming chemicals)

orthodichlorobenzene

99

colorless solid used as a stripping agent (zip strip- furniture stripper)

oxalic acid

100

mold preventative agent. Used in preservative powders

. paradichlorobenzene (moth balls)

101

white solid form of formaldehyde. Major preservative used in preservative powders

paraformaldehyde

102

cauterizer to prevent leakage and bleaching agents on hand do it as injection not a cavity pack where applied to skin (rust in color)

phenol / phenolic compounds

103

solid granular powder form, to create a cast of a broken area for restorative work in prep room, primary dehydrating agent used of hardening compounds

Plaster of Paris

104

BBQ gas

propane

105

drying powder, flesh colored or white colored used after application of oil based cosmetics to remove the sheen

quartz (finishing powder)–

106

used as supplementary germicide
Benzalkonium Chloride & Zephrian Chloride

quaternary ammonium compounds

107

drying powder – finishing powder

talc

108

colorless liquid used as solvent

toluene