Flashcards in EMBALMING 2- EXAM 1 Deck (108):
What are the different types of embalming chemicals we discussed?
vascular (arterial) fluids
co injection fluids
injected to disinfect, temporarily preserve and restore the dead human body without causing objectionable change in the tissues
vascular (arterial) fluids
vascular (arterial) fluids are generally classified by what?
the number of grams of formaldehyde gas dissolved in 100 ml of water; usually given in a percentage
having an index of 28 - 36. Causes a rapid tissue coagulation.
Causes a definite degree of firmness, used most often on “special cases.” (Decomposition, edema, outgoing, drowning, etc.)
strong (high) index
A strong or high index would consist of ____% by weight and ___ % by volume
having an index of 19 - 27.
Sometimes referred to as semi-firming or cosmetic fluid. Active shades of orange or red dye. (Oil based / cosmetic fluid).
Results in a moderate firming of tissues. Normal Cases
medium (cosmetic arterial fluid)
any fluid with an index of 10 - 18. Produces a minimum firmness of tissues.
Infant cases or adults 80 lbs or less
What are the components of vascular (arterial) fluids?
perfuming agents, deodorants, or masking agents
Chemical which inactivates saprophytic bacteria, render unsuitable for nutrition the media upon which bacteria thrive, and which will arrest decomposition by altering enzymes of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissue to a form less susceptible to decomposition. One of the components of arterial fluids
actions of preservative chemicals
1. Inactivates the chemical group of proteins or amino acids
2. Inhibits further decomposition
3. Inactivates some enzymes
4. Kills some microorganisms – not all
5. Destroys odors
examples of preservatives
an example of a preservative: deprived of hydration, its common name is formaldehyde
produced by the partial oxidation of methanol
in its free state, formaldehyde is a _______, it is __________ in water which forms a ________. __________ is the universal solvent. Every solvent has a different ___________ rate
Characteristic of formaldehyde
Has an irritating and unpleasant odor – pungent
Freely soluble in water
Combines with tissue protein
Is a monoaldehyde (one functional aldehyde group)
classified as a dialdehyde (Two functional aldehyde groups) Five carbons rather than one
2 types of alcohols (also examples of preservatives)
Methyalcohol (methanol or wood alcohol)
Ethyalcohol (ethanol or grain alcohol)
an alcohol that has two primary uses
- used commercially to manufacture formaldehyde
- is also an antipolymerizing agent (ensures it stays in its liquid state)
Methyalcohol (methanol or wood alcohol)
an example of a preservative: obtained by the distillation of coal tar.
- Used as cauterizer to prevent leakage on embalmed bodies
- Also, a bleaching agent - inject it do not use as a surface application
One of the components of arterial fluids. Chemicals added for the purpose of destroying disease causing microorganisms
Examples of supplementary germicides
Quaternary ammonium compounds –
better disinfectant used as a supplementary germicide
agents that are usually used for disinfection of skin, oral, nasal cavities, and instruments. EXAMPLES: Benzalkonium and Zephrian
Quaternary ammonium compounds –
Chemicals which retard the tendency of blood to become more viscous (thicker) by natural postmortem processes or prevent adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals. This process is primarily accomplished by breaking down the calcium in the blood and water. One of the components of arterial fluids.
- Also known as water conditioners or water softeners.
- These chemicals help keep blood in a liquid state
Examples of anticoagulants:
Sodium citrate– .
Sodium salt of EDTA = (Ethylenediaminetetrasodiumacetate) –
an example of an anticoagulant: white, odorless, crystalline or granular material is often used for its anticoagulation. This compound inactivates calcium in the blood as well as in the water supply. W/O calcium, blood coagulation does not occur
an example of an anticoagulant: very effective sequestering or chelating agents, means – they are readily combined with calcium ions to prevent blood coagulation and also to remove hardness chemicals from the water supply.
Sodium salt of EDTA
One of the components of arterial fluids. Liquids that serve as a solvent for the numerous ingredients that are incorporated into embalming fluids.
They must serve as the carrier of the components found in the arterial solution.
most common vehicle
will also serve as a vehicle. (Tincture solution). Its most common use of as a vehicle would be cavity fluid
One of the components of arterial fluids. Chemicals having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant odor.
Odorless or fume less chemicals
PERFUMING AGENTS, DEODRANTS OR MASKING AGENTS
Examples of perfuming agents (4)
Methylsalicylate (oil of wintergreen)
Benzaldehyde (oil of almonds)
Oil of sassafras
Oil of cloves
do not eliminate the effects that formaldehyde has on the operator.
One of the components of arterial fluids Substances which will, upon being dissolved, impart a definite color to the embalming solution and/or tissues.
DYES (coloring agents)
dye that will impart a color to the body tissue
Cosmetic dyes (active)
dye that will stain the concentrated arterial fluid.
Non-cosmetic dyes (inactive)
EXAMPLES OF DYES (3)
Eosin - red
Ponceau red - red
Erythrosine - brown-red tint
One of the components of arterial fluids Also called - surface tension reducers, wetting agents, and surface active agents. A chemical that reduces the molecular cohesion of a liquid so that it can flow through smaller apertures.
Used in promoting fluid diffusion.
Chemicals in dishwashing detergents that prevent sports on glasses
Example of surfactants (wetting agents)
Sulfonate oils - an example is sodium lauryl sulfate (coconut oil)
One of the components of arterial fluids. Chemicals added to the embalming solution to deal with varying demands based upon the type of embalming, the environment, and the embalming fluid to be used. Chemicals which control the rate and extent of the embalming operation
Two modifying agents used in embalming fluids
A chemical used as a modifying agent that increases the ability of embalmed tissue to retain moisture (chemical that helps to control dehydration). Emaciated cases
Chemicals used as humectants are:
Glycerol (glycerin) – thick stuff, member of alcohol family
Lanolin’s – massage stuff, liquid based.
Glycols – has 2 OH groups – active ingredients in antifreeze
Chemicals used as modifying agents that will affect the acid-base balance (pH) within embalming solutions and in the embalmed tissue.
Chemicals used as buffers
Borax – reduces the hardening & graying action of formaldehyde.
Sodium salt of EDTA
Sodium Phosphates -
Formulated to produce maximum disinfection and preservation with a minimum amount of fluid.
Composition of cavity fluid.
Vehicle (primarily alcohols)
Fluid injected primarily to prepare the vascular system and body tissues for the injection of the preservative vascular solution. These fluids will also help keep the blood in a liquid state.
Components of pre-injection fluids
Vehicle (primarily water)
Water conditioning agents
_________ fluids do not contain low preservatives
A fluid(s) used primarily to supplement and enhance the action of the vascular (arterial) solution.
A special vascular fluid with special bleaching and coloring qualities for use on bodies with jaundice; usually with a low formaldehyde content
Components of jaundice fluids:
High concentration of dye
Low formaldehyde (HCHO) content
A chemical in powder form that has the ability to absorb moisture and has a limited amount of disinfection ability in a small amount.
composition of hardening compounds
Plaster of Paris - dehydrating agent (hardening compound)
Paraformaldehyde - disinfectant
Wood power – dehydrating agent (moisture absorbent)
Alum- dehydrating agent
A chemical in powder form; typically used for surface embalming of remains.
Will help to control maggots and vermin.
Usually has a high concentration of preservative - Paraformaldehyde
They do not have the absorbent and drying qualities.
Materials used to provide a barrier or seal against any type of leakage of fluid or blood.
types of sealing agents
Either in a liquid or gel form, used to dry and harden lesions, excisions and cavities.
aldehyde, alcohols, phenolic compounds
quaternary ammonium compounds -
10 minutes disinfectant, longer it begins to break down metal.
water conditioning agents, prevents blood from clotting more
sodium salt of EDTA
sulfonates sodium lauylsulfate
surfactants or surface active agents
active dyes are what color?
benzaldehyde - almond
olives of cloves
oil of sassafras
methylsalicylate – oil of wintergreen
deodorants – perfuming agents / masking agents
dilute substance of other fluids
any substance that imperils health or life when absorbed into the body
poisonous substance produced by higher plants, animals, or bacteria that is toxic or poisonous to humans
– Lethal Dose 50%, amount poison necessary to kill 50% or ½ of the group to whom it has been given
LD – 50
smallest dose of poison or radiation on record that process death.
MLD – Minimum Lethal Dose
liquid used in lip tense, external sealers, primarily used as solvents.
used commercially to manufacture formaldehyde 2 – used as antipolymerizing agent, prevent para formaldehyde solid form of formaldehyde 3 – ethanol used as preservatives, vehicle in cavity fluids.
halogens – salt formers
used in powder form, added to jaundice fluids as active red dye
amaranth (red dye #2)
white crystal solid substance, used as a herbicide; added to preservative powders and hardening compounds
terminal disinfection used in prep-room, neutralizes formaldehyde (cavity fluid spills), acid to base = salts (urotropin) plus water
from a tree it is derived, acts as key tone hazardous chemical
used as a disinfectant / deodorizer air freshener
light brown powder used as fungicide (used to kill fungus)
colorless liquid used as solvent
colorless OILY liquid used as a solvent
clear liquid with fruit like odor used as a perfuming agent
used as anticoagulant in pre-injection with co-injection chemicals used as buffer.
EDTA (Sodium salts)
in free state gas, soluble in water, used as preservative
colorless liquid used as solvent . Acidic when less than pH 7. Active ingredient in bee stings and fire ant bites. Substance formed in the decomposition of formaldehyde.
one of two supplementary germicides. A far superior disinfectant than formaldehyde. Has 5 carbon atoms
used as humectants in embalming fluids. (Emicated and dehydrated cases) (Example: antifreeze).
glycols (dihydroxy alcohols)
gas that can be released if you add Clorox to a formaldehyde spill
substance used as a propellant in aerosol spray products
colorless liquid, similar to acetone that is used as solvent
methyl ethyl ketone
used to clean cosmetic brushes
mineral spirits (paint thinner, turpentine)
injection to help rebuild where tissue has been lost
. nitrocellulose (tissue builder)
colorless liquid used an insecticide chemical, added to preservative powders. (Topical embalming chemicals)
colorless solid used as a stripping agent (zip strip- furniture stripper)
mold preventative agent. Used in preservative powders
. paradichlorobenzene (moth balls)
white solid form of formaldehyde. Major preservative used in preservative powders
cauterizer to prevent leakage and bleaching agents on hand do it as injection not a cavity pack where applied to skin (rust in color)
phenol / phenolic compounds
solid granular powder form, to create a cast of a broken area for restorative work in prep room, primary dehydrating agent used of hardening compounds
Plaster of Paris
drying powder, flesh colored or white colored used after application of oil based cosmetics to remove the sheen
quartz (finishing powder)–
used as supplementary germicide
Benzalkonium Chloride & Zephrian Chloride
quaternary ammonium compounds
drying powder – finishing powder