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Flashcards in 400Word_11 Deck (100):
1

fang / fæŋ / noun [countable]

a long sharp tooth of an animal such as a snake or wild dog مثل دندون نیش

2

parachute 1 / ˈpærəʃuːt / noun [countable]

parachutist / ˈpærəʃuːtəst, ˈpærəʃuːtɪst / noun [countable]

 paratrooper / ˈpærəˌtruːpə $ -ər / noun [countable]

paratroops / ˈpærətruːps / noun [plural]

parachute 1 / ˈpærəʃuːt / noun [countable]

a piece of equipment fastened to the back of people who jump out of planes, which makes them fall slowly and safely to the ground:

a parachute jump

parachutist / ˈpærəʃuːtəst, ˈpærəʃuːtɪst / noun [countable]

someone who jumps from a plane with a parachute

 paratrooper / ˈpærəˌtruːpə $ -ər / noun [countable]

a soldier who is trained to jump out of a plane using a parachute

paratroops / ˈpærətruːps / noun [plural]

a group of paratroopers who fight together as a military unit 

3

splinter 1 / ˈsplɪntə $ -ər / noun [countable]

splinters of glass

splintery adjective 

a small sharp piece of wood, glass, or metal, that has broken off a larger piece: تراشه

I’ve got a splinter in my finger.

splinter of

4

ˌWailing ˈWall, the

a high stone wall in Jerusalem where Jews go to pray. It is the only remaining part of the ancient Temple of Jerusalem, which was destroyed in AD70. 

5

wail / weɪl / verb

wail noun [countable]:

the wail of police sirens 

1 [transitive] to say something in a loud, sad, and complaining way: ضجه کشیدن

‘But what shall I do?’ Bernard wailed.

2 [intransitive] to cry out with a long high sound, especially because you are very sad or in pain:

Somewhere behind them a child began to wail.

3 [intransitive] to make a long high sound:

The wind wailed in the chimney.

6

cry 

cry your eyes out especially spoken 

be in tears 

be close to tears

weep literary 

sob 

wail / weɪl / 

whimper / ˈwɪmpə $ -ər / 

hold/fight back the tears 

your eyes water

cry to produce tears from your eyes: Don’t cry – everything will be all right! | Men aren’t supposed to cry.

cry your eyes out especially spoken to cry a lot and for a long time: I cried my eyes out when I watched ‘Titanic’.

be in tears to be crying: By the end of his story, we were all in tears.

be close to tears to be almost crying: You could see that she was close to tears.

weep literary to cry, especially for a long time: His mother put her head on the table and wept.

sob to cry, taking sudden loud breaths: I could hear someone sobbing in the next room.

wail / weɪl / to cry very loudly in a high voice: The baby started wailing for its mother.

whimper / ˈwɪmpə $ -ər / to cry quietly and weakly: She began rocking to and fro, whimpering softly.

hold/fight back the tears to make a big effort not to cry: She told her story, struggling to hold back the tears.

your eyes water if your eyes water, they have tears in them, for example because of smoke, wind, or when you are cutting onions: The onions were making my eyes water. 

7

trifle 1 / ˈtraɪf ə l / noun

1 a trifle formal slightly یک کم، اندکی

a trifle eccentric/odd/unexpected etc.

2 [countable] old-fashioned something unimportant or not valuable: چیز بی ارزش

There’s no point in arguing over trifles.

3 [uncountable and countable] a cold British sweet dish made of layers of cake, fruit, jelly, custard, and cream 

8

entrust / ɪnˈtrʌst / verb [transitive]

to make someone responsible for doing something important, or for taking care of someone سپردن

entrust something/somebody to somebody

She entrusted her son’s education to a private tutor.

be entrusted with something/somebody 

I was entrusted with the task of looking after the money. 

9

muddle 1 / ˈmʌdl / noun  [countable usually singular, uncountable]

when there is confusion about something, and things are done wrong as a result: سردرگمی، گیجی

Our accountant finally managed to sort out the muddle.

muddle over/about

There was a bit of a muddle over our hotel reservations. 

10

drab / dræb / adjective

drabness noun [uncountable]

1 not bright in colour, especially in a way that stops you from feeling cheerful SYN dull: کدر و تیره

The walls were painted a drab green.

2 boring SYN dull: کسل کننده

people forced to live grey, drab existences in ugly towns

11

perplex / pəˈpleks $ pər- / verb [transitive]

perplexing adjective:

a perplexing problem 

if something perplexes you, it makes you feel confused and worried because it is difficult to understand SYN puzzle: گیج کردن

Shea’s symptoms perplexed the doctors.

12

trout / traʊt / noun

1 (plural trout) [uncountable and countable] a common river-fish, often used for food, or the flesh of this fish قزل آلا

13

trowel / ˈtraʊəl / noun [countable]

1 a garden tool like a very small spade بیلچه

2 a small tool with a flat blade, used for spreading cement on bricks etc. 

14

spade / speɪd / noun [countable]

1 a tool for digging that has a long handle and a broad metal blade that you push into the ground بیلی که سرش پهنه

2 (also spades [plural]) a playing card belonging to the set of cards that have one or more black shapes that look like pointed leaves printed on them:

the queen of spades

3 call a spade a spade to speak about things in a direct and honest way, even though it may be impolite to do this

4 in spades to a great degree, or in large amounts:

Beauty, intelligence, wealth – my mother had all of them in spades.

5 [countable] taboo old-fashioned a very offensive word for a black person. Do not use this word. 

15

shovel 1 / ˈʃʌv ə l / noun [countable]

1 a tool with a rounded blade and a long handle used for moving earth, stones etc. بیلی که سرش گرد میشه

2 a part of a large vehicle or machine used for moving or digging earth 

16

ˌfeeble-ˈminded adjective

feeble-mindedness noun [uncountable] 

1 stupid or not sensible: احمق، کودن

a feeble-minded policy

2 old use having much less than average intelligence

17

feeble / ˈfiːb ə l / adjective

1 extremely weak ضعیف و ناتوان

OPP strong:

His voice sounded feeble and far away.

She was too feeble to leave her room.

2 not very good or effective SYN weak:

a feeble excuse

a rather feeble committee 

18

weak 

frail 

shaky 

puny / ˈpjuːni / especially disapproving

feeble especially written 

delicate

infirm formal 

malnourished formal  

weak not physically strong, sometimes because you are ill:

Tom’s had flu and he’s still feeling weak. | The doctors said she was too weak to have an operation. | He suffered constantly from a weak chest.

frail weak and thin, especially because you are old: نحیف پیر

a frail 85-year-old lady | My grandfather’s becoming quite frail now.

shaky feeling weak in your legs and only able to walk slowly and unsteadily:

When I came out of hospital I was a bit shaky for a while.

puny / ˈpjuːni / especially disapproving small, thin, and looking very weak:

his puny white arms | He was a puny little boy who was often bullied at school.

feeble especially written weak and unable to do much because you are very ill, very old or young:

For a week she was too feeble to get out of bed. | a tiny, feeble baby

delicate weak and often becoming ill easily:

a delicate child | She had rather a delicate constitution (= her body easily became ill).

infirm formal weak or ill for a long time, especially because you are old:

a residential home for people who are elderly and infirm | There are special facilities for wheelchair users and infirm guests.

malnourished formal weak or ill because you have not had enough good food to eat:

Half a million people there are severely malnourished. | The organization provides emergency feeding for malnourished children. 

19

blunder 1 / ˈblʌndər / noun [countable]

a careless or stupid mistake: اشتباه لپی، سهوی

A last-minute blunder cost them the match. 

20

blunder

gaffe / ɡæf / 

blunder a stupid mistake caused by not thinking carefully enough about what you are saying or doing, which could have serious results: اشتباه سهوی با عواقب جدی

In a serious blunder by the hospital, two babies were sent home with the wrong parents.

gaffe / ɡæf / an embarrassing and stupid mistake made in a social situation or in public: اشتباه احمقانه در عموم

a serious gaffe in her speech about immigration 

21

squander / ˈskwɒndə $ ˈskwɑːndər / verb [transitive]

to carelessly waste money, time, opportunities etc.: برباد دادن، تلف کردن

The home team squandered a number of chances in the first half.

squander something on something

They squandered the profits on expensive cars. 

22

spend 

go through something 

go to great expense

squander / ˈskwɒndə $ ˈskwɑːndər / 

blow informal

economize 

spend to use money to buy things:

I bought two skirts and a T-shirt and I only spent $50. | How much do you spend a week on food?

go through something to spend all of an amount of money over a period of time – used especially when saying that someone spends a lot of money:

I got through all my money in less than a month, and had to get my parents to send me more.

go to great expense to spend a lot of money in order to do something, because you think it is important or special:

The party was wonderful – they had obviously gone to great expense. | There’s no need to go to great expense.

squander / ˈskwɒndə $ ˈskwɑːndər / to waste money on unnecessary things, instead of saving it or using it carefully:

His son had squandered the family fortune on gambling and women.

blow informal to spend a lot of money on something, especially on something that you do not really need:

Her husband blew all their savings on a new sports car.

economize to spend less money:

We’re trying to economize by eating at home instead of going out for meals. 

23

fugitive 1 / ˈfjuːdʒətɪv, ˈfjuːdʒɪtɪv / noun [countable]

someone who is trying to avoid being caught by the police فراری

fugitive from

a fugitive from US justice 

24

prosecute / ˈprɒsɪkjuːt $ ˈprɑː- / verb

1 [intransitive and transitive] to charge someone with a crime and try to show that they are guilty of it in a court of law: تحت پیگرد قانونی قرار دادن

Shoplifters will be prosecuted.

prosecute somebody for (doing) something

Buxton is being prosecuted for assault.

prosecute somebody under a law/Act etc.

The company is to be prosecuted under the Health and Safety Act.

2 [intransitive and transitive] if a lawyer prosecutes a case, he or she tries to prove that the person charged with a crime is guilty 

Mrs Lynn Smith, prosecuting, said the offence took place on January 27.

3 [transitive] formal to continue doing something:

We cannot prosecute the investigation further. 

25

defend S3 W3 / dɪˈfend / ver

1 [intransitive and transitive] to do something in order to protect someone or something from being attacked:

a struggle to defend our homeland

defend something against/from something

the need to defend democracy against fascism

defend yourself (against/from somebody/something)

advice on how women can defend themselves from sex attackers

defend against

We need to defend against military aggression.

2 [transitive] to use arguments to protect something or someone from criticism, or to prove that something is right OPP attack:

She was always defending her husband in front of their daughter.

Students should be ready to explain and defend their views.

defend somebody against/from somebody/something

He defended his wife against rumours and allegations.

defend yourself (against/from something)

Cooper wrote to the journal immediately, defending himself.

Register

In everyday English, people usually say stand up for someone rather than defend someone:

She was the only person who stood up for me at the meeting.

3 [transitive] to do something in order to stop something from being taken away or in order to make it possible for something to continue:

the workers’ attempts to defend their interests

We are defending the right to demonstrate.

4 [intransitive and transitive] to protect your own team’s end of the field in a game such as football, in order to prevent your opponents from getting points OPP attack:

Bournemouth defended well throughout the game.

5 [transitive] to take part in a competition that you won the last time it was held, and try to win it again:

The world champion was defending his title.

the defending champion

He is defending a Labour majority of 5,000.

6 [intransitive and transitive] to be a lawyer for someone who has been charged with a crime OPP prosecute:

He had top lawyers to defend him.

Howard, defending, said Thompson had been drinking heavily. 

26

defend 

stand up for somebody/something 

stick up for somebody informal 

come to somebody's defense 

defend to say something to support an idea or person when other people are criticizing them:

The mayor defended the action, saying that it was the best option.

stand up for somebody/something to strongly defend someone who is being criticized, or strongly defend your ideas or your rights:

My grandfather would always stand up for what was right. | I don't want him fighting, but I do want him to stand up for himself.

stick up for somebody informal to strongly defend someone who is being criticized, especially when no one else will defend them:

The other kids tease her, but Sarah often sticks up for her.

come to somebody's defense to say something to defend someone who is being criticized:

Aitken's colleagues quickly came to his defense. 

27

quintuplet / ˈkwɪntjʊplət, ˈkwɪntjʊplɪt, kwɪnˈtjuːp- $ kwɪnˈtʌp- / noun [countable]

one of five babies born to the same mother at the same time → quadruplet, sextuplet 

28

mason / ˈmeɪs ə n / noun [countable]

a stonemason آدم سنگ کار

29

glazier / ˈɡleɪʒər  / noun [countable]

someone whose job is to fit glass into window frames شیشه کار، شیشه بر

30

glaze 2 noun [uncountable and countable]

1 a liquid that is used to cover plates, cups etc. made of clay to give them a shiny surface لعاب

2 a liquid which is put onto food to give it an attractive shiny surface

3 a transparent covering of oil paint spread over a painting 

31

glaze 1 / ɡleɪz / verb

1 [intransitive] (also glaze over) if your eyes glaze over, they show no expression, usually because you are very bored or tired:

Sometimes his eyes would glaze over for a second or two.

2 [transitive] to cover plates, cups etc. made of clay with a thin liquid that gives them a shiny surface

3 [transitive] to cover food with a liquid which gives it an attractive shiny surface:

Glaze the rolls with egg white.

4 [transitive] to fit glass into window frames in a house, door etc. 

32

venture 1 / ˈventʃə $ -ər / noun [countable]

a new business activity that involves taking risks فعالیت اقتصادی ریسکی

business/commercial venture

joint venture (= when two companies do something together) 

33

ˈventure ˌcapital noun [uncountable]

venture capitalist noun [countable] 

money lent to someone so that they can start a new business

34

venture 2 verb

1 [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] to go somewhere that could be dangerous:

When darkness fell, he would venture out.

She paused before venturing up the steps to the door.

children who lack the confidence to venture into libraries

2 [transitive] to say or do something in an uncertain way because you are afraid it is wrong or will seem stupid: گفتن چیزی به صورت نامطمین چون میترسیم که اشتباه یا احمقانه باشه

‘You’re on holiday here?’ he ventured.

venture to do something

I ventured to ask him what he was writing.

venture an opinion/question/word etc.

If we had more information, it would be easier to venture a firm opinion.

Roy ventured a tentative smile.

venture that

I ventured that the experiment was not conclusive.

3 nothing ventured, nothing gained used to say that you cannot achieve anything unless you take risks

venture into something phrasal verb

to become involved in a new business activity:

Banks are venturing into insurance.

venture on/upon something phrasal verb

to do or try something that involves risks:

I thought I might venture on a new recipe. 

35

quench / kwentʃ / verb [transitive] formal

1 quench your thirst to stop yourself feeling thirsty, by drinking something: عطشت رو برطرف کن

We stopped at a small bar to quench our thirst.

2 quench a fire/flames to stop a fire from burning: آتش رو فرو نشاندن

a desperate bid to quench the raging flames 

36

serpent / ˈsɜːrpənt/ noun [countable] literary

a snake, especially a large one مار افعی

37

befall / bɪˈfɔːl $ -ˈfɒːl / verb (past tense befell / -ˈfel /, past participle befallen / -ˈfɔːlən $ -ˈfɒː- /) [transitive] literary

if something unpleasant or dangerous befalls you, it happens to you: سر کسی اومدن

We prayed that no harm should befall them. 

38

pitcher / ˈpɪtʃə $ -ər / noun [countable]

1 the player in baseball who throws the ball

2 American English a container for holding and pouring a liquid, with a handle and a shaped part to help the liquid flow out پارچ

39

bunt / bʌnt / verb [intransitive] American English

bunt noun [countable]

The coach beckoned the pitcher to watch for a bunt.

to deliberately hit the ball a short distance in a game of baseball زدن توپ تو بیسبال

40

jaywalking / ˈdʒeɪˌwɔːkɪŋ $ -ˌwɒː- / noun [uncountable]

jaywalker noun [countable]

jaywalk verb [intransitive] 

when someone walks across a road at a place where it is dangerous to cross از وسط خیابون رفتن

41

fort / fɔːt $ fɔːrt / noun [countable]

a strong building or group of buildings used by soldiers or an army for defending an important place قلعه، دژ

42

stingy / ˈstɪndʒi / adjective

stingily adverb

stinginess noun [uncountable] 

1 informal not generous, especially with money SYN mean: خسیس

She’s too stingy to give money to charity.

2 a stingy amount of something, especially food, is too small: خیلی کم

a stingy portion of vegetables

43

bout / baʊt / noun [countable]

1 a bout of depression/flu/sickness etc. a short period of time during which you suffer from an illness دوره مثلا یه بیماری

2 a short period of time during which you do something a lot, especially something that is bad for you:

a drinking bout

bout of

a bout of unemployment

3 a boxing or wrestling match مسابقه بوکس

The bout was fought to determine who would be the monarch of the ring.

44

cutout / ˈkʌtaʊt / noun [countable]

1 the shape of a person, object etc. that has been cut out of wood or paper 

2 a piece of equipment that stops a machine that is not working properly 

45

torment 1 / ˈtɔːment $ ˈtɔːr- / noun

1 [uncountable] severe mental or physical suffering عذاب و شکنجه

in torment

She lay awake all night in torment.

2 [countable] someone or something that makes you suffer a lot:

The journey must have been a torment for them. 

46

pastry / ˈpeɪstri / noun (plural pastries)

1 [uncountable] a mixture of flour, butter, and milk or water, used to make the outer part of baked foods such as pies 

2 [countable] a small sweet cake, made using pastry: شیرینی

a Danish pastry 

47

whereabouts 1 / ˌweərəˈbaʊts◂ $ ˈwerəbaʊts / adverb spoken

whereabouts 2 / ˈweərəbaʊts $ ˈwer- / noun [plural]

whereabouts 1 / ˌweərəˈbaʊts◂ $ ˈwerəbaʊts / adverb spoken محل

used to ask in what general area something or someone is:

Whereabouts do you live?

whereabouts 2 / ˈweərəbaʊts $ ˈwer- / noun [plural]

the place or area where someone or something is:

He showed great reluctance to reveal his whereabouts.

whereabouts of

The police want to know the whereabouts of his brother. 

48

place 

position 

point

spot 

location 

site 

venue 

scene

setting 

somewhere 

whereabouts 

place a point or area, especially one that you visit or use for a particular purpose:

He’s been to lots of places. | a good meeting place

position the exact place where someone or something is, in relation to other things:

She showed me the position of the village on the map. | I changed the position of the mirror slightly. | Jessica moved to a position where she could see the stage better.

point a particular place on a line or surface:

At this point the path gets narrower. | No cars are allowed beyond this point.

spot a place, especially a particular kind of place, or a place where something happens. Spot sounds rather informal:

She chose a sunny spot. | The area is a favourite spot for windsurfers. | This is the exact spot where I asked her to marry me.

location a place where someone or something is, or where something happens. Location sounds more formal than place:

your exact location | The prisoners were taken to an undisclosed location. | an ideal location for a winter break

site a place, especially one that will be used for a particular purpose, or where something important happened:

the site of a great battle | There are plans to develop the site for housing. | The area has become a dumping site for nuclear waste.

venue a place where something such as a meeting, concert, game etc. takes place: محل برگزاری

the venue for the next Olympic Games | The hotel is a popular wedding venue.

scene the place where something bad such as an accident or crime happened:

the scene of the crime | Ambulance crews were at the scene within minutes.

setting the place and the area around it, where something is or where something happens:

The hotel is in a beautiful setting. | the setting for the film ‘A Room With a View’ | Beautiful gardens provide the perfect setting for outdoor dining.

somewhere used for talking about a place when you are not sure exactly which place:

She came from somewhere in London.

whereabouts the place where someone or something is – used especially when you do not know this or do not want to tell people:

The whereabouts of the painting is unknown. | He refused to disclose his whereabouts. | I’m not sure about her whereabouts. 

49

retreat 2 noun

1 of an army [uncountable and countable] a movement away from the enemy after a defeat in battle عقب نشینی

OPP advance:

Napoleon’s retreat from Moscow

The rebel forces are in full retreat (= retreating very fast).

The bugler sounded the retreat (= gave a loud signal for retreat).

2 movement back [singular, uncountable] a movement away from someone or something

retreat from

Ten thousand years ago the ice began its retreat from Scotland.

3 beat a retreat informal to leave a place quickly:

I saw my aunt coming and beat a hasty retreat.

4 change of intention [singular, uncountable] when you change your mind about something because your idea was unpopular or too difficult

retreat from

a retreat from hard-line policies

5 place [countable] a place you can go to that is quiet or safe:

a country retreat

6 thought and prayer [uncountable and countable] a period of time that you spend praying or studying religion in a quiet place

on (a) retreat

I spent three weeks on retreat in Scotland.

7 finance [singular, uncountable] technical a situation in which the value of shares etc. falls to a lower level 

50

retreat 1 / rɪˈtriːt / verb [intransitive]

1 army to move away from the enemy after being defeated in battle OPP advance:

The rebels retreated to the mountains.

They were attacked and forced to retreat.

2 move back written

a) to move away from someone or something:

He saw her and retreated, too shy to speak to her.

retreat to/from/into etc.

Perry lit the fuse and retreated to a safe distance.

It was not a conscious choice to retreat from public life.

b) if an area of water, snow, or land retreats, it gradually gets smaller:

The flood waters are slowly retreating.

3 change your mind written to decide not to do something you were planning to do, because it was unpopular or too difficult

retreat from

The Canadian government has retreated from a plan to kill 300 wolves.

4 quiet place to go away to a place that is quiet or safe

retreat from/into/to

After the noise of the city he was glad to retreat to his hotel room.

5 retreat into yourself/your shell/fantasy etc. to ignore what is happening around you and give all your attention to your private thoughts

6 finance technical if shares etc. retreat, their value falls to a lower level 

51

commendation / ˌkɒmənˈdeɪʃ ə n $ ˌkɑː- / noun [uncountable and countable] formal

an official statement praising someone, especially someone who has been brave or very successful  تقدیر، ستایش

52

bug 2 verb (past tense and past participle bugged, present participle bugging) [transitive]

1 informal to annoy someone:

It just bugs me that I have to work so many extra hours for no extra money.

The baby’s crying is really bugging him.

2 to put a bug (= small piece of electronic equipment) somewhere secretly in order to listen to conversations:

Do you think the room is bugged? 

53

listen 

pay attention 

eavesdrop

overhear 

tune in (to something) 

tap 

bug

listen to pay attention to what someone is saying or to a sound that you hear:

I didn’t hear the answer, because I wasn’t listening when she read it out. | He listened carefully to every word I said.

pay attention to listen carefully to what someone is saying:

I nodded to show I was paying attention. | She was tired and wasn’t paying attention to what he was saying.

eavesdrop to secretly listen to someone else’s conversation by standing near them, hiding behind a door etc.:

I caught him eavesdropping on our conversation. | They spoke in quiet voices which made it hard to eavesdrop.

overhear to hear someone say something, especially accidentally:

I overheard him say something about wanting to move house. | Excuse me! I couldn’t help overhearing that you were planning a trip to Thailand.

tune in (to something) to listen to a radio programme, or to someone using a radio transmitter:

Over a million people tune in to the programme each week. | Tune in at the same time next week for the next episode. | The equipment could be used by criminals to tune in to police broadcasts.

tap to connect a piece of electronic recording equipment to a telephone system so that you can listen to people’s telephone conversations:

The police had tapped the phones of all three suspects. | The President had to resign over an illegal phone-tapping operation.

bug to hide a small piece of electronic recording equipment in someone’s room, car, office etc. in order to listen secretly to what is said there:

Security agents bugged their offices and managed to get some evidence against them. | Wells was convinced the house was bugged and insisted on playing loud music while we talked. 

54

testament / ˈtestəmənt / noun [countable] formal

1 be a testament to something proving or showing very clearly that something exists or is true: 

The aircraft’s safety record is a testament to its designers’ skill.

2 a will 2 (2) وصیت نامه؛ عهد

testamentary / ˌtestəˈment ə ri◂ / adjective

→ New Testament, Old Testament 

55

waddle / ˈwɒdl $ ˈwɑːdl / verb [intransitive]

waddle noun [singular] 

to walk with short steps, with your body moving from one side to another – used especially about people or birds with fat bodies and short legs راه رفتن اردک وار

waddle off/down/over etc.

Half a dozen ducks waddled up the bank.

56

wobble / ˈwɒb ə l $ ˈwɑː- / verb

wobble noun [countable] 

1 [intransitive and transitive] to move unsteadily from side to side, or make something do this: تلو تلو خوردن

The pile of bricks wobbled and fell.

Tom stopped, wobbling from the weight of his load.

2 [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] to go in a particular direction while moving unsteadily from side to side

wobble down/along/towards etc.

Cindy wobbled along the street on her bike.

3 [intransitive] to be unsure whether to do something SYN waver: مردد بودن

The President appeared to wobble over sending the troops in.

57

amid / əˈmɪd / preposition

1 while noisy, busy, or confused events are happening – used in writing or news reports:

The dollar has fallen in value amid rumors of weakness in the US economy.

Demonstrators ripped up the national flag amid shouts of ‘Death to the tyrants!’

2 literary among or surrounded by things: درمیان، وسط

He sat amid the trees. 

58

amidst / əˈmɪdst / preposition literary

amid

a light that shines amidst the darkness 

59

احظار به سربازی

Draft

60

orphan 1 / ˈɔːf ə n $ ˈɔːr- / noun [countable]

a child whose parents are both dead: یتیم

The war has left thousands of children as orphans.

orphan girl/boy/child

a poor little orphan girl 

61

orphanage / ˈɔːf ə nɪdʒ $ ˈɔːr- / noun [countable]

a large house where children who are orphans live and are taken care of: یتیم خونه

He was raised in an orphanage. 

62

kibitz / ˈkɪbɪts / verb [intransitive] American English informal

1 to make unhelpful remarks while someone is doing something حرف اضافه زدن

2 to talk about things that everyone already knows in a boring way:

incessant (پی در پی) philosophical kibitzing

kibitzer noun [countable]:

the usual crowd of kibitzers 

63

rag 1 / ræɡ / noun

1 cloth [uncountable and countable] a small piece of old cloth, for example one used for cleaning things: دستمال کهنه

He wiped his boots dry with an old rag.

an oily rag

2 newspaper [countable] informal a newspaper, especially one that you think is not particularly important or of good quality: روزنامه الکی

He writes for the local rag.

3 in rags wearing old torn clothes:

Children in rags begged money from the tourists.

4 from rags to riches becoming very rich after starting your life very poor:

He likes to tell people of his rise from rags to riches.

5 music [countable] a piece of ragtime music 

64

hostel / ˈhɒstl $ ˈhɑː- / noun [countable]

1 a place where people can stay and eat fairly cheaply خوابگاه، متل

2 a youth hostel

3 a place where people who have no homes can stay 

65

brew 2 noun

1 [countable] especially British English a drink that is brewed, especially tea

2 [uncountable and countable] American English beer, or a can or glass of beer:

a cold brew in a frosty glass

3 [countable usually singular] a combination of different things

brew of

The band played a strange brew of rock, jazz, and country music.

→ home brew 

66

brew 1 / bruː / verb

1 [transitive] to make beer:

Every beer on the menu was brewed locally.

2 [intransitive] if a drink of tea or coffee is brewing, the taste is getting into the hot water:

He read the paper while the tea brewed.

3 [transitive] to make a drink of tea or coffee:

freshly brewed coffee

4 be brewing

a) if something unpleasant is brewing, it will happen soon:

There’s trouble brewing in the office.

b) if a storm is brewing, it will happen soon 

67

brewery / ˈbruːəri / noun (plural breweries) [countable]

a place where beer is made, or a company that makes beer کارخونه آبجوسازی

68

intermission / ˌɪntəˈmɪʃ ə n $ -tər- / noun [countable]

a short period of time between the parts of a play, concert etc. تنفس وسط کنسرت

69

hum 2 noun [singular]

1 a low continuous sound زمزمه

hum of

the distant hum of traffic

2 hum of excitement/approval etc. the sound of people talking because they are excited etc. 

70

hum 

rustle 

murmur 

rumble

hum a quiet low continuous sound, especially from electrical equipment, traffic, an engine, or people’s conversation:

The only sound was the faint hum of the air-conditioning unit. | He could hear the hum of distant traffic.

rustle a continuous quiet sound from papers, leaves, or clothes when they rub together: خش خش

She heard the rustle of dried leaves behind her. | the rustle of silk dresses

murmur a quiet low continuous sound, especially from people’s voices that are far away: زمزمه

The murmur of voices died away. | They spoke in a low murmur.

rumble a series of long low sounds, especially from big guns, traffic, or thunder: صدا

I heard a rumble of thunder. | the low rumble of a train approaching 

71

hum 1 / hʌm / verb (past tense and past participle hummed, present participle humming)

1 [intransitive and transitive] to sing a tune by making a continuous sound with your lips closed زمزمه کردن، زیر لب خوندن

hum to yourself

Tony was humming to himself as he drove along.

He began to hum a tune.

2 [intransitive] to make a low continuous sound:

Machines hummed on the factory floor.

3 [intransitive] if a place hums, it is full of activity – use this to show approval → busy:

By nine o'clock, the restaurant was humming.

hum with

The streets were humming with life. 

72

barren / ˈbærən / adjective

1 land or soil that is barren has no plants growing on it: بی ثمر

Thousands of years ago the surface was barren desert.

2 old-fashioned unable to produce children or baby animals – used of a woman or of female animals SYN infertile OPP fertile

3 a tree or plant that is barren does not produce fruit or seeds

4 used to describe something that does not look interesting or attractive:

The sports hall was a rather barren concrete building.

5 used to describe a period of time during which you do not achieve anything or get any useful results:

I scored five in the first seven games, but I’ve had a bit of a barren patch since then. 

73

hatred / ˈheɪtrəd, ˈheɪtrɪd / noun [uncountable and countable]

an angry feeling of extreme dislike for someone or something نفرت

OPP love:

A look of pure hatred flashed across her face.

hatred of/for/towards

his intense hatred of all foreigners

Abby made no secret of her hatred for her father.

passionate/intense/deep etc. hatred

Ellis was a sick young man with a deep hatred of women.

the old hatreds and prejudices that simmered below the surface 

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feel hatred 

have a hatred of somebody/something 

stir up hatred 

incite hatred 

feel hatred

It was terrifying to know that someone could feel such hatred towards me.

have a hatred of somebody/something (= hate someone or something very much)

Gang members have a hatred of the police.

stir up hatred (= deliberately try to cause arguments or bad feelings between people)

Right-wing parties tried to stir up hatred and exploit racial tension.

incite hatred (= deliberately encourage people to hate each other)

He faces criminal charges for inciting racial hatred. 

75

racial/race hatred 

ethnic hatred 

religious/sectarian hatred 

pure hatred

passionate/intense/deep/bitter hatred 

be full of/filled with hatred 

feelings of hatred 

racial/race hatred

Feelings of racial hatred were drummed into him as a child.

ethnic hatred

Churches and mosques were burnt as ethnic hatred turned into violence.

religious/sectarian hatred (= hatred between people who belong to different religious groups)

The law makes it an offence to stir up religious hatred.

pure hatred (= complete hatred)

The child opened her eyes and stared at Juliet with pure hatred.

passionate/intense/deep/bitter hatred (= hatred that is felt very strongly)

What, I wondered, had I done to provoke such deep hatred?

be full of/filled with hatred

She told me, in a voice full of hatred and contempt, that I meant nothing to her.

feelings of hatred

She talked about the feelings of hatred she has towards her son’s killer. 

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hatred 

hate 

loathing 

animosity 

abhorrence formal 

contempt 

hatred an angry feeling of deep dislike for someone or something:

his hatred of violence | It is easy to understand their hatred for the invaders of their country. | racial hatred (= of people who belong to a different race)

hate the angry feeling that someone has when they hate someone and want to harm them:

His mind was filled with hate and the desire for revenge. | Her love for him turned to hate, and she tore up all his old letters. | Thatcher became a hate figure for the left (= someone who many people hate). | His enemies started a hate campaign against him in the press.

loathing a very strong feeling of hatred for someone or something that you think is extremely unpleasant:

I felt nothing but loathing for him after the way he’d treated me.

animosity a feeling of hatred and anger that often makes people behave unpleasantly to each other:

The animosity between parents who are getting a divorce can often cause great suffering to their children.

abhorrence formal a deep feeling of hatred towards something that you think is morally wrong or unpleasant:

the abhorrence of terrorism by all decent people

contempt a feeling of hate towards someone or something you think does not deserve any respect at all:

She looked at him with contempt. | I have nothing but contempt for these people. 

77

subdue / səbˈdjuː $ -ˈduː / verb [transitive]

1 to defeat or control a person or group, especially using force: رام کردن، مطیع کردن

Police managed to subdue the angry crowd.

Napoleon subdued much of Europe.

2 formal to prevent your emotions from showing or being too strong SYN control: کنترل کردن

an excitement she could not subdue 

78

boast 1 / bəʊst $ boʊst / verb

1 [intransitive and transitive] to talk too proudly about your abilities, achievements, or possessions: به رخ کشیدن

‘I wouldn’t be afraid,’ she boasted.

boast that

Amy boasted that her son was a genius.

boast about

He’s boasting about how much money he has made.

boast of

The company is inclined to boast of its success.

2 [transitive not in progressive] if a place, object, or organization boasts something, it has something that is very good: بالیدن

The city boasts two excellent museums.

The Society boasts 3,000 members worldwide.

boaster noun [countable] 

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boast 

brag 

blow your own horn spoken 

crow 

gloat 

be full of yourself informal 

boast to talk too proudly about your abilities, achievements, or possessions because you want other people to admire you:

She’s always boasting about how good she is at languages.

brag to boast in a way that annoys other people. Brag is more informal than boast:

He was bragging about how many girlfriends he had had. | I don’t think they have anything to brag about. | The rebels have repeatedly bragged that their fighters have been responsible for the mounting attacks on policemen, 226 of whom were killed last year.

blow your own horn spoken to talk a lot about your achievements – used especially when you want to mention your achievements but do not want to sound as if you are boasting:

I don’t want to blow my own horn, but it was me who came up with the idea for the project in the first place.

crow to boast about something you have achieved, when other people have been less lucky or successful:  

Nordstrom and his supporters are still crowing about winning the lawsuit.

gloat to behave in a way that shows that you are proud of your own success and happy about someone else’s failure:

The Australians are still gloating over their victory over England. | The liberals are gloating and celebrating all over town. | I haven’t come to gloat! We all have to lose sometimes.

be full of yourself informal to show by your words and behaviour that you are very proud of your abilities and achievements - used when you dislike someone because of this:

‘He’s so full of himself,’ Constance complained. ‘He thinks he can get away with anything.’ | After the game she was really full of herself. 

80

raft / rɑːft $ ræft / noun [countable]

1 a flat floating structure, usually made of pieces of wood tied together, used as a boat

2 a raft of something a large number of things:

The company has launched a whole raft of new software products.

3 a flat floating structure that you can sit on, jump from etc. when you are swimming

4 a small flat rubber boat filled with air, used for example if a boat sinks 

81

stump 1 / stʌmp / noun [countable]

1 the bottom part of a tree that is left in the ground after the rest of it has been cut down: بیخ و بن

an old tree stump

2 the short part of someone’s leg, arm etc. that remains after the rest of it has been cut off

3 the small useless part of something that remains after most of it has broken off or worn away:

There was only a stump of the candle left.

4 one of the three upright sticks in cricket that you throw the ball at

5 stump speech/speaker American English a speech made by a politician who is travelling around in order to gain political support, or the politician who gives this speech 

82

howling / ˈhaʊlɪŋ / adjective

be a howling success something that is a howling success is extremely successful خیلی موفق

83

arson / ˈɑːs ə n $ ˈɑːr- / noun [uncountable]

the crime of deliberately making something burn, especially a building: آتش زدن عمدی

The school was destroyed in an arson attack. 

84

arson noun [uncountable] 

vandalism noun [uncountable] 

arson noun [uncountable] the crime of deliberately setting fire to a building:

The school was completely destroyed in an arson attack.

vandalism noun [uncountable] the crime of deliberately damaging things, especially public property:

He often got into fights and committed acts of vandalism. 

85

summon / ˈsʌmən / verb [transitive] formal

1 to order someone to come to a place: احضار کردن

Robert summoned the waiter for the bill.

summon somebody to something

The president summoned Taylor to Washington.

summon somebody to do something

He was summoned to attend an emergency meeting.

2 to officially order someone to come to a court of law:

Hugh was summoned to appear before the magistrate.

3 (also summon something up) to try very hard to have enough of something such as courage, energy, or strength, because you need it:

He had to summon the energy to finish the race.

4 summon a meeting/conference etc. to arrange for a meeting to take place and order people to come to it SYN convene:

He summoned a meeting of business leaders. 

86

fraternity / frəˈtɜːnəti, frəˈtɜːnɪti $ -ɜːr- / noun (plural fraternities)

1 the teaching/scientific/criminal etc. fraternity all the people who work in a particular profession or share a particular interest اعضاء

2 [countable] a club at an American college or university that has only male members → sorority

3 [uncountable] formal a feeling of friendship between members of a group: برادری و اخوت

fraternity between nations 

87

parasol / ˈpærəsɒl $ -sɒːl, -sɑːl / noun [uncountable]

a type of umbrella used to provide shade from the sun 

88

parole 1 / pəˈrəʊl $ -ˈroʊl / noun [uncountable]

permission for someone to leave prison, on the condition that they promise to behave well عفو مشروط

on parole

He was released on parole after serving two years.

She will become eligible for parole in 19 months. 

89

blindfold 2 verb [transitive]

to cover someone’s eyes with a piece of cloth: چشم بسته

Blindfold the prisoner!

Customary bindfold (n) for the execution اعدام

90

lava / ˈlɑːvə / noun [uncountable]

hot liquid rock that flows from a volcano, or this rock when it has become solid  گدازه

91

mutton / ˈmʌtn / noun

1 [uncountable] the meat from a sheep گوشت گوسفند

lamb= بره جوان، بزغاله

92

leave 2 S3 W2 noun

1 holiday [uncountable] time that you are allowed to spend away from your work, especially in the armed forces: مرخصی

I’ve applied for three days’ leave.

on leave

navy officers home on leave

Your basic annual leave is 20 days.

2 maternity/sick/compassionate leave time that you are allowed to spend away from work because you have had a baby, because you are ill, or because of a personal problem such as the death of a relative

3 leave of absence a period of time that you are allowed to spend away from work for a particular purpose: 

She’s been given leave of absence to attend a computer course.

4 permission [uncountable] formal permission to do something: اجازه

All this was done entirely without my leave.

leave to do something

a petition for leave to appeal to the European court

grant/obtain/ask/seek etc. leave (to do something)

He asked leave to speak to her in private.

5 without so much as a by your leave old-fashioned without asking permission, in a way that seems very rude:

He marched into my office without so much as a by your leave.

6 take leave of your senses to suddenly start behaving in a strange way:

You want to marry him? Have you taken leave of your senses?

7 take leave of somebody/take your leave formal to say goodbye to someone 

93

annual leave 

maternity leave

paternity leave 

parental leave

sick leave (also medical leave American English)

compassionate leave 

paid/unpaid leave 

home leave

shore leave

special leave

sabbatical leave

indefinite leave 

annual leave (= an amount of time that you are allowed away from work for holidays etc)

Annual leave is 22 days plus public holidays.

maternity leave (= time that a mother is allowed away from work to have and take care of a new baby)

Two teachers were off on maternity leave.

paternity leave (= time that a father is allowed away from work to take care of a new baby)

He got five days’ paternity leave.

parental leave (= time that a parent is allowed away from work to take care of a child)

Parental leave is often unpaid.

sick leave (also medical leave American English) (= time that you are allowed away from work because you are ill)

The form must be filled in as soon as you return from sick leave.

compassionate leave (= time that you are allowed away from work because someone in your family is very ill or has died)

Eileen was given compassionate leave to go to the funeral.

paid/unpaid leave

She took three days unpaid leave in order to help her daughter.

home leave (= time that you are allowed to spend at home from a job that is far away, for example in the army, or from prison)

Roberts had failed to return from home leave, and there was a warrant out for his arrest.

shore leave (= time that a sailor is allowed to spend on land and away from work)

Hong Kong was a popular place for shore leave.

special leave (= time that you are allowed away from work for a special reason)

Some firms grant special leave when you move house.

sabbatical leave (= time that a teacher is allowed away from work to study or travel)

Headteachers can take sabbatical leave every five years.

indefinite leave (= leave without a time limit)

She has gone on indefinite leave, suffering from exhaustion. 

94

leave entitlement

have/get leave 

be entitled to leave 

go on leave

take leave 

use (up) leave 

give/grant somebody leave 

cancel sb’s leave

leave entitlement (= the amount of time that you are allowed to spend away from work on holidays etc)

The normal paid leave entitlement is 20 days.

have/get leave How much annual leave do you get?

be entitled to leave (= be allowed to have as leave)

After five years, employees are entitled to 25 days’ leave.

go on leave (= start your time away from work)

I’ll get the report to you before you go on leave.

take leave (= use the time you are allowed)

I don’t think I’ll be able to take any leave in January because we’re too busy.

use (up) leave I used all my leave in the summertime.

give/grant somebody leave

He was given compassionate leave.

cancel sb’s leave (= stop people taking leave)

The Police Department cancelled all leave because of the emergency. 

95

vacation especially American English, holiday especially British English

holiday 

break

leave 

sabbatical [usually singular] 

furlough 

R & R (rest and relaxation) 

vacation especially American English, holiday especially British English time you spend away from school or work:

Are you taking a vacation this summer? | We met on holiday in Cyprus. | What are you doing in the school holidays?

holiday a day that is set by law, when no one has to go to work or school:

the Thanksgiving holiday | New Year's Day is a national holiday. | In 2002, there was an extra public holiday to mark the Queen's golden jubilee.

break a time when you stop working or studying in order to rest, or a short vacation from school:

a ten-minute coffee break | Lots of college kids come to the beaches during the spring break.

leave a time when you are allowed not to work: We get four weeks' annual leave (= paid time off work each year). |

He has been taking a lot of sick leave (= time off work because you are ill) recently. | Angela is on maternity leave (= time off work when having a baby). | He was given compassionate leave (= time off work because someone close to you has died, is very ill etc) to go to his father's funeral.

sabbatical [usually singular] a period when someone, especially a teacher, stops doing their usual work in order to study or travel:

She was on sabbatical for six months. | I'm thinking of taking a sabbatical.

furlough a period of time when a soldier or someone working in another country can return to their own country as a holiday:

While on furlough, he and his girlfriend got married.

R & R (rest and relaxation) a holiday, especially one given to people in the army, navy etc. after a long period of hard work or during a war:

Soldiers in Vietnam were taken to Hawaii for R & R. 

96

stout 1 / staʊt / adjective

stoutly adverb:

She stoutly denied the rumours.

stoutness noun [uncountable] 

1 fairly fat and heavy, or having a thick body: چاق و چله

a short, stout man

2 literary strong and thick SYN sturdy: نیرومند

a stout pair of shoes

3 formal brave and determined شجاع و مصمم

stout defense/support/resistance

He put up a stout defense in court.

97

ailment / ˈeɪlmənt / noun [countable]

an illness that is not very serious: 

minor ailments 

98

bug informal 

complaint medical 

ailment / ˈeɪlmənt / formal 

bug informal an illness that spreads to other people very easily but that is not very serious:

There’s a bug going round at school and a lot of the children are absent. | a flu bug

complaint medical an illness that affects a particular part of your body, especially one that is not very serious – used by doctors:

a minor skin complaint | Deakin suffers from a back complaint called arachnoiditis.

ailment / ˈeɪlmənt / formal an illness that affects a particular part of your body, especially one that is not serious:

People often go to their doctor about relatively minor ailments. | The ointment is used to treat ailments such as small wounds and insect bites. 

99

turnout (also ˈturn-out) / ˈtɜːnaʊt $ ˈtɜːrn- / noun

1 [singular] the number of people who vote in an election جماعت

high/low turnout

the low turn-out of 54 percent in the March elections

→ turn out (3)

2 [singular] the number of people who go to a party, meeting, or other organized event:

I was disappointed by the turn-out for our home match.

3 [countable] American English a place at the side of a narrow road where cars can wait to let others pass 

100

absenteeism / ˌæbs ə nˈtiːɪz ə m / noun [uncountable]

regular absence from work or school without a good reason