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Flashcards in Pathway4_1 Deck (99):
1

interpretation W2 AC / ɪnˌtɜːprəˈteɪʃ ə n, ɪnˌtɜːprɪˈteɪʃ ə n $ -ɜːr- / noun [uncountable and countable]

put an accurate interpretation on

open to interpretation

the way in which someone explains or understands an event, information, someone’s actions etc: تفسیر، شرح

One possible interpretation is that they want you to resign. It’s difficult to put an accurate interpretation on (= explain ) the survey results. What exactly the author meant by that statement is open to interpretation (= able to be understood or explained in different ways ) .

 

2

agree S1 W1 / əˈɡriː / verb  [intransitive, transitive not in progressive]

to have or express the same opinion about something as someone else; Teenagers and their parents rarely agree.;  agree with; If she felt he was right, she would agree with him.; agree that; Most people nowadays would agree that a good pub is one of our best traditions.; agree on/about; We don’t agree on everything, of course.; I quite agree/I couldn’t agree more (= I agree completely)‘We have to talk.’ ‘Absolutely,’ Meredith replied. ‘I couldn’t agree more.’ 

3

feat [countable]

remarkable/considerable/incredible etc feat

something that is an impressive achievement, because it needs a lot of skill, strength etc to do; شاهکار 

remarkable/considerable/incredible etc feat; They climbed the mountain in 28 days, a remarkable feat. 

feat of; an incredible feat of engineering; perform/ accomplish/ achieve a feat; the woman who performed the feat of sailing around the world alone

no mean feat (=something that is difficult to do)

It is no mean feat to perform such a difficult piece.

4

interpretation W2 AC / ɪnˌtɜːprəˈteɪʃ ə n, ɪnˌtɜːprɪˈteɪʃ ə n $ -ɜːr- / noun [uncountable and countable] /music, play/

the way in which someone performs a play, a piece of music etc and shows what they think and feel about it:

Laurence Olivier’s brilliant interpretation of Henry V 

5

peer [countable]  [usually plural] formal

your peers are the people who are the same age as you, or who have the same type of job, social class etc:

American children did less well in math than their peers in Japan.

Staff members are trained by their peers.

? group, ? pressure

6

sem‧blance

a/some semblance of something شباهت

a situation, condition etc that is close to or similar to a particular one, usually a good one: 
She was trying to get her thoughts back into some semblance of order.
After the war, life returned to a semblance of normality. شبیه نرمال شد

7

prom‧ise  [intransitive and transitive]

promise to do something;

proimse (that); 

promise somebody (that);

promise something to somebody;

promise somebody something;

to tell someone that you will definitely do or provide something or that something will happen: ;

Last night the headmaster promised a full investigation.

promise to do something; She's promised to do all she can to help.
proise (that); Hurry up - we promised we wouldn't be late. 
promise somebody (that); You promised me the car would be ready on Monday.; 'promise me you won't do anything stupid.' 'I promise.'
promise something to somebody; I've promised that book to Ian, I'm afraid.
promise somebody something; The company promised us a bonus this year.; 'I'll be back by 1.00.' ' promise?' 'Yes! Don't worry.'; He reappeared two hours later, as promised.

8

crave [transitive]
 

to have an extremely strong desire for something: 

9

en‧ti‧cing
—enticingly adverb

something that is enticing attracts or interests you a lot: فریبنده و جذاب

It was a hot day and the water looked enticing.

10

ir‧re‧sis‧ti‧ble
—irresistibly adverb

1 so attractive, desirable etc that you cannot prevent yourself from wanting it
irresistible to
Tax-cutting proposals could prove irresistible to lawmakers.
Men find Natalie irresistible.

11

irresistible

—irresistibly adverb

2 too strong or powerful to be stopped or prevented: 
I was overcome by an irresistible  urge to cry. غیر قابل مقاومت، قوی

12

lure 1 / lʊə, ljʊə $ lʊr / verb [ transitive ]
luring
lure somebody into (doing) something

 

1 to persuade someone to do something, especially something wrong or dangerous, by making it seem attractive or exciting اغوا کردن، فریب دادن
lure somebody into (doing) something
People may be lured into buying tickets by clever advertising.
lure somebody away
Computer games are lureing youngsters away from their lessons.

13

lure /customer/ lure 1 / lʊr / verb [transitive] 

lure somebody back/away

 

2  to attract customers, workers, money etc from another company or place جذب مشتری، پول و غیره از شرکتهای دیگر

lure somebody back/away
The bank launched an advertising campaign to lure back its traditional customers.
It's very difficult to lure talent away from Silicon Valley.

14

fork 3 [transitive always + adverb/preposition] /food/

fork something into/onto etc something

to put food into your mouth or onto a plate using a fork

fork something into/onto etc something
He forked some bacon into his mouth

15

fork 4 [transitive always + adverb/preposition] /soil/

fork something in/over etc

to put manure (کود کشاورزی) into soil or to move soil around using a large garden fork

fork something in/over etc
In November, the soil should be forked over.

16

fork (off) left/right

to go left or right when a road divides into two parts  [= turn]

fork left at the bottom of the hill.

17

fork off [intransitive]

if a road, river etc forks, it divides into two parts  [↪ divide, split]

The path forked off in two directions.

18

end up 

phrasal verb

to be in a particular situation, state, or place after a series of events, especially when you did not plan it: تموم کردن
He came round for a coffee and we ended up in bed together.
I wondered where the pictures would end up after the auction.

19

stint / stɪnt / noun [countable usually singular]

stint in/at;

stint as

a period of time spent doing a particular job or activity

stint in/at; Mark did a two-year stint in the army.

stint as; his stint as chairman 

20

renounce / rɪˈnaʊns / verb [transitive] 

if you renounce an official position, title, right etc., you publicly say that you will not keep it any more SYN give up: انکار کردن، پس زد

Edward renounced his claim to the French throne (تخت پادشاهی).; She renounced her citizenship. 

21

stint verb [intransitive, transitive usually in negatives]

to provide or use too little of something مضایقه کردن

stint on; They didn’t stint on food and drink at their wedding.

stint yourself; In order to avoid stinting yourself, make sure you have enough money to cover all your expenses. 

22

renounce / rɪˈnaʊns / verb [transitive] 

2 to publicly say or show that you no longer believe in something, or will no longer behave in a particular way SYN reject پس زدن، طرد کردن

These groups must renounce violence if there is to be progress towards peace. Young people renounced capitalism in favor of peace and love. 

23

a dime a dozen American English informal 

very common and not valuable; PhDs are a dime a dozen nowadays. 

24

bind noun [singular] informal

in a bind

an annoying or difficult situation: موقعیت مشکل

It’s a real bind having to look after the children.

in a bind; Caroline was really in a bind. 

25

allowance S2 W3 / əˈlaʊəns / noun  [countable usually singular] /money/

a monthly/annual etc. allowance;

get an allowance for

an amount of money that you are given regularly or for a special purpose پل توجیبی

a monthly/annual etc. allowance; His father gives him a monthly allowance of $200.

allowance for; Do you get an allowance for clothes allowance; Sales staff get a generous mileage allowance or a company car.; If you are entitled to sickness allowance, you must claim it from your employer. 

26

take somebody/something to/into etc. something;

taking sb home

take somebody/something with you; 

take somebody something;

take somebody to do something;

to move or go with someone or something from one place to another OPP bring

take somebody/something to/into etc. something; Barney took us to the airport. Would you mind taking Susie home?; When he refused to give his name, he was taken into custody (توقیف، حبس). My job has taken me all over the world.

take somebody/something with you; His wife went to Australia, takeing the children with her.

take somebody something; I have to take Steve the money tonight.

take somebody to do something; He took me to meet his parents. 

27

allowance S2 W3 / əˈlaʊəns / noun [countable usually singular] /something/

2 an amount of something that is acceptable or safe:

the recommended daily allowance of Vitamin C; Passengers’ baggage allowance is 75 pounds per person.

28

take a seat

take a picture/photograph/photo;

used with a noun instead of using a verb to describe an action. For example, if you take a walk, you walk somewhere: Would you like to take a look?;  Mike’s just taking a shower.; Sara took a deep breath. Please take a seat (= sit down). 

take a picture/photograph/photo; Would you mind taking a photo of us together? 

29

allowance S2 W3 / əˈlaʊəns / noun  [countable usually singular] especially American English

4 a small amount of money that a parent regularly gives to a child 

30

take something off/from etc. something;

to remove something from a place

take something off/from etc. something; take your feet off the seats.; Someone’s taken a pen from my desk. Police say money and jewelry were taken in the raid (یورش، حمله ناگهانی). 

31

alloance for;

make (an) allowance/make allowances (for something);

something that you consider when deciding what is likely to happen, what you should expect etc.

alloance for; There is always an allowance in insurance premiums for whether someone smokes or not.

make (an) allowance/make allowances (for something); The budget makes allowances for extra staff when needed. 

32

take (somebody) something (to do something);

take (somebody) ages/forever informal: 

take courage/guts;

have what it takes informal

if something takes a particular amount of time, money, effort etc., that amount of time etc. is needed for it to happen or succeed: How long is this going to take? ; Organizing a successful street party takes a lot of energy.

take (somebody) something (to do something); Repairs take time to carry out.; It took a few minutes for his eyes to adjust to the dark.

take (somebody) ages/forever informal: It took me ages to find a present for Dad.

take courage/guts; It takes courage to admit you are wrong.

have what it takes informal (= to have the qualities that are needed for success); Neil’s got what it takes to be a great footballer. 

33

take on

to start to employ someone → hire:

We’re taking on 50 new staff this year. 

34

snub / snʌb / verb (past tense and past participle snubbed, present participle  snubbing) [transitive]

to treat someone rudely, especially by ignoring them when you meet: the boys who had snubbed her in high school 

35

be worth something 

 Worth is not a verb. Do not say that something ‘worths’ something. 

how much is it worth?

worth a fortune

be worth nothing/not be worth anything;

a) to have a value in money : The house must be worth quite a lot of money now. One of the pictures is worth $50,000.

Do you know how much the ring is worth?

This art collection is worth a fortune (= worth a very large amount of money ).

be worth nothing/not be worth anything; It’s a very old machine so I shouldn’t think it’s worth anything.

b) to have money or possessions that have value; I’ve heard that he’s worth over $2 million. The man who founded the company must be worth a fortune .

36

take my advice,

hard to take

I just can’t take any more

take a hammering/beating

I take your point/point taken

take sb’s word for it/take it from somebody

take it from me.

take the credit/blame/responsibility;

take it as read/given

to accept or choose something that is offered, suggested, or given to you: Will you take the job? Do you take American Express?; If you take my advice, you’ll see a doctor. Our helpline takes 3.5 million calls (= telephone calls) a year. Some doctors are unwilling to take new patients without a referral. Liz found his criticisms hard to take. I just can’t take any more (= can’t deal with a bad situation any longer). Staff have agreed to take a 2% pay cut.

take a hammering/beating (= be forced to accept defeat or a bad situation); Small businesses took a hammering in the last recession.

I take your point/point taken (= used to say that you accept someone’s opinion)

take sb’s word for it/take it from somebody (= accept that what someone says is true); That’s the truth – take it from me.

take the credit/blame/responsibility; He’s the kind of man who makes things happen but lets others take the credit.

take it as read/given (= assume that something is correct or certain, because you are sure that this is the case); It isn’t official yet, but you can take it as read that you’ve got the contract. 

37

well worth

worth a trip/visit etc; 

be worth doing something;

It’s well worth

be worth the time/effort/work;

a) used to say that something is interesting, useful, or helpful: A lot of the small towns in the area are definitely worth visiting. The film is well worth seeing.

worth a trip/visit etc; The local museum is worth a visit.

b) used to say that someone should do something because they will gain something from it

be worth doing something; It’s worth checking the details of the contract before you sign it.

It’s well worth getting there early if you want a good seat.

be worth the time/effort/work; It was a great evening, and definitely worth all the hard work. 

38

take somebody/something in/by something;

to get hold of something in your hands: Let me take your coat. Can you take this package while I get my wallet?

take somebody/something in/by something; I just wanted to take him in my arms. 

39

be worth it informal 

used to say that you gain something from an action: It was a lot of hard work, but it was worth it .

4 be not worth it informal used to say that you do not gain anything from an action: I thought about trying to talk to him about it, but decided it wasn’t worth it. 

40

take on

to agree to do some work or be responsible for something: 

Don’t take on too much work – the extra cash isn’t worth it. 

41

compromise 1 / ˈkɒmprəmaɪz $ ˈkɑːm- / noun  [uncountable and countable] 

compromise with;

compromise between;

reach a compromise,

make compromises.

1 an agreement that is achieved after everyone involved accepts less than what they wanted at first, or the act of making this agreement: توافق، سازش

compromise is an inevitable (اجتناب ناپذیر) part of marriage. To stop the argument they decided on a compromise.

compromise with; Fresh attempts at compromise with the legislature (قوه مقننه) were also on the agenda (دستور کار).

compromise between; a compromise between government and opposition; If moderates fail to reach a compromise, the extremists will dominate the agenda. Be prepared to make compromises.

42

cut 1 S1 W1 / kʌt / verb (past tense and past participle cut, present participle cutting) /reduce/ [transitive]

cut costs

cut prices

cut something by $1 million/$5 billion/half etc.

cut something off something;

cut to the bone

to reduce the amount of something:

They’re introducing CCTV cameras in an attempt to cut street crime in the area. You need to cut the amount of fat and sugar in your diet. Scientists are warning that unless carbon emissions are cut, we could be heading for an environmental catastrophe. Seven hundred jobs will be lost in order to cut costs and boost profits. The major aviation companies need to cut prices if they are to compete with budget airlines.

cut something by $1 million/$5 billion/half etc. The welfare budget has been cut by $56 billion.

cut something off something; A new direct service will cut two hours off the flying time between London and Seoul. Staffing levels had already been cut to the bone (= reduced to the lowest level possible).

43

staff verb [ transitive usually passive ]

— staffing noun [ uncountable ] :

staffing levels 

to be or provide the workers for an organization → overstaffed , understaffedThe centre is staffed mainly by volunteers.

44

take 1 S1 W1 / teɪk / verb (past tense took / tʊk /, past participle taken) / ˈteɪkən / /transport / [transitive]

to use a particular form of transport or a particular road in order to go somewhere: 

Let’s take a cab. I took the first plane out. take the I10 to Junction 19. 

45

It might be worth your while to

used to say that someone should spend time or money on something because they will gain something from it: It might be worth your while to talk to the head of department. Some people feel it’s not worth their while working if they can get money from the state. 

46

take 1 S1 W1 / teɪk / verb (past tense took / tʊk /, past participle taken) / ˈteɪkən / /study/ [transitive]

to study a particular subject in school or college for an examination: Are you taking French next year? 

47

compromise / ˈkɒmprəmaɪz $ ˈkɑːm- / noun [countable]

2 a solution to a problem in which two things or situations are changed slightly so that they can exist together; سازش

compromise between; a happy compromise between the needs of family and work 

48

cut something with something; 

cut somebody something

cut along/across/round etc.

cut through;

cut something in half/in two;

cut something into slices/chunks/pieces etc.

cut something to size/length

2 divide something with a knife, scissors etc. to divide something or separate something from its main part, using scissors, a knife etc: Do you want me to cut the cake?; The telephone wires had been cut minutes before the assault (حمله).

cut something with something; Jane cut the cord with a knife.

cut somebody something

Can you cut me a piece of bread, please?

cut along/across/round etc.; Using a pair of scissors, cut carefully along the dotted lines.

cut through; We’ll need a saw that will cut through metal.

cut something in half/in two; cut the orange in half.

cut something into slices/chunks/pieces etc. (= make something into a particular shape by cutting); cut the carrots into thin strips.

cut something to size/length (= cut something so that it is the size you need); The curtain pole can be cut to length. 

49

superfluous / suːˈpɜːfluəs $ -ˈpɜːr- / adjective formal

— superfluously adverb 

more than is needed or wanted SYN unnecessary: 

a modern building with no superfluous decoration زاید، اضافی

50

take / teɪk / verb  /test/

to do an examination or test; Applicants are asked to take a written test. 

51

cut the lawn/grass/hedge etc.;

have/get your hair cut; 

to make something shorter with a knife, scissors etc., especially in order to make it neater: For reasons of hygiene, we had to cut our fingernails really short.

cut the lawn/grass/hedge etc.; From outside came the sound of someone cutting the hedge.

have/get your hair cut; It’s about time you got your hair cut. 

52

make it worth sb’s while spoken 

to offer something to someone so that they will do something for you: He promised to make it worth our while. 

53

take  /suitable size/ [transitive not in progressive or passive]

to be the correct or suitable size, type etc. for a particular person or thing: 

a car that takes low sulphur fuel; What size shoe do you take?; The elevator takes a maximum of 32 people. 

54

what’s it worth (to you)? spoken / wɜːθ $ wɜːrθ / preposition 

used humorously to ask someone how they will reward you if you do something for them چه خاصیتی برای تو/من داره؟

55

cut 1 S1 W1 / kʌt / verb (past tense and past participle cut, present participle cutting) [transitive] /movie/

4 remove parts from film etc. to remove parts from a film, book, speech etc., for example because it is too long or might offend people:

The original version was cut by more than 30 minutes. 

56

cut across something phrasal verb 

if a problem or feeling cut across different groups of people, they are all affected by it:

Domestic violence seems to cut across most social divisions. 

57

borough / ˈbʌrə $ -roʊ / noun [countable]

Don't be confused with borrow S2 W3 / ˈbɒrəʊ $ ˈbɑːroʊ, ˈbɔː- / verb [ intransitive and transitive ] 

a town, or part of a large city, that is responsible for managing its own schools, hospitals, roads etc:

the borough of Queens in New York City;  Lambeth borough Council 

58

pocket 1 S2 W2 / ˈpɒkət, ˈpɒkɪt $ ˈpɑː- / noun [countable] 

jacket/trouser etc. pocket; 

turn out my/her/his... pockets

1 in clothes a type of small bag in or on a coat, trousers etc. that you can put money, keys etc. in: Luke came in with his hands in his pockets.

jacket/trouser etc. pocket; The keys are in my trouser pocket.

pocket of; the inside pocket of his jacket; The policeman told me to turn out my pockets (= take everything out of them).

59

take samples

take something from something;

to collect or gather something for a particular purpose: Investigators will take samples of the wreckage to identify the cause.

take something from something; The police take a statement from both witnesses. 

60

charm 1 / tʃɑːm $ tʃɑːrm / noun  [uncountable and countable]

turn on the charm

all the charm of

a special quality someone or something has that makes people like them, feel attracted to them, or be easily influenced by them – used to show approval; Joe’s boyish charm دلربایی، افسون

charm of; the charm of this small Southern city; She turned on the charm (= used her charm) to all the men. The room had no windows and all the charm of a prison cell (= used to say that something has no charm).

61

set aside 1 S3 W3 / əˈsaɪd / adverb 

put aside

1 kept to be used later:

I’ve been setting aside a few dollars each week. One of the rooms was set aside for a yoga class. Try to set aside a few hours a week for exercise. Could you put this cake aside for me? 

62

take somebody/something seriously/badly/personally etc.

take something as evidence/proof (of something);

take somebody/something to be something;

take somebody/something for something;

What do you take me for?

I take it

to react to someone or something or consider them in a particular way
I was joking, but he took me seriously. Ben took the news very badly. She does not take kindly to criticism (= reacts badly to criticism).

take something as something; I’ll take that remark as a compliment.

take something as evidence/proof (of something); The presence of dust clouds has been taken as evidence of recent star formation.

take somebody/something to be something; I took her to be his daughter.

take somebody/something for something; Of course I won’t tell anyone! What do you take me for? (= what sort of person do you think I am?)

I take it (= I assume) you’ve heard that Rick’s resigned. 

63

surrender 1 / səˈrendə $ -ər / verb 1 [intransitive]

to say officially that you want to stop fighting, because you realize that you cannot win: تسلیم شدن

Germany surrendered on May 7th, 1945. The terrorists were given ten minutes to surrender. 

64

cut 5 make a hole/mark [intransitive and transitive]

cut into;

cut something into something;

cut a hole

cut open

to make a hole or mark in the surface of something, or to open it using a sharp tool

cut into; The blade cut deep into the wood.

cut something into something; Strange letters had been cut into the stone.

cut a hole in the middle of the paper.

cut open the chillies and remove the seeds. 

65

pocket 1 S2 W2 / ˈpɒkət, ˈpɒkɪt $ ˈpɑː- / noun [countable] 

 /money/

suit every pocket

from/out of/into your own pocket

hit one’s pockets

deep pockets

2 money the amount of money that you have to spend:

There are eight hotels, with a price range to suit every pocket.

from/out of/into your own pocket; Dan had to pay for the repairs out of his own pocket. He was accused of diverting some of the firm’s money into his own pocket. The deepening recession has hit people’s pockets. For investors with deep pockets (= a lot of money), the Berlin property market is attractive. 

66

charm / tʃɑːm $ tʃɑːrm / noun 2 [countable]

lucky charm

a very small object worn on a chain or bracelet: a charm bracelet; a small gold horseshoe worn as a lucky charm

67

aside S3 W3 / əˈsaɪd / adverb 

2 moved to one side or away from you: به یک طرف، بکنار

He pushed his half-eaten salad aside and left. He stepped aside to let Katherine go in first. Mark drew me aside and explained the problem.  She swept her thick hair aside. 

68

prioritize AC (also prioritise British English) / praɪˈɒrətaɪz, praɪˈɒrɪtaɪz $ -ˈɔːr- / verb [transitive] 

1 to put several things, problems etc. in order of importance, so that you can deal with the most important ones first: You need to prioritize your tasks. اولویت بندی کردن

69

surrender  / səˈrendə $ -ər / verb 2 [intransitive and transitive] /police/

surrender (yourself) to somebody;

to go to the police or the authorities, and say that you want to stop trying to escape from them

surrender (yourself) to somebody; He immediately surrendered himself to the authorities. 

70

keep 1 S1 W1 / kiːp / verb (past tense and past participle kept / kept /) /not change/ [linking verb, transitive]

keep (somebody/ something) warm/safe/dry etc.;

keep calm/awake/sane etc.;

keep something clean/tidy;

keep somebody busy/amused/occupied;

keep it secret

keep fit

keep (somebody/something) away/back/off/out etc.

keep (somebody) out of something;

keep still!; keep left/right

keep somebody/something doing something; 

to stay in a particular state, condition, or position, or to make someone or something do this; keep (somebody/ something) warm/safe/dry etc.; We huddled around the fire to keep warm. keep calm/awake/sane etc.; I was struggling to keep awake.; keep something clean/tidy; keep your room tidy.; keep somebody busy/amused/occupied; some toys to keep the kids amused; You won’t be able to keep it secret for ever.; Peter cycles to work to keep fit. ; Don’t keep us in suspense any longer!; keep (somebody/something) away/back/off/out etc.; The police put up barriers to keep the crowds back.; If I were you, I’d keep away from that area at night.; a sign saying ‘Danger: keep Out’; The little boy kept close to his mother.; keep (somebody) out of something; keep him out of trouble.; You keep out of this, Mother (= do not get involved). It’s no concern of yours.;  How can I cut your hair if you won’t keep still!; keep left/right (= stay to the left or right of a path or road as you move); keep somebody/something doing something; Jane kept the engine running. 

71

take 13 feelings [transitive usually + adverb]

take delight/pleasure/pride etc. in (doing) something;

take pity on somebody;

take offence

take comfort from/in (doing) something;

to have or experience a particular feeling;

take delight/pleasure/pride etc. in (doing) something; You should take pride in your work. At first, he took no interest in the baby.;

take pity on somebody; She stood feeling lost until an elderly man took pity on her.;

take offence (= feel offended); Don’t take offence. Roger says things like that to everybody.;

take comfort from/in (doing) something; Investors can take comfort from the fact that the World Bank is underwriting the shares. 

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ring 3` S1 W2 / rɪŋ / verb (past tense rang / ræŋ /, past participle rung / rʌŋ /) /sounds/ [intransitive]

a) if your ears ring, they make a continuous sound that only you can hear, after you have been somewhere very noisy or heard a loud sound:;The explosion made our ears ring.

b) literary if a place rings with a sound, it is full of that sound;  ring with; The whole room rang with their laughter. 

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adorn / əˈdɔːn $ -ɔːrn / verb [transitive] formal

adorn something with something

to decorate something تزیین کردن

adorn something with something

church walls adorned with religious paintings 

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flood 1 W3 / flʌd / verb [intransitive and transitive]

1 cover with water to cover a place with water, or to become covered with water:Towns and cities all over the country have been flooded.; The houses down by the river flood quite regularly. 

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hinder / ˈhɪndə $ -ər / verb [transitive]

Register

In everyday English, people often say something gets in the way of something rather than hinders it:

This could get in the way of rescue attempts.

Poor English got in the way of his progress. 

to make it difficult for something to develop or succeed SYN hamper: به تاخیر انداختن

His career has been hindered by injury.;  policies that will hinder rather than help families

Do not confuse with prevent (=to make it impossible for someone to do something): His poor health prevented him from going to work (NOT His poor health hindered him from going to work).

 

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take 14 control [transitive]

taken prisoner.

take control/charge/power;

take the lead

to get possession or control of something: Enemy forces have takenthe airport. Both boys were taken prisoner.

take control/charge/power; The communists took power in 1948.; Youngsters need to take control of their own lives.

take the lead (= in a race, competition etc.) 

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hefty / ˈhefti / adjective [usually before noun]

1 big and heavy: سنگین

a tall hefty man; a hefty tome (= large thick book); hefty camera equipment

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cut your finger/knee/hand etc.;

cut yourself (on something);

cut himself shaving.

cut her head open.

to injure yourself on something sharp that breaks the skin and makes you bleed

cut your finger/knee/hand etc.; I noticed he’d cut his finger quite badly.;

cut yourself (on something); Marcie said she’d cut herself on a broken glass.; That knife’s extremely sharp! Mind you don’t cut yourself.; On Eric’s chin was a scrap of cotton wool where he’d cut himself shaving. She fell and cut her head open.

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charm 3 [countable] /spell/

a phrase or action believed to have special magic powers SYN spell 

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aside 3 S3 W3 / əˈsaɪd / adverb 

brush aside

Leaving aside

put aside

left to be considered or dealt with later, or not considered and dealt with at all:; He brushed aside criticisms of his performance. Leaving aside the heat, we really enjoyed our holiday. You must put aside your pride and call her. 

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prioritize AC  / praɪˈɒrətaɪz, $ -ˈɔːr- / verb [transitive]

— prioritization / praɪˌɒrətaɪˈzeɪʃ ə n, praɪˌɒrɪtaɪˈzeɪʃ ə n $ -ˌɔːrətə- / noun [uncountable] 

2 to deal with one thing first, because it is the most important:

The public wants to see the fight against crime prioritized.

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pocket 3 small container S2 W2 / ˈpɒkət, ˈpɒkɪt $ ˈpɑː- / noun [countable] 

a small bag or piece of material fastened to something so that you can put things into it:

Please read the air safety card in the pocket of the seat in front. 

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for what it’s worth spoken 1 S1 W2 / wɜːθ $ wɜːrθ / preposition 

used when you are giving someone information, to say that you are not sure how useful it is :

Here’s the list of names, for what it’s worth. 

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surrender / səˈrendə $ -ər / verb 3 [transitive]

to give up something or someone, especially because you are forced to: They agreed to surrender their weapons.; She was reluctant to surrender her independence.  Marchers who had cameras were forced to surrender their film. 

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work like a charm 1 / tʃɑːm $ tʃɑːrm / nou

to work exactly as you had hoped:

The new sales program has worked like a charm. 

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keep 2 S1 W1 / kiːp / verb (past tense and past participle kept / kept /) [intransitive] also keep on

 Do not say ‘keep up doing something'. Say keep doing something or keep on doing something.

2 continue doing something (also keep on) to continue doing something or to do the same thing many times

keep (on) doing something; I keep thinking about Joe, all alone in that place. I keep telling you, but you won’t listen!; She pretended not to hear, and kept on walking.

 

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flood 1 W3 / flʌd / verb /river/ [intransitive and transitive]

if a river floods, it is too full, and spreads water over the land around it:

There are now fears that the river could flood. 

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ring a bell informal  4 S1 W2 / rɪŋ / verb (past tense rang / ræŋ /, past participle rung / rʌŋ /)

if something rings a bell, it reminds you of something, but you cannot remember exactly what it is:

Her name rings a bell but I can’t remember her face. 

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prerogative / prɪˈrɒɡətɪv $ -ˈrɑː- / noun [countable usually singular]

prerogative of

a woman’s prerogative

the royal prerogative

a right that someone has, especially because of their importance or social position امتیاز ویژه

prerogative of; Education was once the prerogative of the elite. Arriving late is a woman’s prerogative.

the royal prerogative (= the rights of kings and queens) 

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promising / ˈprɒməsɪŋ, ˈprɒmɪsɪŋ $ ˈprɑː- / adjective

— promisingly adverb 

showing signs of being successful or good in the future: نوید دهنده

a promising career in law

a promising young actor

a promising start

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keep 7 S1 W1 / kiːp / verb (past tense and past participle kept / kept /) /delay somebody/ [transitive]

to delay someone:

He should be here by now. What’s keeping him? 

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4 sur‧ren‧der to something / səˈrendə $ -ər / verb 

to allow yourself to be controlled or influenced by something:

Colette surrendered to temptation (وسوسه) and took out a cigarette. 

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aside 4 [only after noun] S3 W3 / əˈsaɪd / adverb 

used to show that something you have just said is not as important as what you are going to say next:

These problems aside, we think the plan should go ahead. 

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keep your word/promise;

keep one's appointments 

to do what you have promised or agreed to do

keep your word/promise; How do I know you’ll keep your word?;  patients who fail to keep their appointments 

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6 flood the market

to produce and sell a very large number of one type of thing, so that the price goes down

flood the market with

Car manufacturers have been accused of flooding the market with cheap cars. 

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5 not ring true S1 W2 / rɪŋ / verb (past tense rang / ræŋ /, past participle rung / rʌŋ /)

if something does not ring true, you do not believe it, even though you are not sure why:

It was a possible explanation, but it didn’t quite ring true. 

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acquaintance / əˈkweɪnt ə ns / noun 1 somebody you know [countable]

casual acquaintance

mutual acquaintance

Register

In everyday English, people usually say someone I know rather than an acquaintance:

I got the job through someone I know.

someone you know, but who is not a close friend: She was a casual acquaintance of my family in Vienna. He heard about the job through a mutual acquaintance (= someone you and another person both know).

 

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5 a‧side from somebody/something especially American English/ əˈsaɪd / adver

a) except for SYN apart from:

aside  from Durang’s performance, the actors are ordinary.

b) in addition to:

In the poetry competition, aside from Hass, are four other entrants.

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surrender 5 [transitive] formal / səˈrendə $ -ər /

surrender something to somebody

to give something such as a ticket or a passport to an official

surrender something to somebody

Steir voluntarily surrendered his license to the State.