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Flashcards in 400Word_2 Deck (94):

expeditiously / ˌekspəˈdɪʃəsli, ˌekspɪˈdɪʃəsli / adverb formal

expeditious adjective:

an expeditious system for examining claims for refugee status

in a quick and effective way SYN efficiently: موثر

All issues presented to the court are considered as fairly and expeditiously as possible.

expeditious از روی عجله


implement 1 W3 AC / ˈɪmpləment, ˈɪmplɪment / verb [transitive]

To make use of; to carry out; to take action or make changes that you have officially decided should happen; پیاده سازی کردن، انجام دادن

Not until after the new software was installed could we implement the new filing system.


implement a policy/plan/decision etc.

We have decided to implement the committee’s recommendations in full.


implementation / ˌɪmpləmenˈteɪʃ ə n, ˌɪmplɪmenˈteɪʃ ə n / noun [uncountable]:

the implementation of the peace plan پیاده سازی، اجرا


innovative AC / ˈɪnəvətɪv $ ˈɪnəˌveɪtɪv / (also innovatory) adjective

an innovative idea or way of doing sth is new, different, and better than those that existed before: خلاقانه

an innovative approach to language teaching

innovative schemes (برنامه) for recycling waste materials

an innovative design team


brand new 


the latest






brand new completely new:

a brand new car | The house looks brand new.

recent made, produced etc. a short time ago:

recent research into brain chemistry

the latest [only before noun] the most recent:

Have you seen his latest film? | the latest fashions from Paris

modern different from earlier things of the same kind because of using new methods, equipment, or designs:

modern technology | modern farming methods | a modern kitchen

novel new and different in a surprising and unusual way – used especially about a suggestion, experience, or way of doing sth: بدیع

The club have come up with a novel way of raising cash. | The King was passionately in love, which was a novel experience for him.

innovative completely new and showing a lot of imagination – used especially about a design or way of doing sth:

an attractive website with an innovative design | They came up with an innovative approach to the problem.

revolutionary completely new in a way that has a very big effect – used especially about an idea, method, or invention: انقلابی

a revolutionary treatment for breast cancer | His theories were considered to be revolutionary at the time.

new-fangled [only before noun] used about sth that is new and modern but which you disapprove of: نوظهور بد!

My grandfather hated all this newfangled technology. 


combustion / kəmˈbʌstʃ ə n / noun [uncountable]

the process of burning; When air quality is poor, combustion of materials in a fireplace is prohibited  احتراق ناقص


convey / kənˈveɪ / verb [transitive] /communicate /

1 to communicate or express sth, with or without using words: نقل کردن، بیان کردن

All this information can be conveyed in a simple diagram.

Ads convey the message that thin is beautiful.

He was sent to convey a message to the UN Secretary General.

convey sth to sb

I want to convey to children that reading is one of life’s greatest treats.

convey a sense/an impression/an idea etc.

You don’t want to convey the impression that there’s anything illegal going on. 


convey / kənˈveɪ / verb [transitive] /carry /

2 formal to take or carry sth from one place to another:

Your luggage will be conveyed to the hotel by taxi. 


convey / kənˈveɪ / verb [transitive]  /law /


to legally change the possession of property from one person to another منتقل نمودن


discrete AC / dɪˈskriːt / adjective

discretely adverb

discreteness noun [uncountable]

clearly separate: مجزا، گسسته

The change happens in a series of discrete steps.


permeate / ˈpɜːmieɪt $ ˈpɜːr- / verb [intransitive always + adverb/preposition, transitive]


if liquid, gas etc. permeates sth, it enters it and spreads through every part of it: نفوذ کردن، سرایت کردن، نشت کردن

The smell of diesel oil permeated the air. The smell of cooking permeated the entire apartment building.

permeate through/into

Rain permeates through the ground to add to ground water levels.

Racism continues to permeate our society.

An emotional intensity permeates every one of O'Connor’s songs. 


trigger 2 AC (also trigger off) verb [transitive]

1 to make sth happen very quickly, especially a series of events: باعث ... شدن

The assassination (تررو) triggered off a wave of rioting (شورش).

Certain forms of mental illness can be triggered by food allergies.

trigger a memory (= make you suddenly remember sth)

His action triggered a massive response from the government.


trigger 2 AC (also trigger off) verb [transitive]

to make sth such as a bomb or electrical system start to operate SYN set off:

The burglars (سارقان) fled after triggering the alarm.


make sb/sth do sth compared to cause

Make is less formal than cause, and is the usual word to use in everyday English: 

What made you decide to become a teacher? I’m sorry, I didn’t mean to make you cry. Gravity is the force which makes the planets move round the Sun. 


bring about sth 

result in sth 

lead to sth 


precipitate formal 

bring about sth to make sth happen – used especially about changes or improvements:

The Internet has brought about enormous changes in society. | It’s important that we do everything we can to bring about peace.

result in sth if an action or event results in sth, it makes that thing happen:

The fire resulted in the deaths of two children. | The decision is likely to result in a large number of job losses.

lead to sth to cause sth to happen eventually after a period of time:

The information led to several arrests. | A poor diet in childhood can lead to health problems later in life.

trigger if one event triggers another, it suddenly makes the second event happen:

The incident triggered a wave of violence. | An earthquake off Java’s southern coast triggered a tsunami.

precipitate formal to make a very serious event happen very suddenly, which will affect a lot of people:

The withdrawal of foreign investment would precipitate an economic crisis. | The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand precipitated World War I. 


acquisition AC / ˌækwəˈzɪʃ ə n, ˌækwɪˈzɪʃ ə n / noun /knowledge /

1 [uncountable] the process by which you gain knowledge or learn a skill: فراگیری

the acquisition of language 


acquisition AC / ˌækwəˈzɪʃ ə n, ˌækwɪˈzɪʃ ə n / noun

/land, power, money/

2 [uncountable] the act of getting land, power, money etc.

acquisition of مالکیت

the acquisition of new sites for development 


acquisition AC / ˌækwəˈzɪʃ ə n, ˌækwɪˈzɪʃ ə n / noun /st/


3 [countable] formal sth that you have obtained by buying it or being given it: اموال

The Art Society is holding an exhibition of recent acquisitions. 


degrade / dɪˈɡreɪd / verb

degradable adjective 

[intransitive and transitive] technical if a substance, chemical etc. degrades, or if sth degrades it, it changes to a simpler form تجزیه کردن، تجزیه شدن


degrade / dɪˈɡreɪd / verb

[transitive] to treat someone without respect and make them lose respect for themselves: تنزل دادن

a movie that degrades women

degrade yourself (by doing sth)

How can you degrade yourself by writing such trash?

The dolphin’s habitat is being rapidly degraded. 


indisputable / ˌɪndɪˈspjuːtəb ə l / adjective

indisputably adverb 

an indisputable fact must be accepted because it is definitely true: بدون چون و چرا

The evidence was indisputable.

indisputably مسلماً




verifiable formal 

it is a fact 

be the truth 

be the case 

undeniable/indisputable definitely true, so that no one can argue or disagree about it:

It is indisputable that the situation has got worse. | The decline in inflation was undeniable, even if the reasons for the decline were unclear.

factual based on facts, or involving facts:

The court makes its decision based on factual evidence. | There is very little factual information about the incident. | a factual account of what happened | The questions ask for a purely factual answer, not for opinion.

verifiable formal able to be proven to be true or correct:

The data was verifiable.

it is a fact used when saying that sth is definitely true:

It is a fact that women live longer than men.

be the truth to be true – used when saying that someone is not lying:

What I told you was the truth.

be the case if a situation is the case, that is the way the situation truly is:

It is certainly the case that crime rates are lower in Europe than in the US. 


intervene AC / ˌɪntəˈviːn $ -tər- / verb


1 [intransitive]  مداخله کردن، قطع کردن

intervene in

The police don’t usually like to intervene in disputes between husbands and wives.

The army will have to intervene to prevent further fighting.

2 [intransitive and transitive] to interrupt someone when they are speaking:

‘Stop shouting, Emily,’ John intervened.

3 [intransitive] if an event intervenes, it delays or interrupts sth else:

He was just establishing his career when the war intervened.

4 [intransitive] if a period of time intervenes, it comes between two events:

In the six years that intervened, I saw them once. 


intuitive / ɪnˈtjuːətɪv, ɪnˈtjuːɪtɪv $ -ˈtuː-, -ˈtjuː- / adjective

intuitively adverb 

1 an intuitive idea is based on a feeling rather than on knowledge or facts SYN instinctive: حسی، احساسی

He seemed to have an intuitive awareness of how I felt. Many mothers know intuitively when sth is wrong with their children.

2 someone who is intuitive is able to understand situations without being told or having any proof about them


recede / rɪˈsiːd / verb [intransitive]


1 if sth you can see or hear recedes, it gets further and further away until it disappears دور شدن

recede into

footsteps receding into the distance

2 if a memory, feeling, or possibility recedes, it gradually goes away: کم شدن

The pain in his head gradually receded.

3 if water recedes, it moves back from an area that it was covering: کم شدن

The flood waters finally began to recede in November.

4 if your hair recedes, you gradually lose the hair at the front of your head:

He was in his mid-forties, with a receding hairline. After the age of 30, his hairline began to recede further back from his forehead

5 receding chin a chin that slopes backwards 


retrieve / rɪˈtriːv / verb [transitive]

retrievable adjective 

1 formal to find sth and bring it back; get back پیدا کردن

She bent down to retrieve her earring.

retrieve sth from sth

It took four days to retrieve all the bodies from the crash.

2 technical to get back information that has been stored in the memory of a computer: بازیابی کردن

The new version of the software automatically retrieves digital information.


agnostic / æɡˈnɒstɪk, əɡ- $ -ˈnɑː- / noun [countable]

agnostic adjective

agnosticism / -təsɪz ə m, -tɪsɪz ə m / noun [uncountable] 

someone who believes that people cannot know whether God exists or not; منکر احتمال وجود خدا

His devoutly Christian parents had problems with his agnostic beliefs.


atheism / ˈeɪθi-ɪz ə m / noun [ uncountable ]

atheist noun [ countable ]

atheistic / ˌeɪθiˈɪstɪk◂ / adjective 

the belief that God does not exist → agnosticism (agnostic)

منکر وجود خدا


animism / ˈænəmɪz ə m, ˈænɪmɪz ə m / noun [uncountable]


a religion in which animals and plants are believed to have spirits; Desert cultures that practice animism often believe that winds contain spirits.


contemplate / ˈkɒntəmpleɪt $ ˈkɑːn- / verb

1 [transitive] to think about sth that you might do in the future SYN consider: در نظر داشتن، فکر کردن

He had even contemplated suicide.

contemplate doing sth

Did you ever contemplate resigning?

2 [intransitive and transitive] to think about sth seriously for a period of time SYN consider:

Jack went on vacation to contemplate his future.

contemplate what/whether/how etc.

She sat down and contemplated what she had done.

contemplate your navel (= think so much about your own life that you do not notice other important things – used humorously)

3 [transitive] to look at someone or sth for a period of time in a way that shows you are thinking:

He contemplated her with a faint (ضعیف) smile. 


contemplate / ˈkɒntəmpleɪt $ ˈkɑːn- / verb /accept/

2 [transitive] to accept the possibility that sth is true پذیرفتن حقیقت

too dreadful/horrifying etc. to contemplate

The thought that she might be dead was too terrible to contemplate. 



give sth some/a lot of thought 

mull sth over 



reflect formal 

weigh to carefully think about a plan or choice by comparing all the advantages and disadvantages involved:

You need to weigh the pros and cons (= the advantages and disadvantages), and decide which investment is the best one for you. | The committee are still weighing the alternatives.

give sth some/a lot of thought to think carefully about sth, before you make a final decision about it:

Why don’t you give it some thought and then get back to me? | He had obviously given the matter a lot of thought.

mull sth over to think about a problem, plan etc. before making a decision:

Can you give me a bit of time to mull it over?

ponder to spend time thinking carefully and seriously about sth, especially a problem or sth complicated:

She is still pondering what to do. | Officials are pondering ways to remove the oil from the beaches.

contemplate to think about sth you might do in the future:

Did you ever contemplate resigning?

reflect formal to think carefully about sth, especially sth that happened in the past:

It was a good time to reflect upon the changes that had happened in my life. 


deify / ˈdiːəfaɪ, ˈdiːɪfaɪ, ˈdeɪ- / verb (past tense and past participle deified, present participle deifying, third person singular deifies) [transitive]

deification / ˌdiːəfəˈkeɪʃ ə n, ˌdiːɪfəˈkeɪʃ ə n, ˌdeɪ- / noun [uncountable] 

to treat someone or sth with extreme respect and admiration; When people deify the leader of their country, the leader is able to abuse power more easily  خدا دانستن


ecclesiastical / ɪˌkliːziˈæstɪk ə l / (also ecclesiastic / -ˈæstɪk /) adjective


relating to the Christian church or its priests:

ecclesiastical history 


exalt / ɪɡˈzɔːlt $ -ˈzɒːlt / verb [transitive] formal


1 to put someone or sth into a high rank or position; تمجید کردن

He would often exalt the virtues of his new wife.

2 to praise someone, especially God:

Exalt ye the Lord. 


pious / ˈpaɪəs / adjective

piously adverb 

1 having strong religious beliefs, and showing this in the way you behave → piety: وارسته، زاهد

He was a quiet, pious man. Sometimes she was so pious that the rest of us felt like heathens. (بی دین)

2 if you describe what someone says as pious talk, words etc, you mean that they are trying to sound good or moral but you do not believe that they are sincere or will really do what they say: مقدس مابانه

pious speeches by politicians about ‘family values’

3 pious hope/wish sth that you want to be true or to happen, but that is very unlikely:

All these agreements and ideas remain little more than pious hopes in the present climate.


piety / ˈpaɪəti / noun [uncountable]


when you behave in a way that shows respect for your religion → pious:

an act of Christian piety تقوی، پارسایی


pagan 1 / ˈpeɪɡən / adjective

paganism noun [uncountable] 

pagan religious beliefs and customs do not belong to any of the main religions of the world, and may come from a time before these religions:

ancient pagan temples بت پرستی، مشرکی

pagan 2 noun [countable]

1 (also Pagan) someone who believes in a pagan religion

2 someone with few or no religious beliefs – used humorously


deity / ˈdeɪəti, ˈdeɪɪti, ˈdiː- / noun (plural deities) [countable]

a god or goddess: خدا

the deities of ancient Greece 






god a male spirit or being who is believed by some religions to control the world or part of it, or who represents a particular quality: Odin was the Viking god of war.

goddess a female god: Artemis, the Greek goddess of the moon

deity a god. Deity is more formal than god: a Hindu deity | Roman deities | the Supreme Deity

idol بت a picture or statue that people pray to as a god: a bronze idol 


aggravate / ˈæɡrəveɪt / verb [transitive]

aggravating adjective

aggravatingly adverb

aggravation / ˌæɡrəˈveɪʃ ə n / noun [uncountable and countable] 

1 to make a bad situation, an illness, or an injury worse OPP improve: بدتر کردن

Their money problems were further aggravated by a rise in interest rates.

Building the new road will only aggravate the situation. Running will aggravate your sore knees

2 to make someone angry or annoyed SYN irritate:

What really aggravates me is the way she won’t listen.


decrepit / dɪˈkrepət, dɪˈkrepɪt / adjective

decrepitude noun [uncountable] 

old and in bad condition: ضعیف و ناتوان، فرسوده قدیمی

The buildings were in a decrepit state. The once-beautiful building was now dirty, decrepit, and roofless

He was a rather decrepit old man.


forensics / fəˈrensɪks, -zɪks / noun [uncountable]

the use of scientific tests to solve crimes; پزشکی قانونی

Advances in the study of forensics have made it much easier to identify criminals from very small traces of evidence.


terminal 1 AC / ˈtɜːmən ə l, ˈtɜːmɪn ə l $ ˈtɜːr- / adjective

terminally adverb:

terminally ill patients 

1 a terminal illness cannot be cured, and causes death → fatal:

terminal cancer; The cancer ward at the hospital held both terminal and recovering patients.


terminal 2 AC noun [countable]

1 a big building where people wait to get onto planes, buses, or ships, or where goods are loaded:

the airport’s passenger terminal

ferry/bus terminal

2 a piece of computer equipment consisting of at least a keyboard and a screen, that you use for putting in or taking out information from a large computer

3 one of the points at which you can connect wires in an electrical circuit

positive/negative terminal 




the tarmac

check-in (desk) 

departure lounge 

departure gate 

baggage claim 



terminal a big building where people wait to get onto planes:

The airline uses terminal 4. | Smoking is prohibited inside the terminal building.

runway a long hard surface on which aircraft land and take off:

The plane was taxiing along the runway.

the tarmac an area covered with tarmac outside airport buildings:آسفالت SYN: Asphalt

He stepped off the plane onto the tarmac.

check-in (desk) a place where you report your arrival at an airport

departure lounge the place where you wait until your plane is ready to leave

departure gate the place you go through to get on your plane:

Will passengers for flight BA670 please go to the departure gate.

baggage claim the place where you collect your cases and bags after a flight

immigration the place where officials check the documents of everyone entering the country:

Be prepared for long queues at immigration.

customs the place where your bags are checked for illegal goods when you enter a country:

We had our bags checked at customs. 


wound 2 / wuːnd / noun [countable]

1 an injury to your body that is made by a weapon such as a knife or a bullet: زخم

A nurse cleaned and bandaged the wound.

It took several months for his wounds to heal.

a feeling of emotional or mental pain that you get when someone says or does sth unpleasant to you:

It will take much longer for the mental wounds to heal.


suffer/receive a wound

Several of the victims suffered severe stab (چاقو زدن) wounds. 


head/leg etc. wound

stab/knife/gunshot wound

a gaping wound 

head/leg etc. wound

He was treated in hospital for head wounds.

stab/knife/gunshot wound

He died of gunshot wounds.

The doctor said it was only a flesh wound (= one that does not cut the skin very deeply).

a gaping wound (= one that is wide and open) on his thigh 


open old wounds

to remind someone of unpleasant things that happened in the past 












injury damage to part of your body caused by an accident or an attack:

The passengers were taken to hospital with minor injuries.

wound an injury, especially a deep cut in your skin made by a knife, bullet, or bomb:

He died of a gunshot wound to the head.

cut a small injury made when a sharp object cuts your skin:

Blood was running from a cut on his chin.

bruise a dark mark on your skin that you get when you fall or get hit:

Jack often comes home from playing rugby covered in bruises.

graze/scrape a small injury that marks your skin or breaks the surface slightly:

She fell off her bike and got a few grazes on her legs and knees.

gash a long deep cut: He had a deep gash across his forehead.

bump an area of skin that is swollen because you have hit it against sth:

How did you get that bump on your head?

sprain an injury to your ankle, wrist, knee etc, caused by suddenly twisting it:

It’s a slight sprain – you should rest your ankle for a week.

strain an injury to a muscle caused by stretching it or using it too much:

a muscle strain in his neck

fracture a crack or broken part in a bone: a hip fracture 


augment / ɔːɡˈment $ ɒːɡ- / verb [transitive] formal

augmentation / ˌɔːɡmenˈteɪʃ ə n, -mən- $ ˌɒːɡ- / noun [uncountable and countable] 

to increase the value, amount, effectiveness etc. of sth:

Any surplus was sold to augment their income. In some types of popular cosmetic surgery people augment parts of their bodies. The college augmented its course offerings because students complained that there were too few choices


certifiable / ˈsɜːtəfaɪəb ə l, ˈsɜːtɪfaɪəb ə l $ ˌsɜːrtəˈfaɪ- / adjective


1 informal crazy, especially in a way that is dangerous: دیونه خطرناک

If you ask me, that man is certifiable.

2 definitely a particular thing:

The guy’s a certifiable megastar.

3 good enough to be officially approved:

grade A certifiable beef; He couldn’t be institutionalized until he was declared certifiably insane.


institutionalized AC / ˌɪnstə'tjuːʃ ə nəlaɪzd, ˌɪnstɪ'tjuːʃ ə nəlaɪzd $ -ˈtuː- / adjective


1 institutionalized attitudes and behavior have existed for a long time in an organization and have become accepted as normal even though they are bad نهادینه شده

institutionalized racism/sexism etc.

institutionalized corruption (فساد) within the state

2 someone who has become institutionalized has lived for a long time in a prison, mental hospital etc. and now cannot easily live outside one سالها در زندان یا بیمارستان ببستری بودن

3 forming part of a society or system:

institutionalised democracy 


astrology / əˈstrɒlədʒi $ əˈstrɑː- / noun [uncountable]

astrological / ˌæstrəˈlɒdʒɪk ə l◂ $ -ˈlɑː- / adjective 

the study of the positions and movements of the stars and how they might influence people and events; ستاره شناسی

Every day, Mona read her astrological forecast in the newspaper, and she was careful if the horoscope predicted trouble.


horoscope / ˈhɒrəskəʊp $ ˈhɑːrəskoʊp, ˈhɔː- / noun [ countable ]

a description of people’s characters and the things that will happen to them, based on the position of the stars and planets at the time of their birth – especially a description that is printed in a newspaper or magazine: فال

I sometimes read my horoscope in the daily paper. | My horoscope says that I should be careful about investing money. ​​


the signs of the zodiac 

star sign/sign 

the signs of the zodiac the twelve signs that you can belong to according to your birth date and the position of the stars then, which some people believe influence our characters and our lives:

The carving shows the twelve signs of the zodiac.

star sign/sign one of the 12 signs of the zodiac:

What sign are you? | My favourite star sign is Aquarius. 


divination / ˌdɪvəˈneɪʃ ə n, ˌdɪvɪˈneɪʃ ə n / noun [uncountable]

the ability to say what will happen in the future, or the act of doing this; پیش گویی

In Turkey, women offer divinations by reading the dregs (ته نشین) from a coffee cup.


dregs / dreɡz / noun

the dregs of society/humanity 

1 [plural] a small amount of a drink, sometimes with bits in, left at the bottom of a cup, glass, or bottle

2 the dregs of society/humanity not polite an offensive expression used to describe the people that you consider are the least important or useful in society 


haunt 1 / hɔːnt $ hɒːnt / verb [transitive not in progressive]


1 if the soul of a dead person haunts a place, it appears there often:

The pub is said to be haunted by the ghost of a former landlord. Some say the ghost of Princess Hilda haunts this castle, appearing as a headless form while she plays the piano. The pictures of children dying in war have haunted me for a long time. A haunted house

2 to make someone worry or make them sad:

Clare was haunted by the fear that her husband was having an affair.

3 to cause problems for someone over a long period of time:

an error that would come back to haunt them for years to come 


haunt 2 noun [countable]

haunt of

a place that someone likes to go to often پاتوق

haunt of

The Café Vienna was a favorite haunt of journalists and actors. 


ˈhorror ˌmovie W3 / ˈhɒrə $ ˈhɔːrər, ˈhɑː- / noun [countable] 

a film in which strange and frightening things happen فیمهای وحشتناک


intermediary / ˌɪntəˈmiːdiəri $ ˌɪntərˈmiːdieri / noun (plural intermediaries) [countable]

intermediary adjective [only before noun]:

an intermediary role in the talks 

a person or organization that tries to help two other people or groups to agree with each other SYN: go-between: میانجی

Jackson acted as an intermediary between the two parties. The plaintiff’s lawyer suggested that they hire an intermediary to help them discuss their case.


plaintiff / ˈpleɪntəf, ˈpleɪntɪf / noun [countable]

someone who brings a legal action against another person in a court of law SYN complainant ​شاکی، خواهان


invoke AC / ɪnˈvəʊk $ -ˈvoʊk / verb [transitive] formal


1 if you invoke a law, rule etc, you say that you are doing sth because the law allows or forces you to: خواستار چیزی شدن، با التماس خواستن

The UN threatened to invoke economic sanctions if the talks were broken off. In many religions, believers invoke their god by holding out their hands.

2 to make a particular idea, image, or feeling appear in people’s minds by describing an event or situation, or by talking about a person تصویر سازی

a painting that invokes images of the Rocky Mountains

During his speech, he invoked the memory of Harry Truman.

to ask for help from someone more powerful than you, especially a god:

St. Genevieve is often invoked against plagues (بیماریهایی که سریع پخش میشوند و جان عده زیادی آدم را میگیرند).

4 to make spirits appear by using magic: احضار روح کردن

invoking the spirits of their ancestors 


phantom 1 / ˈfæntəm / noun [countable] literary

1 the image of a dead person or strange thing that someone thinks they see SYN ghost روح

2 sth that exists only in your imagination شبح




apparition / ˌæpəˈrɪʃ ə n / noun [ countable ] 

poltergeist / ˈpɒltəɡaɪst $ ˈpoʊltər- / noun [ countable ] 

spook informal 

phantom literary 

specter literary 

ghost the spirit of a dead person that some people think they can feel or see in a place:

His ghost is believed to haunt the house.

spirit a creature without a physical body, such as an angel or ghost:

evil spirits | the spirit world

apparition an image of a dead person that someone sees suddenly for a short time:

He claimed to have seen an apparition in the church.

poltergeist a ghost that people cannot see, which throws things or moves things around:

The house was haunted by a poltergeist that makes things move around all by themselves, sometimes quite big things like beds or wardrobes.

spook informal a ghost: I’m not scared of spooks.

phantom literary a frightening and unclear image of a dead person:

They had seen phantoms gliding on the surface of the water.

specter literary a ghost, especially a frightening one:

She had looked like a spectre. | The following night, the spectre appeared again. 


psychic 1 / ˈsaɪkɪk / adjective [no comparative]

psychically / -kli / adverb 

1 (also psychical / ˈsaɪkɪk ə l /) relating to the power of the human mind to do strange or surprising things that cannot be explained by reason:

a spiritual healer with psychic powers

a documentary on psychic phenomena

2 someone who is psychic has the ability to know what other people are thinking or what will happen in the future SYN: clairvoyant: / kleəˈvɔɪənt $ kler- / noun [ countable ]

You don’t have to be psychic to know what Maggie is thinking.

3 (also psychical) affecting the mind rather than the body:

psychic disorders (= illnesses)


perpetuate / pəˈpetʃueɪt $ pər- / verb [transitive]

perpetuation / pəˌpetʃuˈeɪʃ ə n $ pər- / noun [uncountable] 

to make a situation, attitude etc, especially a bad one, continue to exist for a long time: تداوم دادن موارد بد

an education system that perpetuates the divisions in our society


assimilate / əˈsɪməleɪt, əˈsɪmɪleɪt / verb


1 [transitive] to completely understand and begin to use new ideas, information etc. SYN absorb: وفق دادن

It will take time to assimilate all these facts.

2 [intransitive and transitive] if people assimilate, or are assimilated into a country or group, they become part of that group and are accepted by the people in that group

assimilate into

Refugees find it difficult to become assimilated into the community. Not all of the overseas students could assimilate into the rigidly controlled school.


cremate / krəˈmeɪt, krɪˈmeɪt $ ˈkriːmeɪt / verb [transitive]

cremation / krɪˈmeɪʃ ə n / noun [uncountable and countable];

to burn the body of a dead person at a funeral ceremony سوزاندن جسد

Cremation is particularly common in Japan, where land for burial is very limited


skeptical / ˈskeptɪk ə l / adjective

skeptically / -kli / adverb 

tending to disagree with what other people tell you SYN doubtful

skeptical about/of مشکوک

I’m extremely skeptical about what I read in the press.

Environmental groups are skeptical of the government’s claims.

highly/deeply skeptical

He is highly skeptical of the reforms.

‘You can trust me,’ he said. Jane looked skeptical.


folklore / ˈfəʊklɔː $ ˈfoʊklɔːr / noun [uncountable]

the traditional stories, customs etc. of a particular area or country;  فرهنگ عامه

Through folklore, archaeologists have learned about the migration of Native Americans in North America


fossilize  / ˈfɒsəlaɪz, ˈfɒsɪlaɪz $ ˈfɑː- / verb

fossilization / ˌfɒsəlaɪˈzeɪʃ ə n, ˌfɒsɪlaɪˈzeɪʃ ə n $ ˌfɑːsələ- / noun [uncountable] 

1 [usually passive] if people, ideas, systems etc. fossilize or are fossilized, they never change or develop, even when there are good reasons why they should change: فسیل شده

Most couples, however fossilized their relationship, have some interests in common. The dinosaur eggs had fossilized over thousands of years.

2 [intransitive and transitive] to become or form a fossil by being preserved in rock:

fossilized dinosaur bones


mummy S1 / ˈmʌmi / noun (plural mummies) [countable]


1 British English mother – used especially by young children or when you are talking to young children SYN mommy American English:

Mummy, can I play outside?

2 a dead body that has been preserved by wrapping it in cloth, especially in ancient Egypt → mummify 


relic / ˈrelɪk / noun [countable]


1 an old object or custom that reminds people of the past or that has lived on from a past time: یادگار یا عتیقه

Roman relics found in a field

relic of

the books and photos, relics of Rob’s university days; Relics of the war can still be found in the sand dunes (تپه های شنی در صحرا یا کنار دریا) along this shore

Everything in the house seemed old and untouched, like relics of an ancient time.

2 a part of the body or clothing of a holy person which is kept after their death because it is thought to be holy 


rite / raɪt / noun [countable]


1 a ceremony that is always performed in the same way, usually for religious purposes SYN: ritual: تشریفات مذهبی

funeral rites; Many cultures have fertility rites that supposedly make it more likely for women to bear children

ancient fertility rites

These traditional rites are performed only by the women of the village.

2 rite of passage a special ceremony or action that is a sign of a new stage in someone’s life, especially when a boy starts to become a man جشن بلوغ پسرها

3 last rites final prayers or religious ceremonies for someone who is dying: 

A priest came to give him the last rites.


ritual 2 adjective [only before noun]

ritually adverb:

Animals are brought in and ritually slaughtered. 

1 done as part of a rite or ritual:

ritual dances; The children ritually kissed their parents on the cheek before bed.

2 done in a fixed and expected way, but without real meaning or sincerity:

The police issued the usual ritual apology.


saga / ˈsɑːɡə / noun [countable]

1 a long and complicated series of events, or a description of this: وقایع طولانی و پیچیده

The whole saga began back in May.

saga of

She launched into the saga of her on-off engagement.

2 a long story about events that happen over many years

saga of

a saga of four generations of the Coleman family

3 one of the stories written about the Vikings of Norway and Iceland 




myth noun [uncountable and countable] 

legend noun [uncountable and countable]




yarn informal 

story a description of how sth happened that is intended to entertain people, and may be true or imaginary:

a ghost story | a love story | It’s a story about a man who loses his memory. | a book of short stories

tale a story about strange imaginary events, or exciting events that happened in the past:

a fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen | I loved hearing tales of his travels.

myth noun [uncountable and countable] a very old imaginary story about gods and magical creatures:

an ancient myth | Greek and Roman myths

legend noun [uncountable and countable] an old story about brave people or magical events that are probably not true:

popular legends of the creation of the world | According to legend, King Arthur was buried there.

fable a traditional imaginary short story that teaches a moral lesson, especially a story about animals:

the fable of the tortoise  / ˈtɔːtəs $ ˈtɔːr- / noun [countable] and the hare (خرگوش) | a Chinese fable

epic a story told in a long book, film, or poem which is about great or exciting events, especially in history:

an epic about 13th-century Scottish hero William Wallace

saga a story about a series of events that take place over a long period of time, especially events involving one family:

a family saga beginning in the 1880s

yarn informal a long exciting story that is not completely true:

The movie’s a rattling good yarn (هم معنی نخهای پشمی برای ریسندگی میده و هم معنی قصه های ماجراجویی و هیجانی که خالی بندی هم توشه) and full of action. 


vestige / ˈvestɪdʒ / noun [countable] formal


1 a small part or amount of sth that remains when most of it no longer exists SYN trace ذره

vestige of

The new law removed the last vestiges of royal power.

2 the smallest possible amount of a quality or feeling

vestige of

There’s not a vestige of truth in the story. 






racism/racial prejudice 




xenophobia / ˌzenəˈfəʊbiə $ -ˈfoʊ- / 



gay/union/America etc. bashing 

prejudice an unreasonable dislike and distrust of people who are different from you in some way, especially because of their race, sex, religion etc.: تعصب

racial prejudice | prejudice against women

discrimination the practice of treating one group of people differently from another in an unfair way:

There is widespread discrimination against older people. | the laws on sex discrimination

intolerance an unreasonable refusal to accept beliefs, customs, and ways of thinking that are different from your own:

religious intolerance | There is an atmosphere of intolerance in the media.

bigotry a completely unreasonable hatred (نفرت/ ˈheɪtrəd, ˈheɪtrɪd / noun [ uncountable and countable ] ) for people of a different race, religion etc, based on strong and fixed opinions: تعصب

religious bigotry | the bigotry directed at Jews and other ethnic groups

racism/racial prejudice unfair treatment of people because they belong to a different race:

Many black people have been the victims of racism in Britain. | Some immigrant groups faced racism, for example Jews and Italians, while others, such as Scandinavians, did not.

sexism the belief that one sex, especially women, is weaker, less intelligent etc. than the other, especially when this results in someone being treated unfairly:

sexism in language | She accused him of sexism.

ageism (also agism American English) unfair treatment of people because they are old: The new law aims to stop ageism in the workplace.

homophobia prejudice towards or hatred of gay people:

homophobia in the armed forces

xenophobia / ˌzenəˈfəʊbiə $ -ˈfoʊ- / hatred and fear of foreigners:

the xenophobia of the right-wing press

anti-Semitism a strong feeling of hatred toward Jewish people:

Is anti-Semitism on the increase?

Islamophobia hatred and fear of Muslims:

the rise of Islamophobia and right-wing extremism in Europe

gay/union/America etc. bashing unfair public criticism of gay people, union members, the American government etc.:

The minister was accused of union bashing. | There's so much America-bashing in the liberal press.


biased AC, biassed / ˈbaɪəst / adjective

1 unfairly preferring one person or group over another: جانبدارانه

Of course I’m biased, but I thought my daughter’s paintings were the best.

racially biased attitudes

biased against/towards/in favour of

news reporting that was heavily biased towards the government

2 more interested in a particular thing than in another

biased towards

The majority of infants are biased towards being social rather than being antisocial. 


unfair/not fair 



inequitable formal 


unfair/not fair not right or fair, especially because not everyone has an equal opportunity:

The present welfare system is grossly unfair. | It’s not fair that people are paying different prices for the same tickets.

unjust not fair or right according to the principles of a particular society:

He believed it was an illegal and unjust war. | unjust laws

unequal unfair because people are treated in different ways or because some people have more power than others: نابرابر

We live in a deeply unequal society. | the unequal distribution of global resources

inequitable formal unfair because people are treated in different ways, or because some people have more power than others: غیرمنصفانه

inequitable tax laws | The system is inequitable, because it makes it possible for rich people to buy a place at university.

biased unfairly against or in favour of a particular group:

biased reporting | There were claims that prison bosses were racially biased. | The policy was biased against women. | The trade laws are biased in favour of rich countries. 


counter 2 verb


1 [intransitive and transitive] to say sth in order to try to prove that what someone said was not true or as a reply to sth: جواب پس دادن

‘I could ask the same thing of you,’ she countered.

counter an argument/an allegation (تهمت) /a criticism etc.

He was determined to counter the bribery allegations.

2 [transitive] to do sth in order to prevent sth bad from happening or to reduce its bad effects: مانع چیزای بد شدن

Exercise helps to counter the effects of stress. 


de facto / ˌdeɪ ˈfæktəʊ $ dɪ ˈfæktoʊ, ˌdeɪ- / adjective formal

de facto adverb 

really existing although not legally stated to exist بالفعل

a de facto state of war; Popular support established the Citizens Party as the de facto government.


de jure / ˌdiː ˈdʒʊəri, ˌdeɪ ˈdʒʊəreɪ $ -ˈdʒʊr- / adjective, adverb technical

true or right because of a law حق قانونی


notion W3 AC / ˈnəʊʃ ə n $ ˈnoʊ- / noun [countable]

1 an idea, belief, or opinion ایده و باورو عقیده

notion of

misguided notions of male superiority

The traditional notion of marriage goes back thousands of years.

She had only a vague (مبهم=وِگ) notion of what she wanted to do.

notion that

the notion that human beings are basically good

She had no notion what he meant.

accept/challenge/reject etc. a notion

They reject the notion of group guilt.

2 notions [plural] American English small things such as thread and buttons that are used for sewing خرده ریزای خیاطی


not have the faintest/foggiest notion

(= not know or understand sth at all) He had not the foggiest notion how far he might have to walk. 









idea sth that you think of, especially sth that you could do or suggest:

I think that’s an excellent idea. | Let me know if you have any good ideas.

thought sth that comes into your mind:

The thought had entered my mind that he might be lying. | It was a worrying thought. | She was lost in her thoughts.

impression the idea that you have in your mind about what someone or sth is like:

What was your impression of him?

inspiration a good and original idea, which makes you think of doing or creating sth:

Where did you get your inspiration from for the book? | He suddenly had a flash of inspiration. | The design for the house was entirely the inspiration of the architect.

brainstorm a sudden new and clever idea, especially one that solves a problem:

I thought I’d have to sell the house, but then I had a brainwave.

concept an idea of how sth is, or how sth should be done:

Concepts of beauty are different in different cultures. | the traditional concept of marriage

notion an idea about life or society, especially one that is a little silly or old-fashioned:

There is no evidence to support the notion that poverty is caused by laziness. 


oppress / əˈpres / verb [transitive often passive]


1 to treat a group of people unfairly or cruelly, and prevent them from having the same rights that other people in society have: ظلم و ستم کردن

native tribes oppressed by the authorities; Factory management oppressed workers through intimidation (ارعاب)

2 to make someone feel unhappy, worried, or uncomfortable:

The gloom (تاریکی) in the chapel oppressed her. 


Pope / pəʊp $ poʊp / noun [countable]


1 the leader of the Roman Catholic Church → papal:

The Pope will visit El Salvador this year.

Pope John XXIII


2 Is the Pope (a) Catholic? informal


used to say that sth is clearly true or certain – used humorously:

‘Do you think they’ll win?’ ‘Is the Pope Catholic?’