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Flashcards in Pathway4_4 Deck (101):

in a flutter noun [singular]

1 a feeling of being nervous, confused, or excited 

هیجان و عصبانیت و گیجی

She was all in a flutter. 

His sudden resignation caused quite a flutter.


feast / fiːst / noun [countable] 

feast day

4 a day or period when there is a religious celebration: 

the feast day of St. Francis ضیافت مذهبی


grand 1 S2 W3 / ɡrænd / adjective

برای ساختمان و افراد

a) used in the titles of buildings or places that are big and impressive: 

the Grand Hotel 

Grand Central Station 

b) used in the titles of some people who belong to the highest social class: 

the Grand Duke of Baden


humble 1 / ˈhʌmb ə l / adjective

1 not considering yourself or your ideas to be as important as other people’s OPP proud فروتن

a modest and humble man


treacherous / ˈtretʃərəs / adjective 

— treacherously adverb 

2 ground, roads, weather conditions etc. that are treacherous are particularly dangerous because you cannot see the dangers very easily: خطرناک

treacherous mountain roads 

Strong winds and loose rocks made climbing treacherous. 


1. dangerous

2. risky

3. hazardous / ˈhæzədəs $ -zər- / especially written

4. unsafe

5. treacherous / ˈtretʃərəs / formal literary

6. perilous / ˈperələs, ˈperɪləs / literary

7. high-risk [only before noun]

1. likely to cause death or serious harm, or cause something bad to happen: Snow and ice are making driving conditions very dangerous. | dangerous drugs | a dangerous criminal 

2. if something is risky, something bad could easily happen or you could easily make a mistake: Doctors said it was too risky to operate. | a risky situation 

3. dangerous – used especially about substances, jobs, and journeys: hazardous waste | hazardous chemicals | hazardous occupations | The expedition was extremely hazardous. 

4. dangerous because someone is very likely to be hurt – used especially about places or conditions: The roads are unsafe for cyclists. | unsafe working conditions 

5. places or conditions that are treacherous are very dangerous for anyone who is walking, driving, climbing etc. in them: The snow turned to ice, making conditions treacherous for walkers. | the island’s treacherous coastline | With no lighting, the roads can be treacherous. 

6. a perilous journey, situation etc. is very dangerous: a perilous journey across the sea 

7. a high-risk job, situation, or behavior is likely to be dangerous: Drug users need to know that sharing needles is high-risk behavior.


spell 2 noun [countable] /period of time/

brief/short spell 

cold/wet/dry spell 

2 a period of a particular kind of activity, weather, illness etc, usually a short period دوره

After a brief spell in the army, I returned to teaching. 

spell of 

a spell of bad luck 

Water the young plants carefully during dry spells. 

a day of sunny spells and scattered showers 

He began to suffer from dizzy spells.


1. magic noun [uncountable]

2. witchcraft noun [uncountable]

3. spell noun [countable]

4. curse (also hex American English) noun [countable]

5. the occult

6. voodoo noun [uncountable]

1. the power to make impossible things happen, by saying special words or doing special actions: In the story, she uses magic to turn him into a frog. | Local people believe that he can heal wounds and illnesses using magic. 

2. سحر و جادو the use of magic, usually to do bad things: Hundreds of women were accused of witchcraft in the 1600s. 

3. a special set of words or actions that are used to make something happen by magic: a magic spell | An evil witch (زن جادوگر) cast a spell on him (= said a special set of words or did a special series of actions, in order to make something happen to someone by magic), turning him into a beast (عنتر). 

4. something that makes someone or something have bad luck: The house seemed to have a curse on it. | People believed the pharaoh would put a curse on (= use magic to make them have bad luck) anyone who broke into the tomb. | She believed her former husband had put a hex on her. 

5. اسرار آمیز mysterious powers and events that involve magic and spirits: He was very interested in the occult. 

6. magical beliefs and practices used as a form of religion: a voodoo curse | In Haiti, the people still practice voodoo.


a flutter of something noun [singular]

a sudden feeling that is not very strong: حس موقتی از

She felt a flutter of curiosity. 


feast on/upon something

to eat a lot of a particular food with great enjoyment: عیش و نوش کردن

We feasted on chicken and roast potatoes.


a grand total  S2 W3 / ɡrænd / adjective

the final total you get when you add up several numbers or amounts جمع کل

a grand total of 

You could add the $15,000 Bonus to the First Prize and win a grand total of $125,000! 


humble 1 / ˈhʌmb ə l / adjective

humble background/origins etc. 

2 having a low social class or position: محقر

He started his career as a humble peanut farmer. 

Iacocca rose from humble beginnings to become boss of Ford.


wavelength / ˈweɪvleŋθ / noun [countable] informal

be on the same/a different wavelength

to have the same or different opinions and feelings as someone else: 

Dad is just on a different wavelength from me. 


fall/come/be under a spell noun [countable]

cast spell over

3 a power that attracts, interests, and influences you very strongly 

I fell under the spell of her charm. ; an ancient city that still casts its spell over travelers


flutter noun [singular] 

3 a light gentle movement 

flutter of ; a flutter of wings پرزدن


grand (old) age S2 W3 / ɡrænd / adjective

an age when someone is quite old: 

She had reached the grand old age of 80.


break the spell noun [countable] 

to make someone stop paying all their attention to something, or to make a time stop feeling special: 

He lay still, not wanting to break the spell. بس کنه دیگه


feast your eyes on somebody/something

to look at someone or something with great pleasure: 

If you like luxury cars, feast your eyes on these.


the grand Old Man of something S2 W3 / ɡrænd / adjective

a man who has been involved in an activity or a profession for a long time and is highly respected: 

the grand Old Man of British theatre 



humble  / ˈhʌmb ə l / adjective 5 [only before noun]

simple and ordinary, but useful or effective: ساده و معمولی

The humble potato may be the key to feeding the world’s population.


frenetic / frəˈnetɪk, frɪˈnetɪk / adjective

frenetic activity is fast and not very organized SYN frantic:

She rushes from job to job at a frenetic pace (سرعت).


spontaneous / spɒnˈteɪniəs $ spɑːn- / adjective

در مورد وقایع/ در مورد آدمها

spontaneously adverb:

She laughed spontaneously.

spontaneity / ˌspɒntˈniːəti, ˌspɒntˈniːɪti, -ˈneɪəti $ ˌspɑːn- / noun [uncountable]

1 something that is spontaneous has not been planned or organized, but happens by itself, or because you suddenly feel you want to do it: یک دفعه ای

The crowd gave a spontaneous cheer.; My spontaneous reaction was to run away.

2 someone who is spontaneous does things without planning them first – used to show approval


swing 1 W3 / swɪŋ / verb ( past tense and past participle swung / swʌŋ / ) 1 move from a fixed point [intransitive and transitive]

to make regular movements forwards and backwards or from one side to another while hanging from a particular point, or to make something do this: تاب خوردن

Let your arms swing as you walk.

a sign swinging in the wind

He was swinging his bag back and forth.

She swung her legs from side to side.


swing something by something

He marched around, swinging the gun by its handle.


swing from something to something (change opinions/emotions) [intransitive and transitive]

mood swing

swing votes

swing in ... favor

if emotions or opinions swing, or if something swings them, they change quickly to the opposite of what they were

His mood could swing from joy to despair.

Do campaign gifts swing votes?

The war had begun to swing in Britain’s favor.


swing 1 W3 / swɪŋ / verb ( past tense and past participle swung / swʌŋ / ) arrange something [transitive] spoken

to arrange for something to happen, although it takes a lot of effort to do this:

We managed to swing it so that they will travel together.


swing around/round phrasal verb

to turn around quickly, or to make something do this:

She swung around to face him.


swing by phrasal verb American English informal

swing by (something)

to visit a place or person for a short time:

I’ll swing by the grocery store on my way.


dribble 1 / ˈdrɪb ə l / verb  [intransitive and transitive]

در ارتباط با دهان

to let liquid come out of your mouth onto your face:

Watch out, the baby is dribbling on your shirt!

He was dribbling tea onto his tie.


dribble 1 / ˈdrɪb ə l / verb

در ارتباط با مایع

2 [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] if a liquid dribbles somewhere, it flows in a thin irregular stream:

Blood from the wound dribbled down the side of his face.


dribble 1 / ˈdrɪb ə l / verb  3 [intransitive and transitive]

در ارتباط با توپ

to move the ball along with you by short kicks, bounces, or hits in a game of football, basketball etc:

He was trying to dribble the ball past his opponents.


dribble 1 / ˈdrɪb ə l / verb 5 [transitive always + adverb/preposition]  در ارتباط با ریختن چیزی

to pour something out slowly in an irregular way:

Dribble a few drops of olive oil over the pizza.


fling 1 / flɪŋ / verb ( past tense and past participle flung / flʌŋ / ) [transitive always + adverb/preposition]

fling something into something

1 throw something to throw something somewhere using a lot of force

He flung the box into the river.

People cheered and flung their hats into the air.


fling 1 / flɪŋ / verb ( past tense and past participle flung / flʌŋ / ) [transitive always + adverb/preposition]

در ارتباط با حرکت دادن

2 move something to throw or move something roughly and carelessly: پرت کردن

He flung his coat over the back of a chair.

She flung back the covers and got up.

He flung the books aside angrily.


fling 1 / flɪŋ / verb ( past tense and past participle flung / flʌŋ / ) [transitive always + adverb/preposition]
در ارتباط با حول دادن

3 push somebody to push someone roughly, especially so that they fall to the ground SYN throw:

He grabbed her arm and flung her to the ground.


fling 1 / flɪŋ / verb ( past tense and past participle flung / flʌŋ / ) [transitive always + adverb/preposition]

fling something at somebody

در ارتباط با سخن گفتن

5 say something to say something to someone in an angry way SYN throw

People were flinging all sorts of accusations (اتهام) at her.

His own words were flung back at him.


fling something open

to open a door or window roughly, using a lot of force:

The door was flung open and Selkirk entered.


fling somebody in/into prison/jail

to put someone in prison, often without having a good reason:

Opposition leaders were flung into jail.


fling yourself into something

to start doing something with a lot of energy:

After the divorce he flung himself into his work to forget her.


fling yourself at somebody

to move suddenly towards someone in order to attack them or hold them:

He flung himself at her and snatched (قاپیدن) the bag.

The children flung themselves at him, squealing (جیغ زدن) with joy.


fling something off phrasal verb

to quickly remove a piece of clothing SYN tear off:

He flung off his coat.


toss ( also chuck ) / tɒs $ tɒːs / informal

to throw something, especially in a careless way without using much effort: She tossed her coat onto the bed. | Can you chuck me the remote control?



to throw something with a lot of force:

Someone hurled a brick through his window.


heave / hiːv /

to throw something heavy using a lot of effort: They heaved the log into the river.



to throw something high into the air over someone or something: The police lobbed tear gas canisters over the heads of the demonstrators.


easel / ˈiːz ə l / noun [countable]

a wooden frame that you put a painting on while you paint it


premeditated / priːˈmedəteɪtəd, priːˈmedɪteɪtəd $ prɪ- / adjective

a premeditated crime or attack is planned in advance and done deliberately: با قصد قبلی

premeditated murder


imagery AC / ˈɪmɪdʒ ə ri / noun [uncountable]

imagery of

the use of words or pictures to describe ideas or actions in poems, books, films etc تصورات، شبیه سازی

the imagery of love

Their dreams commonly involved complex stories with visual imagery.



a way of describing something by referring to it as something different and suggesting that it has similar qualities to that thing: The beehive is a metaphor for human society. استعاره


sim‧i‧le / ˈsɪməli, ˈsɪmɪli / noun

an expression that describes something by comparing it with something else, using the words as or like , for example ’as white as snow’: The poet uses the simile ’soft like clay’.  تشبیه و استعاره


irony n.

the use of words that are the opposite of what you really mean, often in order to be amusing:’I’m so happy to hear that,’ he said, with more than a trace of irony in his voice.

وارونه گویی، طنز



a sudden change from a subject that is beautiful, moral, or serious to something that is ordinary, silly, or not important: The play is too sentimental (احساساتی) and full of bathos.

تنزل از مطالب عالی به چیزهای پیش پا افتاده



a way of describing something by saying that it is much bigger, smaller, worse etc than it actually is – used especially to excite people’s feelings: مبالغه

In his speeches, he used a lot of hyperbole. | journalistic hyperbole



the use of several words together that all begin with the same sound, in order to make a special effect, especially in poetry:

the alliteration of the’s’ sound in’sweet birds sang softly’  اوردن کلمات با صدای مترادف مثل



the use of words to describe ideas or actions in a way that makes the reader connect the ideas with pictures in their mind: the use of water imagery in Fitzgerald’s novel’The Great Gatsby’ | She uses the imagery of a bird’s song to represent eternal hope. تصاویر


rhetorical question

a question that you ask as a way of making a statement, without expecting an answer: When he said ’how can these attitudes still exist in a civilized society?’, he was asking a rhetorical question.


con‧ceive AC / kənˈsiːv / verb [intransitive and transitive] formal در ارتباط با تصو رکردن

(cannot) conceive of (doing) something

to imagine a particular situation or to think about something in a particular way

Many people can’t conceive of a dinner without meat or fish.


con‧ceive AC / kənˈsiːv / verb [intransitive and transitive] formal در ارتباط با فکر کردن

2 [transitive] to think of a new idea, plan etc and develop it in your mind → conception:

Scientists first conceived the idea of the atomic bomb in the 1930s.


think of something/think up something

to produce a new idea, plan, method, excuse etc by thinking: I’ve thought of an idea. | They’re always trying to think up new ways to improve efficiency.


con‧ceive AC / kənˈsiːv / verb [intransitive and transitive] formal در ارتباط با زایمان

3 [intransitive and transitive] to become pregnant → conception:

fertility treatment for women who have difficulty conceiving


come up with something

to produce a new idea, a way of dealing with something etc, especially a good one: How did you come up with that idea? | Ellis came up with the solution to the problem immediately.


make something up

to invent a story, song, game, excuse etc: My mother used to make up bedtime stories for us. | I didn’t want to go to the class, so I decided to make up an excuse.


dream something up

to think of an idea or plan, especially one that seems unusual or even crazy: It can’t be easy dreaming up new advertisements all the time. | I wonder who dreamt up that idea!


devise formal

to invent a way of doing something, especially one that is clever or complicated: تدبیر کردن

This system was devised as a way of measuring students’ progress.


conceive formal

to think of a new idea, plan etc and develop it in your mind: تصور کردن، فهمیدن

The project was originally conceived by a Dutch businessman two years ago.


impel / ɪmˈpel / verb ( past tense and past participle impelled , present participle impelling ) [transitive] formal impel somebody to do something

if something impels you to do something, it makes you feel very strongly that you must do it مجبور کردن، وادار کردن
The lack of democracy and equality impelled the oppressed to fight for independence.


compel / kəmˈpel / verb ( past tense and past participle compelled , present participle compelling ) [transitive]

compel somebody to do something

to force someone to do something → compulsion The law will compel employers to provide health insurance.

She felt compelled to resign because of the scandal.

وادار کردن


compel / kəmˈpel / verb ( past tense and past participle compelled , present participle compelling ) [transitive] formal

to make people have a particular feeling or attitude → compulsion: وادار کردن

His performance compelled the audience’s attention.



to make someone do something they do not want to do. Used when people or situations make you do something: They were beaten and forced to confess to crimes they had not committed. | The drought forced millions of farmers to sell their cattle.



to force someone to give you money or do what you want by threatening to tell embarrassing secrets about them: She tried to blackmail him with photographs of them together at the hotel.  باج خواهی کردن


compel [usually passive] formal

to force someone to do something using official power or authority. Also used when someone has to do something because of their situation: The town was surrounded and compelled to surrender. | I felt compelled to offer them some kind of explanation. | You are compelled by law to carry an ID card.


coerce / kəʊˈɜːs $ ˈkoʊɜːrs / formal

to force someone to do something by threatening them: Local people were coerced into joining the rebel army.  به زور وادار کردن


be obliged to do something formal

if someone is obliged to do something, they must do it because it is the law or the rule, or because of the situation they are in: You are not obliged to say anything which may harm your defence in court. | They were obliged to sell the land.


tack 1 / tæk / noun

1 nail [countable] a small nail with a sharp point and a flat top


tack 1 / tæk / noun

2 pin [countable] American English a short pin with a large round flat top, for attaching notices to boards, walls etc


tack 1 / tæk / noun

(way of doing something) [uncountable and countable]

the way you deal with a particular situation or a method that you use to achieve something: رویه

If that doesn’t work, we’ll try a different tack.

Rudy changed tack , his tone suddenly becoming friendly.


tack 1 / tæk / noun  (ship)

a) [uncountable and countable] the direction that a sailing boat moves, depending on the direction of the wind and the position of its sails

b) [countable] the action of changing the direction of a sailing boat, or the distance it travels between these changes:

a long tack into the bay


tack 1 / tæk / noun

در ارتباط با اسب

5 horses [uncountable] technical the equipment you need for riding a horse, such as a saddle etc


depict / dɪˈpɪkt / verb [transitive] formal

depict somebody/something as something

to describe something or someone in writing or speech, or to show them in a painting, picture etc: به تصویر کشیدن

a book depicting life in pre-revolutionary Russia

The god is depicted as a bird with a human head.

depiction / dɪˈpɪkʃ ə n / noun [uncountable and countable]



to talk or write about a person, place, event etc, in order to show what they are like: Could you try and describe the man you saw? | In her book, she describes her journey across the Sahara. | Police described the attack as particularly violent.


tell somebody about somebody/something

to describe someone or something to someone. This phrase is more commonly used than describe in everyday spoken English: So, tell me about your holiday! | My friends have told me all about you!


depict formal

to describe someone or something in a piece of writing: His stories depict life in Trinidad as seen through the eyes of a young boy. | In this new biography she is depicted as a lonely and unhappy woman.


portray/represent formal

to describe someone or something in a particular way: College teachers are often represented on television shows as slightly eccentric. | The magazine has been criticized for the way it portrays women. | The treatment has been portrayed as a painless way of curing cancer, which is simply not true. | Police have represented her as a willing participant in the crimes.


characterize somebody/something as something formal

to describe someone or something by emphasizing one particular quality or feature about them: He characterized himself as’an average American’. | The successful schools were characterized as innovative and creative.


paint somebody/something as something

to describe someone or something, especially in a way that makes people believe something that is not true: Not all young people are as bad as they’re painted in the press. | We won, yet the media is painting it as a victory for our opponents. | The woman was painted as having only a slight grasp of reality.


paint a picture

to describe a situation, so that people can get a general idea of what it is like:

Can you paint a picture of life in Japan for us? | My uncle’s letters generally painted a rosy picture of how things were. | The report painted a bleak (غم انگیز و بدون عاقبت) picture of the management’s failures.


quaint / kweɪnt / adjective

unusual and attractive, especially in an old-fashioned way:

a quaint little village in Yorkshire عجیب و جالب


gregarious / ɡrɪˈɡeriəs / adjective

gregariously adverb

gregariousness noun [uncountable]

technical gregarious animals tend to live in a group OPP solitary


gregarious / ɡrɪˈɡeriəs / adjective

friendly and preferring to be with other people SYN sociable OPP solitary اجتماعی


recluse / rɪˈkluːs $ ˈrekluːs / noun [countable]

reclusive / rɪˈkluːsɪv / adjective

someone who chooses to live alone, and does not like seeing or talking to other people: منزوی

She became a recluse after her two sons were murdered.


introspective / ˌɪntrəˈspektɪv◂ / adjective

introspectively adverb

tending to think deeply about your own thoughts, feelings, or behaviour: درون گرا

a shy and introspective person


introvert / ˈɪntrəvɜːt $ -ɜːrt / noun [countable]

OPP extrovert

someone who is quiet and shy, and does not enjoy being with other people فرد درون گرا


introverted / ˈɪntrəvɜːtəd, ˈɪntrəvɜːtɪd $ -ɜːr- / adjective

introversion / ˌɪntrəˈvɜːʃ ə n $ -ˈvɜːrʒ ə n / noun [uncountable]

someone who is introverted is quiet and shy and does not enjoy being with other people OPP extrovert , extroverted



shy and not willing to say very much



worried and embarrassed about what you look like or what other people think of you



not brave or confident ترسو، خجالتی



not liking to express your emotions or talk about your problems



thinking a lot about your own interests, problems etc, and not liking to be with other people



quiet and not wanting to talk to other people, especially because you are unhappy



not liking to meet people and talk to them


retiring formal

not wanting to be with other people