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Flashcards in Pathway4_5 Deck (100):

stringent / ˈstrɪndʒənt / adjective در مورد قوانین

1 a stringent law, rule, standard etc. is very strict and must be obeyed:

stringent anti-noise regulations سفت و سخت


stringent / ˈstrɪndʒənt / adjective در مورد شرایط اقتصادی

stringently adverb

stringency noun [uncountable]

2 stringent economic conditions exist when there is a severe lack of money and strict controls on the supply of money


Their meaning regarding law and rules

  • strict
  • tight
  • tough
  • harsh
  • stringent

strict a strict order or rule is one that must be obeyed: There are strict rules about keeping tax records. | He had strict instructions to return the key to me.

tight tight controls or limits are very strict about what is allowed and what is not allowed: The report recommends tighter controls on the advertising of alcohol. | There are tight regulations governing waste disposal.

tough tough laws or rules are very strict: They want tougher laws against drinking and driving. | The federal government is introducing tough new rules on immigration.

harsh harsh punishments or laws are very severe, often too severe: There are harsh penalties for drug trafficking (قاچاق). | The government has brought in harsh measures to combat the rioting (شورش) taking place in many cities.

stringent controlling what people can do with rules that have very high standards: There are now stringent controls on pollution from all power stations. | stringent new food safety regulations


neurotic / njʊˈrɒtɪk $ nʊˈrɑː- / adjective

neurotic noun [countable]:

She accused him of being a neurotic.

neurotically / -kli / adverb

1 unreasonably anxious or afraid: آدم عصبی، عصبی

He seemed a neurotic, self-obsessed (خود آزار) man.


neurotic / njʊˈrɒtɪk $ nʊˈrɑː- / adjective technical

2 relating to or affected by neurosis:

neurotic disorders


neuter 2 verb [transitive] /organ/

1 to remove part of the sex organs of an animal so that it cannot produce babies اخته کردن

a neutered tomcat (گربه نر)

bobcat means a large North American wild cat that has no tail


neuter 2 verb [transitive] /effectiveness/

2 to remove power from something or to stop something from being effective – used to show disapproval:

Plans to reform local government are designed to neuter local democracy.


spay / speɪ / verb [transitive]

to remove part of the sex organs of a female animal so that it is not able to have babies اخته کردن زنان


strive / straɪv / verb ( past tense strove / strəʊv $ stroʊv / , past participle striven / ˈstrɪv ə n / ) [intransitive] formal

strive to do something

strive for/after

— striving noun [uncountable and countable]

to make a great effort to achieve something کوشش و تلاش کردن

I was still striving to be successful.

We must continue to strive for greater efficiency.


  • try
  • attempt
  • do your best
  • make an effort to do something
  • struggle
  • strive formal
  • endeavor American English / ɪnˈdevə $ -ər / formal
  • have a go/try informal
  • see if you can do something spoken

try to take action in order to do something that you may not be able to do: I tried to explain what was wrong. | He tries hard in class, but he’s finding the work difficult.

attempt to try to do something, especially something difficult. Attempt is more formal than try and is used especially in written English: Any prisoner who attempts to escape will be shot. | He was attempting to climb one of the world’s highest mountains.

do your best to try as hard as you can to do something: We will do our best to help them.

make an effort to do something to try to do something, when you find this difficult: It is worth making an effort to master these skills. | She made a big effort to be nice to him.

struggle to try very hard to do something that is very difficult, especially for a long time: She’s still struggling to give up smoking. | Many of these families are struggling to survive.

strive formal to try very hard to achieve something: The company must constantly strive for greater efficiency.

endeavor American English / ɪnˈdevə $ -ər / formal to try hard to do something: Each employee shall endeavour to provide customers with the best service possible.

have a go/try informal to try to do something, especially when you are not sure that you will succeed: I’m not very good at fixing taps (شیر آب), but I’ll have a go. | Do you want to have another try?

see if you can do something spoken to try to do something – used when offering to do something, or suggesting that someone should do something: I’ll see if I can get you a ticket. | See if you can persuade her to come.


impulsive / ɪmˈpʌlsɪv / adjective

impulsively adverb:

‘Oh, Anne, I do love you!’ he said impulsively.

impulsiveness noun [uncountable]

someone who is impulsive does things without considering the possible dangers or problems first بی فکر

Rosa was impulsive and sometimes regretted things she’d done.

In a burst (طوفان) of impulsive generosity (بخشش), I offered to pay.


rash 1 / ræʃ / adjective

rash decisions

It was rather rash of you to ...

rashly adverb:

I rashly agreed to look after the children.

rashness noun [uncountable]

if you are rash, you do things too quickly, without thinking carefully about whether they are sensible or not عجولانه

Please Jessie, don’t do anything rash.

Don’t go making any rash decisions about your future!

It was rather rash of you to lend them your car.


foolish / ˈfuːlɪʃ / adjective /action, remark/

It would be foolish to

be foolish enough to do something

1 a foolish action, remark etc. is stupid and shows that someone is not thinking sensibly SYN silly: احمقانه

I’ve never heard anything so foolish in all my life.

It would be foolish to ignore his advice.

be foolish enough to do something

I was foolish enough to believe him.


In everyday English, people usually say silly or stupid rather than foolish:

It was a silly thing to say.

I felt a bit stupid when she said no.


foolish / ˈfuːlɪʃ / adjective /person/

look/feel foolish

foolishly adverb:

She foolishly agreed to go with them.

foolishness noun [uncountable]

2 a foolish person behaves in a silly way or looks silly SYN stupid:

I was young and foolish at the time.

a foolish grin (پوزخند)

He’d been made to look foolish.


  • stupid
  • silly
  • daft informal
  • dumb informal especially American English
  • foolish
  • unwise formal 

stupid showing a total lack of good sense or good judgment. Stupid sounds very strong and is often used when you are annoyed or strongly criticizing someone’s behaviour: I wish you’d stop asking stupid questions. | It was stupid of me to leave the door unlocked. | Well, if you’re stupid enough to skate on the lake, you deserve to fall in.

silly doing or saying things that are not sensible or serious, and that may make you feel embarrassed later. Silly sounds much gentler than stupid: a silly mistake | Don’t be so silly! There’s nothing wrong with you. | I think you’re silly to worry so much about your hair.

daft informal not sensible, often in a way that is also amusing: Is this another of your daft ideas? | Don’t be daft! Of course you’re not too old to go clubbing.

dumb informal especially American English stupid: a dumb question | He was dumb enough to believe her. | Oh, I just did the dumbest thing back there, I forgot my purse.

foolish stupid. Foolish sounds rather formal and is used mainly in written English. The usual words to use in everyday English are silly or stupid: It was a foolish thing to say. | They did not want to look foolish. | It was all a foolish dream. | I think the board of directors made a foolish choice that it will later regret.

unwise formal done without thinking carefully enough about the possible disadvantages that may result: She knew the marriage was unwise. | an unwise choice of words | It would be very unwise to speculate.


conscientious / ˌkɒnʃiˈenʃəs◂ $ ˌkɑːn- / adjective

conscientiously adverb

conscientiousness noun [uncountable]:

his conscientiousness and loyalty to the company

careful to do everything that it is your job or duty to do: وظیفه شناس، با وجدان

A conscientious teacher may feel inclined to take work home.

a conscientious and hard-working student


structured AC / ˈstrʌktʃəd $ -ərd / adjective

highly structured

carefully organized, planned, or arranged: دارای ساختار

The interviews were highly structured.

a structured approach to teaching


cautious / ˈkɔːʃəs $ ˈkɒː- / adjective
cautious optimism

cautious about (doing) something

cautiously adverb:

The government responded cautiously to the move.

cautiousness noun [uncountable]

careful to avoid danger or risks محتاط، مواظب، هوشیار

a cautious driver

a cautious approach to the crisis

The air-pollution board has reacted with cautious optimism to the announcement.

cautious about (doing) something

Keller is cautious about making predictions for the success of the program.


controlling / kənˈtrəʊlɪŋ $ -ˈtroʊl- / adjective

always trying to make someone do what you want – used to show disapproval:

She wanted to get away from her controlling parents.


achiever / əˈtʃiːvə $ -ər / noun [countable]

someone who is successful because they are determined and work hard → underachiever , overachiever


excel / ɪkˈsel / verb ( past tense and past participle excelled , present participle excelling ) [intransitive, not in progressive]

excel at/in

to do something very well, or much better than most people بهتر بودن

Rick has always excelled at foreign languages.


be/feel left out

to feel that you are not accepted or welcome in a situation:

New fathers often feel left out when baby arrives.


hierarchical AC / haɪˈrɑːkɪk ə l $ -ɑːr- / adjective hierarchical structure/organization/system etc.

a hierarchical society

hierarchically / -kli / adverb

if a system, organization etc. is hierarchical, people or things are divided into levels of importance سلسله مراتبی


rebellious / rɪˈbeljəs / adjective /obey/

rebellious streak (تمایل)

1 deliberately not obeying people in authority or rules of behaviour: سرکش

rebellious teenagers

He’s always had a rebellious streak (= a tendency to rebel).


rebellious / rɪˈbeljəs / adjective /government/

rebelliously adverb

rebelliousness noun [uncountable]

2 fighting against the government of your own country: متمرد

rebellious minorities


thrive / θraɪv / verb ( past tense thrived or throve / θrəʊv $ θroʊv / , past participle thrived ) [intransitive] formal

to become very successful or very strong and healthy:

plants that thrive in tropical rain forests رشد کردن، موفق شدن

a business which managed to thrive during a recession


In everyday English, people usually say do well rather than thrive:

The whole family seems to be doing well.

thrive on something phrasal verb

to enjoy or be successful in a particular situation, especially one that other people find difficult or unpleasant:

I wouldn’t want that much pressure, but she seems to thrive on it.


hold on to somebody/something phrasal verb

to keep something rather than losing it, selling it, or giving it to someone else: حفظ کردن

The soldiers held on to the bridge for three more days.

I think I’ll hold on to these old records for now.


indubitably / ɪnˈdjuːbətəbli, ɪnˈdjuːbɪtəbli $ ɪnˈduː- / adverb formal
indubitable adjective

certainly or without doubt: قطعاً، بدون تردید

Mr Sachs is indubitably charming.



someone whose job is to look after a building, especially a school


caretaker / ˈkeəˌteɪkə $ ˈkerˌteɪkər / noun [countable]

someone who looks after other people, especially a teacher, parent, nurse etc.


caretaker manager/government/boss etc.

a manager, government etc. that is in charge for a short period of time until another manager or government is chosen


bask / bɑːsk $ bæsk / verb [intransitive] /heat of sun/

1 to enjoy sitting or lying in the heat of the sun or a fire

bask in

Lizards were basking in the morning sun.


bask / bɑːsk $ bæsk / verb [intransitive] /palce basks/

2 if a place basks in the sun, it is sunny and warm

bask in

Tenerife was basking in afternoon sunshine as they arrived.


bask / bɑːsk $ bæsk / verb [intransitive] 3 /attention/

to enjoy the approval or attention that you are getting from other people

bask in

She basked in the admiration of the media.


temperament / ˈtemp ə rəmənt / noun [uncountable and countable]

artistic/nervous/good etc. temperament

by temperament

the emotional part of someone’s character, especially how likely they are to be happy, angry etc. طبیعت

artistic/nervous/good etc. temperament

Jill has such a lovely relaxed temperament.

by temperament

Tolkien was, by temperament, a very different man from Lewis.


monopolize / məˈnɒpəlaɪz $ -ˈnɑː- / verb [transitive] 1 /control/

to have complete control over something so that other people cannot share it or take part in it: انحصاری کردن

The company has monopolized the soft drinks market.

He monopolized the conversation all evening.


monopolize ( also monopolise British English ) / məˈnɒpəlaɪz $ -ˈnɑː- / verb [transitive] 2 /time/

to use a lot of someone’s time or attention:

Virtually all her time and energy is now monopolized by the children. تمام وقت رو به چیزی اختصاص دادن

monopolist noun [countable]


laissez-faire , laisser-faire / ˌleseɪˈfer / noun [uncountable]

laissez-faire economics/capitalism

1 the principle that the government should allow the economy or private businesses to develop without any state control or influence: اقتصاد آزاد

the policy of laissez-faire


2 laissez-faire attitude/approach etc.

when you do not become involved in other people’s personal affairs


burden 1 / ˈbɜːdn $ ˈbɜːrdn / noun
1 [countable]

burden of

burden on

bear/carry the burden

the tax/financial/debt burden

something difficult or worrying that you are responsible for: مسولیت مسول

His family responsibilities had started to become a burden.

The burden of taxation has risen considerably.
I don’t like being a burden on other people.
If things go wrong he will bear the burden of guilt.


2 the burden of proof law

the duty to prove that something is true


burden 1 / ˈbɜːdn $ ˈbɜːrdn / noun 3 [countable] /load/

something that is carried SYN load بار


ˌbeast of ˈburden noun [countable] old use

an animal that does heavy work


bear/carry/shoulder the burden

place/put a burden on somebody

share the burden

ease/reduce/lighten the burden

shift the burden

a burden falls on somebody

lift the burden from somebody's shoulders 

bear/carry/shoulder the burden (= be responsible for something ) At the age of 16, Suzy bore the burden of providing for her family.

place/put a burden on somebody This situation places the main burden of family care on women.

share the burden I was glad my brother was there to share the burden.

ease/reduce/lighten the burden Smaller classes would ease the burden for teachers.

shift the burden (= change who carries it ) The tax shifts the burden towards the rich.

a burden falls on somebody The tax burden falls most heavily upon the poorest people.

lift the burden from somebody's shoulders If I deal with the all the practical problems, that will lift the burden from your shoulders.



a heavy/great burden 

a financial burden

a tax burden

a debt burden

an intolerable burden

an unfair/undue burden 

the burden of responsibility

the burden of taxation

a heavy/great burden Caring for elderly relatives can be a heavy burden.

a financial burden the financial burden of a large mortgage

a tax burden These changes will ease the tax burden for small businesses.

a debt burden He made a serious attempt ease the country's debt burden.

an intolerable burden (= very hard to bear ) Too many exams can place an intolerable burden on young people.

an unfair/undue burden The new legislation put an unfair burden on employers.

the burden of responsibility He felt unable to cope with the burden of responsibility.

the burden of taxation The burden of taxation falls more heavily on the poor.


subtle / ˈsʌtl / adjective (comparative subtler or more subtle, superlative subtlest)
subtly adverb:

a subtly different colour

very clever in noticing and understanding things → sensitive: تیز، باهوش

a subtle mind


subtle / ˈsʌtl / adjective (comparative subtler or more subtle, superlative subtlest) /not noticeable/
subtle form

subtle taste/flavour/smell etc.

subtle hint

not easy to notice or understand unless you pay careful attention OPP obvious: نامحسوس

The pictures are similar, but there are subtle differences between them.

The warning signs of the disease are so subtle that they are often ignored.

a subtle form of racism

subtle taste/flavour/smell etc.

The flavour of the dried berries is more subtle.

The dish had a subtle hint of ginger.


subtle / ˈsʌtl / adjective (comparative subtler or more subtle, superlative subtlest) /behaving cleverly/
subtle about

behaving in a skilful and clever way, especially using indirect methods or language to hide what you are trying to do: زیرک، زیکانه

I think we need a more subtle approach.

a subtle plan

She wasn’t very subtle about it. She just said she didn’t love him any more.


crisp 2 adjective / /hard/

something that is crisp is hard, and makes a pleasant sound when you break it or crush it:

She kicked at the crisp leaves at her feet.

He stepped carefully through the crisp deep snow.


crisp 2 adjective 2 food

food that is crisp is pleasantly hard or firm when you bite it SYN crispy OPP soggy:

a crisp green salad

a crisp juicy apple

Cook the pastry until it is crisp and golden.

The meat should be nice and crisp on the outside.


soggy / ˈsɒɡi $ ˈsɑːɡi / adjective

unpleasantly wet and soft : خیس و تر

The ground was soggy from the rain.

The sandwiches have gone all soggy .


crisp 2 adjective 3 paper/cloth

paper or cloth that is crisp is fresh, clean, and new SYN fresh:

a crisp new five-dollar bill

crisp cotton sheets


crisp 2 adjective 4 weather

weather that is crisp is cold and dry OPP humid:

The air was fresh and crisp.

a crisp clear autumn day

The weather remained crisp and dry.


crisp 2 adjective 5 people

if someone behaves or speaks in a crisp way, they are confident, polite, and firm, but not very friendly:

Her tone was crisp and businesslike.


crisp 2 adjective 6 picture/sound

crisply adverb:

‘Take a seat,’ she said crisply.

crispness noun [uncountable]

a picture or sound that is crisp is clear SYN sharp:

an old recording that still sounds remarkably crisp


grove / ɡrəʊv $ ɡroʊv / noun 1 [countable]

grove of

olive/lemon/palm etc. grove

a piece of land with trees growing on it درختستان

a small grove of beech trees

He owns an orange grove near Tel Aviv.



used in the names of roads:

Lisson Grove








copse / kɒps $ kɑːps /


thicket / ˈθɪkət, ˈθɪkɪt /

forest a very large area of land with a lot of trees growing closely together: In 1500, most of the country was forest. | the Black Forest in Germany

woods (also wood British English) an area of land covered with a lot of trees, that is smaller than a forest: Behind the house were the woods that we used to play in. | Follow the path through a small wood.

woodland an area of land that is covered with trees – used especially for describing the type of land in an area: The site covers 74 acres of beautiful ancient woodland.

rainforest a thick forest with tall trees, in tropical parts of the world that have a lot of rain: Tropical rainforests are home to over half of the planet’s plant and animal species. | the Indonesian rainforest

jungle an area of tropical forest where trees and large plants grow very closely together: the jungles of Borneo | The palace was hidden for centuries in Guatemala’s dense jungle.

grove a small group of trees, or an area of land planted with a particular type of fruit tree: The temple was built in the center of a small grove of trees. | the olive groves of southern Spain

copse / kɒps $ kɑːps / a small area of trees or bushes growing closely together: At the top of the field was a copse full of rabbits.

plantation a large area of trees planted for their wood, fruit etc: a rubber plantation

thicket / ˈθɪkət, ˈθɪkɪt / a small group of bushes, plants, or small trees growing closely together: Tall bamboo thickets fringed (در حاشیه جایی بودن) the narrow river.


roaring / ˈrɔːrɪŋ / adjective 1 [only before noun]

making a deep, very loud, continuous noise: خروشان

the roaring wind and waves


roaring fire

a fire that burns with a lot of flames and heat


outskirts / ˈaʊtskɜːts $ -ɜːr- / noun [plural]

on the outskirts (of something)

the parts of a town or city that are furthest from the center: حومه

They live on the outskirts of Paris.










edge the part of something that is furthest from its center or nearest the place where it ends: He got up quickly, knocking his plate off the edge of the table. | the outer edge of the village

side the part of something that is near its left or right edge: On the left side of the garden there was an old stone wall. | They parked by the side of the road.

rim the edge of something circular, especially the top of a cup or glass, or the outside edge of a pair of glasses: a white cup with a gold rim | She was looking at me over the rim of her spectacles (عینک).

margin the empty space at the side of a page that has writing on it: My teacher had marked my essay and made some comments in the margin. | Leave wide margins on both sides of the page.

hem the edge of a piece of cloth that is turned under and stitched down, especially the lower edge of a skirt, trousers etc: If you want the dress a bit shorter, I can easily turn up the hem.

curb the edge of the pavement (= raised path) at the side of a road: A big black car was parked at the curb.

outskirts the areas of a city that are furthest away from the center: The new station was built on the outskirts of the city.

perimeter the outside edge around an enclosed area of land such as a military camp or a prison: Security guards patrol the perimeter night and day.


dialect / ˈdaɪəlekt / noun [uncountable and countable]

Chinese/Yorkshire etc. dialect

the local dialect

a form of a language which is spoken only in one area, with words or grammar that are slightly different from other forms of the same language

The people up there speak a Tibetan dialect.

the local dialect





terminology formal

jargon especially disapproving

dialect a form of a language that is spoken in one area of a country, with different words, grammar, or pronunciation from other areas: Cantonese is only one of many Chinese dialects. | the local dialect

accent the way that someone pronounces words, because of where they were born or live, or their social class: Karen has a strong New Jersey accent. | an upper class accent

slang very informal spoken language, used especially by people who belong to a particular group, for example young people or criminals: Teenage slang changes all the time. |’Dosh’ is slang for’money’.

terminology formal the technical words or expressions that are used in a particular subject: musical terminology | Patients are often unfamiliar with medical terminology.

jargon especially disapproving words and phrases used in a particular profession or subject and which are difficult for other people to understand: The instructions were written in complicated technical jargon. |’Outsourcing’ is business jargon for sending work to people outside a company to do. | The letter was full of legal jargon.


mantle 1 / ˈmæntl / noun 1

take on/assume/wear the mantle of something formal

to accept or have an important duty or job: مسولیت پذیرفتن

It is up to Europe to take on the mantle of leadership in environmental issues.


2 a mantle of snow/darkness etc. literary

something such as snow or darkness that covers a surface or area: پوششِ

A mantle of snow lay on the trees.


mantle / ˈmæntl / noun 3 [countable] /cover/

a loose piece of outer clothing without sleeves, worn especially in former times رداء، شنل


prodigious / prəˈdɪdʒəs / adjective [usually before noun]

prodigiously adverb

prodigious amounts/quantities of something

very large or great in a surprising or impressive way بسیار زیاد و شگرف

prodigious amounts/quantities of something

Some galaxies seem to release prodigious amounts of energy.

the artist’s prodigious output


abundance / əˈbʌndəns / noun [singular, uncountable]

abundance of

in abundance

a large quantity of something مقدار زیاد از

an abundance of wavy red hair

One quality the team possessed in abundance was fighting spirit.


embrace 1 / ɪmˈbreɪs / verb 1 [intransitive and transitive]

to put your arms around someone and hold them in a friendly or loving way SYN hug: بغل کردن

Jack warmly embraced his son.

Maggie and Laura embraced.


embrace / ɪmˈbreɪs / verb 2 [transitive] formal /accept/

to eagerly accept a new idea, opinion, religion etc: پذیرفتن

We hope these regions will embrace democratic reforms.

Most West European countries have embraced the concept of high-speed rail networks with enthusiasm.


embrace / ɪmˈbreɪs / verb 3 [transitive] formal  /include/

to include something as part of a subject, discussion etc: شامل شدن

This course embraces several different aspects of psychology.


hug (also give somebody a hug)

embrace is more formal than hug:


put your arms around somebody

cradle written

hug (also give somebody a hug) to put your arms around someone and hold them tightly to show love or friendship: Mother hugged him and tucked him into bed. | Come here and give me a big hug.

embrace to put your arms around someone and hold him or her in a caring way. Embrace is more formal than hug: Jason warmly embraced his son. | The two leaders embraced each other.

cuddle to put your arms around someone or something as a sign of love, especially a child or a small animal: She sat on a chair, cuddling her daughter. | He cuddled the puppy.

put your arms around somebody to hold someone closely to your body, especially to comfort them or show that you love them: The woman put her arms around the sobbing (گریه ای که با صدای هق هق هستش) boy.

cradle written to hold someone very gently in your arms, like you would hold a baby: She held the baby in her arms. | She cradled his head in her hands and kissed him on the forehead


tuck 1 / tʌk / verb 1 [transitive always + adverb/preposition]

tuck something in

tuck something into/under/behind etc. something

to push something, especially the edge of a piece of cloth or paper, into or behind something so that it looks tidier or stays in place تو گذاشتن

tuck something in

Jack tucked his shirt in.

tuck something into/under/behind etc. something

She tucked an unruly lock of hair behind her ear.

un‧ru‧ly / ʌnˈruːli / adjective
unruly hair is difficult to keep tidy


tuck / tʌk / verb 2 [transitive always + adverb/preposition] /small space/

to put something into a small space, especially in order to protect, hide, carry, or hold it

tuck something behind/under/into etc. something

Giles was tucking his pile of books under his arm.

He took the glasses off and tucked them in his pocket.


be tucked away

a) if a place is tucked away, it is in a quiet area:

The village of Eyam is tucked away behind the hills.

b) if someone or something is tucked away, they are hidden or difficult to find:

The envelope was tucked away in her jewel box.


tuck something away phrasal verb 2 informal  /store/

to store something, especially money, in a safe place: پس انداز کردن

Every member of the family can now tuck away either £9 or £18 a month in one of these savings plans.


1 tuck somebody in /child/

to make a child comfortable in bed by arranging the sheets around them


2 tuck something ↔ in

to move a part of your body inwards so that it does not stick out so much: تو دادن

Stand up straight and tuck in your tummy.


tuck in phrasal verb

(also tuck into something) informal

to eat something eagerly: تو رگ زدن

The ice creams came and we tucked in.

They tucked into a hearty breakfast of eggs.


tuck somebody up phrasal verb

1 to make someone comfortable in bed by arranging the sheets around them:

Dad tucked me up in his and Carrie’s bed.


2 be tucked up in bed informal

to be lying or sitting in bed:

I ought to be tucked up in bed now.


lean 1 S3 / liːn / verb (past tense and past participle leaned 1 [intransitive always + adverb/preposition]

lean forward/back/over etc.

to move or bend your body in a particular direction

lean forward/back/over etc.

They were leaning forward, facing each other.

Lean back and enjoy the ride.

She leant towards him and listened.


lean  / liːn / verb (past tense and past participle leaned 2 [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] /support/

lean against/on

to support yourself in a sloping position against a wall or other surface

lean against/on

He was leaning on the bridge, watching the boats go by.


lean  / liːn / verb (past tense and past participle leaned 3 [intransitive, transitive always + adverb/preposition] /sloping position/

to put something in a sloping position where it is supported, or to be in that position


lean (something) against/on something

A huge mirror was leaning against the wall.

He leant his bicycle against the fence.


lean on somebody phrasal verb

1 to depend on someone for support and encouragement, especially at a difficult time:

The couple lean on each other for support.


lean on somebody phrasal verb 2 informal  /influence/

to try to influence someone, especially by threatening them:

He won’t pay unless you lean on him.


lean towards something phrasal verb /support/

to tend to support, or begin to support, a particular set of opinions, beliefs etc: پشتیبانی کردن

Canada, the UK and Japan leant towards the US view.


impish / ˈɪmpɪʃ / adjective

impishly adverb

showing a lack of respect or seriousness in a way that is amusing rather than bad SYN mischievous: بدجنس، موزی

a little girl with dark hair and an impish grin (نیش خند)


regale / rɪˈɡeɪl / verb

regale somebody with something phrasal verb written

to entertain someone by telling them about something: قصه گفتن

Bailey regaled the customers with tales of our exploits (کارهای ماجراجویی و شاهکار).


tabloid / ˈtæblɔɪd / (also ˌtabloid ˈnewspaper) noun [countable]

tabloid adjective [only before noun]:

tabloid journalists

a newspaper that has small pages, a lot of photographs, and stories mainly about sex, famous people etc. rather than serious news



paper is more common than newspaper in everyday English:

the press

the media


the nationals

the dailies

newspaper: The New York Times is a popular daily newspaper.

paper a newspaper. Paper is more common than newspaper in everyday English: There was an interesting article in the local paper today. | the Sunday papers

the press newspapers and news magazines in general, and the people who write for them: the freedom of the press | The press are always interested in stories about the royal family.

the media newspapers, magazines, television, radio, and the Internet, considered as a group that provides news and information: This issue has received a lot of attention in the media. | Her public image was shaped by the media.

tabloid a newspaper that has small pages, a lot of photographs, short stories, and not much serious news: The tabloids are full of stories about her and her boyfriend.

the nationals the newspapers that give news about the whole country where they are printed, in contrast to local newspapers: The results of the nationwide survey became headlines in the nationals.

the dailies the daily newspapers: The dailies reported the story.


patron / ˈpeɪtrən / noun [countable] /somebody/

someone who supports the activities of an organization, for example by giving money:

a wealthy patron

patron of

a patron of the arts


patron / ˈpeɪtrən / noun [countable] /sb officially involved/


a famous person who is officially involved with an organization, such as a charity, and whose name is used to help advertise it


patron / ˈpeɪtrən / noun [countable]3 formal  /customer/

someone who uses a particular shop, restaurant, or hotel SYN customer:

facilities for disabled patrons






patron / ˈpeɪtrən / formal




clientele / ˌkliːənˈtel $ ˌklaɪənˈtel, ˌkliː- / formal

customer someone who buys goods or services from a shop or company: Customers were waiting for the shop to open. | The bank is one of our biggest customers.

client someone who pays for a service from a professional person or company: He has a meeting with one of his clients. | The company buys and sells shares on behalf of their clients

shopper someone who goes to the shops looking for things to buy: The streets were full of Christmas shoppers.

guest someone who pays to stay in a hotel: Guests must leave their rooms by 10 am.

patron / ˈpeɪtrən / formal a customer of a particular shop, restaurant or hotel – usually written on signs: The notice said’Parking for Patrons Only’.

patient someone who is getting medical treatment from a doctor, or in a hospital: He is a patient of Dr Williams.

consumer anyone who buys goods or uses services – used when considering these people as a group who have particular rights, needs, or behaviour: Consumers are demanding more environmentally-friendly products. | the rights of the consumer | The law is designed to protect consumers who buy goods on the Internet.

market the number of people who want to buy a product, or the type of people who want to buy it: The market for organic food is growing all the time. | a magazine aimed at the youth market

clientele / ˌkliːənˈtel $ ˌklaɪənˈtel, ˌkliː- / formal the type of customers that a particular shop, restaurant etc. gets: The hotel has a very upmarket clientele. | They have a wealthy international clientele.


involuntary / ɪnˈvɒlənt ə ri $ ɪnˈvɑːlənteri / adjective

involuntarily adverb

1 an involuntary movement, sound, reaction etc. is one that you make suddenly and without intending to because you cannot control yourself:

When Willie tapped on the window, Miguel gave an involuntary jump.

2 happening to you although you do not want it to:

involuntary part-time workers


undermine / ˌʌndəˈmaɪn $ -ər- / verb [transitive]

undermine sb’s confidence/authority/position/credibility etc.

to gradually make someone or something less strong or effective: تخریب کردن

economic policies that threaten to undermine the health care system

undermine sb’s confidence/authority/position/credibility etc.

The constant criticism was beginning to undermine her confidence.




mar written

detract from something




mess something up informal

spoil to have a bad effect on something so that it is much less attractive, enjoyable etc:

New housing developments are spoiling the countryside. | The bad weather completely spoiled our holiday.

ruin to spoil something completely and permanently:

Using harsh soap to wash your face can ruin your skin. | The argument ruined the evening for me.

mar written to spoil something by making it less attractive or enjoyable:

His handsome Arab features were marred by a long scar across his face. | Outbreaks of fighting marred the New Year celebrations.

detract from something to slightly spoil something that is generally very good, beautiful, or impressive:

The huge number of tourists rather detracts from the city’s appeal. | There were a few minor irritations, but this did not detract from our enjoyment of the holiday.

undermine to spoil something that you have been trying to achieve:

The bombings undermined several months of careful negotiations.

sour to spoil a friendly relationship between people or countries:

The affair has soured relations between the UK and Russia.

poison to spoil a close relationship completely, so that people can no longer trust each other:

Their marriage was poisoned by a terrible dark secret.

mess something up informal to spoil something important or something that has been carefully planned:

If there’s any delay, it will mess up our whole schedule.