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Flashcards in 400Word_12 Deck (99):

intemperate / ɪnˈtemp ə rət, ɪnˈtemp ə rɪt / adjective formal

intemperance noun [uncountable] 

1 intemperate language or behaviour shows a lack of control, which other people think is unacceptable: افراطی

the judge’s intemperate outburst

2 regularly drinking too much alcohol 


corpulent / ˈkɔːpjələnt, ˈkɔːpjʊlənt $ ˈkɔːr- / adjective formal

corpulence noun [uncountable] 



beset / bɪˈset / verb (past tense and past participle beset, present participle besetting) [transitive] formal

1 [usually passive] to make someone experience serious problems or dangers به خطر انداختن، مشکل درست کردن

beset somebody with/by something

The business has been beset with financial problems.

the injuries which have beset the team all season

2 besetting sin a particular bad feature or habit – often used humorously 


lengthwise / ˈleŋθwaɪz / adverb

in the direction or position of the longest side: از درازا

Lay the bricks lengthwise. 


sideways / ˈsaɪdweɪz / adverb

sideways adjective:

a sideways glance 

1 to or towards one side: به پهلو

A strong gust of wind blew the car sideways into the ditch.

2 with the side, rather than the front or back, facing forwards:

They brought the piano sideways through the front door.

3 if you are moved sideways at work, you are given a job that is different from, but is at the same level as, your old job:

He would be moved sideways, rather than demoted.


undertaker / ˈʌndəteɪkə $ -dərteɪkər / noun [countable]

British English

someone whose job is to arrange funerals SYN funeral director American English 


undertaking AC / ˌʌndəˈteɪkɪŋ $ ˈʌndərteɪ- / noun

1 [countable usually singular] an important job, piece of work, or activity that you are responsible for: مسولیت

Starting a new business can be a risky undertaking.

2 [countable] formal a promise to do something: قول

Both organizations gave an undertaking to curb violence among their members.

3 [uncountable] the business of an undertaker 









promise a statement that you will definitely do or provide something, which may not be reliable:

‘I’ll call you tomorrow.’ ‘Is that a promise?’ | Politicians are always making promises.

pledge a public or official promise to do a particular thing in the future:

The Government has fulfilled at least 50% of its election pledges. | We have received pledges of help from various organizations.

vow a very serious promise to do something or not to do something that you choose to make:

He made a vow never to drink alcohol again. | your marriage vows

oath a formal promise, especially one that someone makes in a court of law:

Witnesses swear a solemn oath to tell the truth. | Public officials must take an oath to support the US Constitution.

undertaking a serious or public promise to do something, especially something difficult which needs a lot of effort or money:

The police have given an undertaking to reduce street crime in the city centre. | He was made to sign a written undertaking that he would not go within a mile of her house.

assurance a promise that something will happen or is true, made so that someone is less worried or more confident:

You have my assurance that it won’t happen again. | The manager gave me his personal assurance that the goods would be delivered today.

guarantee a very definite promise that something will happen. A guarantee is also a formal written promise by a company to repair or replace a product free if it has a fault within a fixed period of time.:

With any diet, there’s no guarantee of success. | I’m afraid I can’t give you a 100% guarantee. | Is the camera still under guarantee (= within the period during which it can be repaired or replaced free)?


forgery / ˈfɔːdʒəri $ ˈfɔːr- / noun (plural forgeries)

1 [countable] a document, painting, or piece of paper money that has been copied illegally SYN fake: ساختگی

The painting was a very clever forgery.

2 [uncountable] the crime of copying official documents, money etc. جعل اسناد


slay / sleɪ / verb (past tense slew / sluː /, past participle slain / sleɪn /) [transitive]

slayer noun [countable] 

1 literary to kill someone – used especially in newspapers کشتن فرد

2 American English spoken informal to amuse someone a lot خیلی سرگرم کردن




commit manslaughter 



execute formal (also put somebody to death)


take somebody out informal 

bump somebody off humorous informal 

do away with somebody informal 

kill to make someone die:

The driver and his passenger were killed in the crash. | He was killed by rival gang members.

murder to deliberately kill someone – used when talking about this as a crime:

He was convicted of murdering his wife.

commit manslaughter to kill someone without intending to – used when talking about this as a crime:

The court ruled that the guard had committed manslaughter.

assassinate to deliberately kill an important person, especially a politician: ترور کردن

He was part of a plot to assassinate Hitler.

slay to kill someone or something in a violent way – used in newspaper reports and also in old stories:

Two teenagers were slain in the shootings. | St. George slew the dragon. | The king was slain at the battle of Hastings.

execute formal (also put somebody to death) to kill someone as a punishment for a crime:

McVeigh, who killed 168 people in a bombing attack, was executed by lethal injection.

eliminate to kill someone in order to prevent them from causing trouble:

a ruthless dictator who eliminated all his rivals

take somebody out informal to kill someone in order to get rid of them, especially an enemy or someone who is causing trouble for you:

US forces used air strikes to take out the enemy positions. | One of the other drug dealers may have decided to take him out.

bump somebody off humorous informal

to kill someone:

He was so irritating I felt like bumping him off myself.

do away with somebody informal to kill someone:

The settlers in Jamestown had been done away with, but no one knew how. 


procrastinate / prəˈkræstəneɪt, prəˈkræstɪneɪt / verb [intransitive] formal

procrastination /prəˌkræstəˈneɪʃ ə n, prəˌkræstɪˈneɪʃ ə n/  noun [ uncountable ] 

to delay doing something that you ought to do, usually because you do not want to do it SYN put off : به تاخیر انداختن

People often procrastinate when it comes to paperwork.


amphibian/æmˈfɪbiən/noun [countable]

an animal such as a frog that can live both on land and in water دو زیست


conformity AC/kənˈfɔːməti, kənˈfɔːmɪti $ -ɔːr-/noun [uncountable]

1 behavior that obeys the accepted rules of society or a group, and is the same as that of most other people انطباق، مطابقت

OPP non-conformity:

an emphasis on conformity and control

conformity to

conformity to social expectations

2 in conformity with something formal in a way that obeys rules, customs etc:

We must act in conformity with local regulations. 


pulsar/ˈpʌlsɑː $ -sɑːr/noun [countable]

an object like a star that is far away in space and produces radiation and radio waves → quasar 












the universe 

star a large ball of burning gas in space, which can be seen at night as a point of light in the sky:

The dark night sky was clear and full of stars.

planet one of the large objects that goes around the sun, for example the Earth, Saturn, Mercury, or Mars: سیاره

The planet Uranus was discovered in 1781.

sun the star that gives us light and heat, around which the planets move. There are also many millions of other suns in the universe:

The sun came out from behind a cloud. | a dying sun

moon the round object that moves around the Earth every 28 days, or a similar object that goes around another planet:

The moon rose in the night sky. | Titan is one of the moons of Saturn.

asteroid a mass of rock that moves around the sun. Most asteroids are found between Jupiter and Mars: خرده سیاره

the asteroid belt

pulsar a type of star that is far away in space and produces radiation and radio waves

quasar an object like a star that is far away in space and shines extremely brightly

supernova a very large exploding star

constellation a group of stars that forms a particular pattern and has a name: صورت فلکی

The constellation of Orion is one of the most easily recognizable patterns of stars in the night sky.

galaxy one of the large groups of stars that make up the universe: راه شیری، کهکشان

Astronomers have detected a galaxy 11 billion light years away.

the universe all space, including all the stars and planets: جهان هستی

How many planets in the universe have life? 


fleet 1/fliːt/noun [countable]

1 a group of ships, or all the ships in a navy: ناوگان

the US seventh fleet

2 a group of vehicles that are controlled by one company

fleet of

a fleet of taxis 


continuum/kənˈtɪnjuəm/noun ( plural continuums or continua/-njuə/) [countable] formal

a scale of related things on which each one is only slightly different from the one before: زنجیره

The Creole language is really various dialects arranged on a continuum.

All the organisms in an ecosystem are part of an evolutionary continuum. 


undulate/ˈʌndjəleɪt, ˈʌndjʊleɪt $ -dʒə-/verb [intransitive] formal

undulation/ˌʌndjəˈleɪʃ ə n, ˌʌndjʊˈleɪʃ ə n $ -dʒə-/noun [uncountable and countable] 

to move or be shaped like waves that are rising and falling: موج دار

undulating hills


slate 1/sleɪt/noun

1 rock [uncountable] a dark grey rock that can easily be split into flat thin pieces تخته سنگ

2 on a roof [countable] especially British English a small piece of slate or similar material that is used for covering roofs SYN tile:

There were several slates missing from the roof.

3 slate blue/grey a dark blue or grey color مات

4 politics [countable] a list of people that voters can choose in an election, or who are being considered for an important job فهرست انتخاباتی

5 for writing on [countable] a small black board or a flat piece of slate in a wooden frame, used for writing on in the past ورق سنگ



shining in a soft gentle way: درخشان

Her hair was beautifully dark and lustrous. 







glistening literary 

lustrous literary 


shiny looking bright and smooth, and reflecting light:

Her hair was now washed and shiny. | A shiny limousine pulled in front of the building. | His face was shiny with sweat. | shiny metal objects

glossy used about hair or fur that looks shiny and healthy. Glossy magazines and books use expensive shiny paper:

My hair seemed much thicker and more glossy. | His fur is all glossy. | The plant's leaves were still glossy. | He was flicking through a glossy magazine. | glossy brochures advertising skiing vacations

sleek shiny and smooth in a way that looks very attractive – used especially about hair, fur, a car or machine, or about someone's body:

the cat's sleek fur | His sleek dark-blue Mercedes was parked outside. | I looked at the sleek brown bodies resting beside the pool. | the sleek lines of a Bang and Olufsen television | A small jet waited like a sleek silver bird beside the runway.

silky very soft and smooth to touch, like silk – used about hair, fur, skin, or material:

Her skirt and jacket were made of smooth, silky fabric. | Fernando stroked her silky hair and kissed her forehead. | her silky skin

gleaming very shiny and clean – used especially about something that has just been polished:

A gleaming motorcycle stood parked outside the bar. | his gleaming white teeth | gleaming black shoes | The tourist brochures show gleaming white sand.

glistening literary something that is glistening is shiny, especially because it is wet:

her glistening eyes | I recognized his dark glistening skin. | We stared at the glistening expanse of the sea. | the glistening white of the dome | the glistening black heads of the seals

lustrous literary shining in a soft gentle way – used about hair, eyes, lips, or material:

Her hair was thick and lustrous. | His eyes were dark and lustrous. | her lustrous lips | the fabric's smooth lustrous surface

polished polished shoes, floors, tables etc. are shiny because they have been rubbed until they shine:

a highly polished floor 


rational AC/ˈræʃ ə nəl/adjective

rationality/ˌræʃəˈnæləlti, ˌræʃəˈnælɪlti/noun [uncountable] 

1 rational thoughts, decisions etc. are based on reasons rather than emotions منطقی

OPP irrational:

Parents need to be fully informed so they can make a rational decision.

I’m sure there’s a rational explanation for all this.

It’s impossible to have a rational conversation with him.

2 a rational person is able to think calmly and sensibly OPP irrational:

Culley was quite rational at the time of her baby’s death.

3 formal able to make sensible judgments:

Man is a rational animal.

rationally adverb:

We were too shocked to think rationally.


a rational explanation 

a rational decision/choice 

a rational approach 

a rational analysis 

rational thought 

rational argument 

a rational conversation/discussion 

perfectly rational 

a rational explanation I told myself that there must be some simple, rational explanation.

a rational decision/choice The patient was incapable of making a rational decision.

a rational approach We must adopt a rational approach when dealing with this problem.

a rational analysis Emotions are running so high that any rational analysis of the situation is difficult.

rational thought Babies were thought to be incapable of rational thought.

rational argument Nuclear weapons are so absurd that rational argument about their use is scarcely possible.

a rational conversation/discussion Let's all calm down and have a rational discussion.

perfectly rational I'm sure there's a perfectly rational explanation. 


rationale/ˌræʃəˈnæl /noun [countable usually singular]formal

the reasons for a decision, belief etc. بنیاد و پایه

rationale behind/for/of

The rationale behind the changes is not at all evident.

The rationale for using this teaching method is to encourage student confidence. 








rationale/ˌræʃəˈnɑːl $ -ˈnæl/formal 

reason why something happens, or why someone does something:

What was the reason for the delay? | I don’t know the reason why he left his last job.

explanation a set of reasons that helps you to understand why something happens, especially when it seems difficult to understand:

There are various possible explanations for climate change. | Is there any explanation for his behavior?

motive a reason that makes someone decide to do something – often used about crimes:

Police say that there is no obvious motive for the attack.

justification a good reason for doing something that seems wrong:

There is never any justification for torture or abuse. | They try to use the situation in the Middle East as a justification for killing innocent civilians. | There’s no justification for this type of behavior.

grounds a reason that makes it right or fair to do something, especially according to legal, official, or moral rules:

The court will decide if she has grounds for divorce. | They claim the war is justified on moral grounds (= because of moral reasons ).

basis the main ideas or reasons on which something is based:

The doctor makes his decisions purely on the basis of clinical observation. | What do you think is the basis for this advice?

rationale/ˌræʃəˈnɑːl $ -ˈnæl/formal a set of reasons that are used to explain why someone does something in a particular way:

the rationale behind the government’s economic reforms | This chapter explains the nature of yearly plans, and provides a rationale for their use. 


commitment S2 W2/kəˈmɪtmənt/noun  

1 [countable] a promise to do something or to behave in a particular way: تعهد

Are you ready to make a long-term commitment?

commitment to

Our company has a commitment to quality and customer service.

2 [uncountable] the hard work and loyalty that someone gives to an organization, activity etc:

I was impressed by the energy and commitment shown by the players.

commitment to

Her commitment to work is beyond question.

3 [countable] something that you have promised you will do or that you have to do:

Will the job fit in with your family commitments?

4 [countable] an amount of money that you have to pay regularly: الزام مالی

I had a lot of financial commitments.

5 [uncountable and countable] the use of money, time, people etc. for a particular purpose:

commitments of food and medical aid of over $4 billion 


make a commitment 

give a commitment 

something requires/demands (a) commitment 

honour/meet a commitment

show/demonstrate commitment 

lack commitment 

reaffirm/restate/reiterate a commitment 

make a commitment Getting married involves making a serious commitment.

give a commitment The government gave a commitment to withdraw all its forces.

something requires/demands (a) commitment Nursing as a profession demands genuine commitment.

honour/meet a commitment (= do what you promised to do ) Will they honour their commitment to a ceasefire?

show/demonstrate commitment Throughout her life she demonstrated her deep commitment to the needs of the poor.

lack commitment I never get promoted because they think I lack commitment.

reaffirm/restate/reiterate a commitment (= give a promise again ) They reaffirmed their commitment to abandon nuclear power. 


real/genuine commitment

personal commitment 

strong commitment 

long-term commitment 

a lifelong commitment 

full/total commitment 

political commitment 

religious commitment 

a lack of commitment 

a level of commitment 

real/genuine commitment The job demands real commitment to teaching.

personal commitment As a company, we expect a personal commitment from our staff to do their best.

strong commitment She's known for her strong commitment to women's rights.

long-term commitment Having a child together involves a long-term commitment.

a lifelong commitment Marriage is a lifelong commitment.

full/total commitment Such therapies demand full commitment from the patient.

political commitment There was no local political commitment to the proposal.

religious commitment Many people have ceased to have any active religious commitment.

a lack of commitment His lack of commitment to the project was easy to see.

a level of commitment This post demands a high level of commitment. 


aptitude/ˈæptətjuːd, ˈæptɪtjuːd $ -tuːd/noun [uncountable and countable]

1 natural ability or skill, especially in learning استعداد

aptitude for

He has a natural aptitude for teaching.

2 aptitude test a test that measures your natural skills or abilities


goosebumps/ˈɡuːsbʌmps/noun [plural]

small raised spots on your skin that you get when you are cold or frightened 


dissipate/ˈdɪsəpeɪt, ˈdɪsɪpeɪt/verb formal

1 [intransitive and transitive] to gradually become less or weaker before disappearing completely, or to make something do this: به مرور کم شد

As he thought it over, his anger gradually dissipated.

Little by little, the smoke was dissipated by the breeze.

2 [transitive] to waste something valuable such as time, money, or energy: حروم کردن

His savings were soon dissipated. 


inconsistent AC/ˌɪnkənˈsɪst ə nt◂/adjective

1 two statements that are inconsistent cannot both be true متناقض

SYN contradictory OPP consistent:

The accounts of the witnesses are inconsistent.

inconsistent with

His results are inconsistent with our data.

2 not right according to a particular set of principles or standards OPP consistent

inconsistent with

His conduct was inconsistent with what is expected of a Congressman.

3 inconsistent behavior, work etc. changes too often from good to bad OPP consistent:

The team’s performance has been highly inconsistent this season. 



1 [transitive usually passive] if something or someone obsesses you, you think or worry about them all the time and you cannot think about anything else – used to show disapproval

be obsessed by/with something/somebody آزار دیدن

A lot of young girls are obsessed by their weight.

Jody’s been obsessed with some lifeguard for months.

2 be obsessing about/over something/somebody informal to think about something or someone much more than is necessary or sensible:

Stop obsessing about your hair. It’s fine. 


normative/ˈnɔːmətɪv $ ˈnɔːr-/adjective formal

describing or establishing a set of rules or standards of behavior: اصولی، هنجاری

normative guidelines for senators 


topography/təˈpɒɡrəfi $ -ˈpɑː-/noun [uncountable] technical

topographer noun [countable]

topographical/ˌtɒpəˈɡræfɪk ə l◂ $ ˌtɑː-,ˌtoʊ-/adjective 

1 the science of describing an area of land, or making maps of it

2 [+ of] the shape of an area of land, including its hills, valleys etc.

topographer نقشه بردار


tributary /ˈtrɪbjət ə ri, ˈtrɪbjʊt ə ri $ -teri/noun (plural tributaries) [countable]

a stream or river that flows into a larger river رود فرعی







river a line of water that flows into the sea:

They crossed the river by ferry. | the River Tweed | the Yangtze river

tributary a stream or river that flows into a larger river:

The River Trombetas is a tributary of the River Amazon.

estuary / ˈestʃueri /  the wide part of a river where it goes into the sea:

plans to build a big new airport on the Thames estuary

canal a long passage dug into the ground and filled with water, either for boats to travel along, or to take water to a place:

Venice’s famous canals | a canal boat

delta an area of low land where a river spreads into many smaller rivers near the sea:

the Nile delta 


trellis/ˈtreləs, ˈtrelɪs/noun [countable]

a frame made of long narrow pieces of wood that cross each other, used to support climbing plants داربست


uplift 1/ˈʌplɪft/noun

1 [singular] an increase in something افزایش

uplift in

an uplift in sales

2 [singular, uncountable] a feeling of happiness and hope 


repress/rɪˈpres/verb [transitive]

1 to stop yourself from doing something you want to do: مانع خودت شدن

Brenda repressed the urge to shout at him.

I repressed a smile.

2 if someone represses upsetting feelings, memories etc, they do not allow themselves to express or think about them: فرونشاندن

He had long ago repressed the painful memories of his childhood.

3 to control a group of people by force → suppress, oppress:

The police were widely criticized for their role in repressing the protest movement. 


suppress/səˈpres/verb [transitive]

suppressible adjective

suppression/səˈpreʃ ə n/noun [uncountable]:

the suppression of opposition parties 

1 to stop people from opposing the government, especially by using force: سرکوب کردن

The uprising was ruthlessly suppressed.

2 if important information or opinions are suppressed, people are prevented from knowing about them, even if they have a right to know: پنهان کردن اطلاعات و عقاید

The police were accused of suppressing evidence.

3 to stop yourself from showing your feelings: سرکوب کردن احساسات

Harry could scarcely suppress a smile.

suppressed anger

4 to prevent something from growing or developing, or from working effectively:

The virus suppresses the body’s immune system.


overwhelm/ˌəʊvəˈwelm $ ˌoʊvər-/verb [transitive usually passive]

1 emotion if someone is overwhelmed by an emotion, they feel it so strongly that they cannot think clearly 

be overwhelmed by something از پا دراومدن بخاطر احساسات قوی

Harriet was overwhelmed by a feeling of homesickness.

be overwhelmed with something

The children were overwhelmed with excitement.

Grief overwhelmed me.

2 too much if work or a problem overwhelms someone, it is too much or too difficult to deal with

be overwhelmed by something از پا در اومدن

We were overwhelmed by the number of applications.

overwhelm somebody with something

They would be overwhelmed with paperwork.

3 surprise somebody to surprise someone very much, so that they do not know how to react 

be overwhelmed by something هیجان زده شدن

I was completely overwhelmed by his generosity.

We were overwhelmed by the sheer size of the place.

4 defeat somebody to defeat an army completely:

In 1532 the Spaniards finally overwhelmed the armies of Peru. از پا در آوردن

5 water literary if water overwhelms an area of land, it covers it completely and suddenly 


envy 1/ˈenvi/verb ( past tense and past participle envied, present participle envying, third person singular envies ) [transitive]

1 to wish that you had someone else’s possessions, abilities etc: در این احساس ناراحتی نیست مثل حسودی

I really envy you and Ian, you seem so happy together.

She has a lifestyle which most people would envy.

envy somebody something

He envied Rosalind her youth and strength.

2 I don’t envy you/her etc. spoken used to say that you are glad that you are not in the bad situation that someone else is in 


envy 2 noun [uncountable]

1 the feeling of wanting something that someone else has →( jealousy در این احساس ناراحتی هم هست)

with envy

He watched the others with envy.

envy of

his envy of the young man’s success

twinge/pang of envy

I felt a twinge of envy when I saw them together.

She could see that all the other girls were green with envy (= feeling a lot of envy ).

2 be the envy of somebody to be something that other people admire and want to have very much:

an education system that is the envy of all European countries 


revoke/rɪˈvəʊk $ -ˈvoʊk/verb [transitive]

to officially state that a law, decision, or agreement is no longer effective → revocation: لغو کردن

Their work permits have been revoked. 


rationalism AC/ˈræʃ ə nəlɪz ə m/noun [uncountable] technical

the belief that your actions should be based on scientific thinking rather than emotions or religious beliefs: عقل گرایی

philosophers who accept scientific rationalism 


envision/ɪnˈvɪʒ ə n/verb [transitive]

to imagine something that you think might happen in the future, especially something that you think will be good SYN envisage: تجسم کردن چیزهای مثبت

I envisioned a future of educational excellence. 


strew/struː/verb ( past tense strewed, past participle strewn/struːn/or strewed ) [transitive usually passive]

1 to scatter things around a large area پخش کردن، پاشیدن

be strewn with something

The street was strewn with broken glass.

strew something around/about/over etc. something

clothes strewn across the floor

2 strewn with something written containing a lot of something:

conversation liberally strewn with swear words

3 literary to lie scattered over something:

Flowers strewed the path. 


hone/həʊn $ hoʊn/verb [transitive]

1 to improve your skill at doing something, especially when you are already very good at it: بهبود بخشیدن مهارتهات

He set about (start doing sth) honing his skills as a draughtsman (نقشه کش).

finely honed (= extremely well-developed ) intuition

2 formal to make knives, swords etc. sharp SYN sharpen تیز کردن


homage/ˈhɒmɪdʒ $ ˈhɑː-/noun [singular]formal

pays homage to

something you do to show respect for someone or something you think is important: تجلیل

The film pays homage to Martin Scorsese’s ‘Mean Streets’.

pays homage to تجلیل کردن از 


draftsman/ˈdrɑːftsmən $ ˈdræfts-/noun [countable]

1 someone whose job is to draw all the parts of a new building or machine that is being planned طراح

2 someone who draws well 


superb/sjuːˈpɜːb, suː- $ sʊˈpɜːrb/adjective [no comparative]

superbly adverb 

extremely good SYN excellent: عالی، بسیار خوب

The food was superb.

superb weather


guillotine 1/ˈɡɪlətiːn/noun [countable]

a piece of equipment used to cut off the heads of criminals, especially in France in the past 


conceivable AC/kənˈsiːvəb ə l/adjective

conceivably adverb:

Conceivably, interest rates could rise very high indeed. 

able to be believed or imagined قابل تصور

OPP inconceivable:

It is conceivable that you may get full compensation, but it’s not likely.

We were discussing the problems from every conceivable angle.


revision AC/rɪˈvɪʒ ə n/noun

1 [uncountable and countable] the process of changing something in order to improve it by correcting it or including new information or ideas → amendment

revision of تجدید نظر

The judge wants to see a revision of the procedures.

revision to

I’m making some revisions to the book for the new edition.

2 [countable] a piece of writing that has been improved and corrected 


hearken, harken/ˈhɑːkən $ ˈhɑːr-/verb [intransitive + to] literary

to listen 


Jupiter/ˈdʒuːpətə, ˈdʒuːpɪtə $ -ər/noun

the planet that is fifth in order from the sun and is the largest in the solar system: سیاره مشتری

a space probe on its way to Jupiter 


asteroid/ˈæstərɔɪd/noun [countable]

one of the many small planets that move around the Sun, especially between Mars and Jupiter سیارک


acronym/ˈækrənɪm/noun [countable]

a word made up from the first letters of the name of something such as an organization. For example, NATO is an acronym for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.  مخفف


refinery/rɪˈfaɪnəri/noun ( plural refineries ) [countable]

a factory where something such as oil or sugar is made purer پالایشگاه

oil/petroleum/sugar refinery 


Sophocles/ˈsɒfəkliːz $ ˈsɑːf-/

(?496–406 BC) an ancient Greek writer of plays, who developed Greek tragedy as a style of theatre. His tragedies include, Antigone, Electra, and Oedipus Rex. → Oedipus, Oedipus complex 


disseminate/dɪˈseməneɪt, dɪˈsemɪneɪt/verb [transitive] formal

dissemination/dɪˌseməˈneɪʃ ə n, dɪˌsemɪˈneɪʃ ə n/noun [uncountable]:

to spread information or ideas to as many people as possible: منتشر کردن

Her findings have been widely disseminated. 

the dissemination of information 


theology/θiˈɒlədʒi $ θiˈɑː-/noun ( plural theologies )

theological/ˌθiːəˈlɒdʒɪk ə l◂ $ -ˈlɑː-/adjective:

theological debate


1 [uncountable] the study of religion and religious ideas and beliefs: الهیات، مذهب شناسی

He studied theology at college.

2 [uncountable and countable] a particular system of religious beliefs and ideas:

According to Muslim theology there is only one God.

a comparison of Eastern and Western theologies


cleric/ˈklerɪk/noun [countable]

a member of the clergy  آدم روحانی


forge 1/fɔːdʒ $ fɔːrdʒ/verb

1 [transitive] to develop something new, especially a strong relationship with other people, groups, or countries SYN form ساختن

forge a relationship/alliance/link etc. (with somebody)

In 1776 the United States forged an alliance with France.

The two women had forged a close bond.

Back in the 1980s, they were attempting to forge a new kind of rock music.

2 [transitive] to illegally copy something, especially something printed or written, to make people think that it is real → counterfeit: جعل کردن

Someone stole my credit card and forged my signature.

a forged passport

3 [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] written to move somewhere or continue doing something in a steady determined way جلو رفتن

forge into/through

Crowds of people forged through the streets towards the embassy.

He forged into the lead in the fourth set.

forge on

Her speech wasn’t going down too well, but she forged on.

4 [transitive] to make something from a piece of metal by heating the metal and shaping it آهنگری کردن

forge ahead phrasal verb

to make progress, especially quickly

forge ahead with

Jo’s forging ahead with her plans to write a film script. 







copy to deliberately make or produce something that is exactly like another thing:

You could copy the files onto a CD. | Many people have tried to copy his paintings.

photocopy to copy a piece of paper with writing or pictures on it, using a machine:

I’ll photocopy the letter and give it to you.

reproduce to print a copy of a picture or document, especially in a book or newspaper:

The image has been reproduced in many magazines and newspapers around the world.

forge to illegally copy something written or printed:

He forged my signature. | forged £10 notes

pirate to illegally copy and sell something such as a book, video, DVD, or computer program:

The survey suggests that 27% of software in the UK has been pirated. 


unfold/ʌnˈfəʊld $ -ˈfoʊld/verb

1 [intransitive and transitive] if a story unfolds, or if someone unfolds it, it is told: گفتن قصه یا گفته شدن اون

As the story unfolds, we learn more about Max’s childhood.

2 [intransitive] if a series of events unfold, they happen: رخ دادن وقایع

He had watched the drama unfold from a nearby ship.

3 [intransitive and transitive] if you unfold something that was folded, or if it unfolds, it opens out: باز کردن چیزی

He unfolded the map. 


blast 2 verb

1 gun/bomb [transitive] to damage or destroy something, or to injure or kill someone, using a gun or a bomb منفجر کردن

blast somebody with something

She blasted her husband with a shotgun because he was having an affair.

The first shot missed and blasted a hole in the far wall.

The plane was blasted out of the sky by a terrorist bomb.

2 break something into pieces [intransitive and transitive] to break something into pieces using explosives, especially in order to build something such as a road

blast something through something

A 1.5 km tunnel was blasted through the mountain.

blast something out of something

The road will have to be blasted out of solid rock.

blast through

Railway workers had blasted through the mountains 90 years before.

3 loud noise ( also blast out ) [intransitive and transitive] to produce a lot of loud noise, especially music:

He was woken by the radio alarm clock blasting out rock music.

blast from

Dance music blasted from the stereo.

4 criticize [transitive] to criticize someone or something very strongly – used especially in news reports

blast somebody for (doing) something

Union leaders blasted the government for failing to tackle the jobs crisis.

5 kick/hit a ball [transitive] to hit or kick a ball very hard:

With six minutes remaining, he blasted the ball through the Coleraine defences for his 19th goal of the season.

6 air/water [intransitive and transitive] if air or water is blasted somewhere, or if it blasts somewhere, it moves there with great force:

The wind ripped through the trees and blasted a curtain of rain up the meadow.

Icy winds and driving snow blasted through the pine trees.

7 sports [transitive] American English informal to beat another team very easily:

The Seahawks were blasted 35–14 by the Broncos.

blast off phrasal verb

if a spacecraft blasts off, it leaves the ground

→ blast-off 


northwards/ˈnɔːθwədz $ ˈnɔːrθwərdz/( also northward ) adverb

northward adjective:

the northward journey 

towards the north: رو به شمال

We sailed northwards.


ward something ↔ off phrasal verb

to do something to try to protect yourself from something bad, such as illness, danger, or attack: دفع کردن، از خود دور کردن

Don’t forget insect repellent to ward off the mosquitoes.

a spell to ward off evil spirits 


rowdy 1/ˈraʊdi/adjective

rowdily adverb

rowdiness noun [uncountable]

rowdyism noun [uncountable] 

behaving in a noisy rough way that is likely to cause arguments and fighting: سر و صدا کن

gangs of rowdy youths





raucous/ˈrɔːkəs $ ˈrɒː-/especially written 

resounding [only before noun] 

loud making a lot of noise – used about sounds, voices, or music:

a loud explosion | He was talking in a very loud voice. | The music was too loud.

noisy making a lot of noise – used about people, machines, and places that annoy you:

The traffic was so noisy. | noisy neighbours | a noisy bar

rowdy rowdy people behave in a noisy and uncontrolled way. A rowdy place such as a bar is full of noisy people, often behaving badly:

rowdy football fans | a rowdy bar

raucous/ˈrɔːkəs $ ˈrɒː-/especially written unpleasantly loud – used about the excited sound of groups of people:

raucous laughter | raucous crowds

resounding [only before noun] used to describe a loud noise when something hits another thing, that seems to continue for a few seconds. Also used about people cheering or shouting loudly:

The door hit the wall with a resounding crash. | a resounding cheer 


immortalize ( also immortalise British English )/ɪˈmɔːtəlaɪz $ -ɔːr-/verb [transitive usually passive]

to make someone or something famous for a long time, especially by writing about them, painting a picture of them etc: جاودانه کردن

Dickens’ father was immortalized as Mr Micawber in ‘David Copperfield’. 


fir/fɜː $ fɜːr/noun [countable]

a tree with leaves shaped like needles that do not fall off in winter:

a fir tree 


spruce 1/spruːs/noun [uncountable and countable]

a tree that grows in northern countries and has short leaves shaped like needles صنوبر


pine 1/paɪn/noun

1 [uncountable and countable] ( also pine tree ) a tall tree with long hard sharp leaves that do not fall off in winter: کاج

an ancient pine forest

2 [uncountable] the pale wood of pine trees, used to make furniture, floors etc:

a pine table 


prairie/ˈpreəri $ ˈpreri/noun [countable]

a wide open area of fairly flat land in North America which is covered in grass or wheat چمن زار


newsprint/ˈnjuːzˌprɪnt $ ˈnuːz-/noun [uncountable]

cheap paper used mostly for printing newspapers on 


mill 1/mɪl/noun [countable]

1 grain a building containing a large machine for crushing grain into flour کارخونه آرد

2 cotton/cloth/steel a factory that produces materials such as cotton, cloth, or steel کارخونه

cotton/steel/paper etc. mill

an old Victorian cotton mill

3 coffee/pepper mill a small machine for crushing coffee or pepper

4 go through the mill to go through a time when you experience a lot of difficulties and problems:

He’s really been through the mill recently.

5 put somebody through the mill to make someone answer a lot of difficult questions or do a lot of difficult things in order to test them:

It was a three-day course and they really put us through the mill.

6 money American English a unit of money equal to 1/10 of a cent, used in setting taxes and for other financial purposes

7 million spoken a million:

Are you saying they paid a quarter of a mill for that house?

→ run-of-the-mill, → (all) grist to the mill at grist 









sweatshop disapproving 

factory a building or group of buildings in which goods are produced in large quantities, using machines:

She works in a chocolate factory. | a clothing factory

plant a large factory where cars, chemicals, or energy is produced:

Local residents are protesting about the new nuclear power plant. | a car plant | a nuclear power plant

facility a factory. Facility is often used instead of factory in business English:

The new production facility is one of the most up-to-date in the area.

works used in the following compounds to describe a factory that produces a particular thing: a steelworks /ironworks /brickworks /a chemical/cement works/a printing works

mill a factory that produces paper, cotton, or cloth:

a paper mill | The textile mill has been converted into luxury flats.

shipyard a place where ships are built or repaired:

The vessel was built in the Kobe shipyard.

foundry a factory where metal is made into things using mould s:

Mandela’s statue was cast here in a local foundry.

sweatshop disapproving a small factory where people work hard in bad conditions for very little money:

The company was fined for selling goods produced in sweatshops. 


earmark/ˈɪəmɑːk $ ˈɪrmɑːrk/verb [transitive usually passive]

to decide that something will be used for a particular purpose or have something done to it in the future اختصاص دادن

earmark somebody/something for something

85% of foreign aid is earmarked by Congress for specific purposes.

schools earmarked for closure

earmark somebody/something as something

He had been earmarked as a potential leader. 


affiliate 1/əˈfɪlieɪt/verb

1 [intransitive, transitive usually passive] if a group or organization affiliates to or with another larger one, it forms a close connection with it پیوستن

affiliate with

The Society is not affiliated with any political party.

affiliate to

the church’s right to affiliate to Rome

2 affiliate yourself to/with somebody/something to join or become connected with a larger group or organization:

She affiliated herself with the Impressionist school of painting. 


irrevocable/ɪˈrevəkəb ə l/adjective

irrevocably adverb:

machines that irrevocably changed the pattern of rural life 

an irrevocable decision, action etc. cannot be changed or stopped: غیر قابل فسخ، قطعی

Think about the situation carefully before you take an irrevocable step.


drawback/ˈdrɔːbæk $ ˈdrɒː-/noun [countable]

a disadvantage of a situation, plan, product etc: اشکال

It’s a great city – the only drawback is the weather.

drawback of/to (doing) something

The main drawback to these products is that they tend to be too salty. 


disadvantage noun [countable] 

drawback noun [countable] 

bad point noun [countable] especially spoken 

the downside noun [singular] 

disadvantage noun [countable] a bad feature that something has, which makes it less good or less useful than other things:

What do you think are the disadvantages of nuclear energy? | This car uses a lot of fuel, which is a major disadvantage.

drawback noun [countable] a bad feature that something has, although it has advantages that are usually more important:

One of the main drawbacks is the price.

bad point noun [countable] especially spoken a bad feature that something has:

All of these designs have both their good points and bad points.

the downside noun [singular] the disadvantage of a situation that in most other ways seems good or enjoyable:

It’s a great job. The only downside is that I don’t get much free time. 


continuum/kənˈtɪnjuəm/noun ( plural continuums or continua/-njuə/) [countable] formal

a scale of related things on which each one is only slightly different from the one before: زنجیره

The Creole language is really various dialects arranged on a continuum.

All the organisms in an ecosystem are part of an evolutionary continuum. 


drama W3 AC/ˈdrɑːmə $ ˈdrɑːmə, ˈdræmə/noun

1 [uncountable and countable] a play for the theatre, television, radio etc, usually a serious one, or plays in general → comedy: نمایشنامه

the great traditions of ancient Greek drama

a TV/television/radio drama

the award-winning TV drama ‘Prime Suspect’

a new drama series for Saturday nights

a drama critic

a courtroom drama (= one that takes place in a court of law )

a lavish costume drama (= one about events in a past century )

He plays a Russian spy in the comedy drama ‘Sleepers’.

2 [uncountable] acting – used when talking about it as a subject to study or teach:

young actors coming out of drama school

our drama teacher

3 [uncountable and countable] an exciting event or set of events, or the quality of being exciting: چیزهای هیجان دار

Maggie’s life is always full of drama.

accidents, burst pipes, and other domestic dramas

a night of high drama (= very exciting events )

the drama of the moment

4 make a drama out of something to become upset about a small problem and make it seem worse than it really is:

Brian always makes such a drama out of everything.

5 drama queen a woman or homosexual man who tends to behave as if situations are worse than they really are – used to show disapproval 


a TV/television/radio drama 

a costume drama

a historical drama

a medical/hospital drama 

a crime drama 

a courtroom drama 

a TV/television/radio drama The book has been made into a television drama.

a costume drama (= about events in history, in which people wear costumes from that time ) a costume drama set in 17th century France

a historical drama (= about events in the past ) She starred in a historical drama about Marie Antoinette.

a medical/hospital drama (= about events in a hospital ) He played a doctor in the US medical drama 'ER'.

a crime drama (= about a crime or crimes ) 'American Gangster' is a crime drama set in 1970s New York.

a courtroom drama (= about events in a court ) The lawyer and sleuth Perry Mason was the hero of 82 courtroom dramas. 


a romantic drama

a comedy/tragic drama

a police/cop drama 

a three-part/six-part etc. drama 

a Greek drama 

a drama series/serial 

a romantic drama (= about a romance ) It is a wartime romantic drama.

a comedy/tragic drama (= about funny/very sad events ) Martin Clunes is to star in a new comedy drama.

a police/cop drama (= about the police ) 'The Bill' is a popular police drama.

a three-part/six-part etc. drama (= having three/six etc. programmes ) It’s a new four-part crime drama starting on Monday night.

a Greek drama (= a play from Ancient Greece ) the tragic Greek drama, 'Oedipus'

a drama series/serial (= a number of programmes with the same characters ) It is one of the longest-running drama series on Japanese television. 


dramatist AC/ˈdræmətəst, ˈdræmətɪst/noun [countable]

someone who writes plays, especially serious ones SYN playwright نمایش نامه نویس








scriptwriter ( also screenwriter


writer someone who writes books, stories, or articles in as a job:

Greene was one of the finest writers of his generation. | a writer for the Independent on Sunday magazine | I always wanted to be a writer.

author someone who writes books, especially works of literature, or someone who wrote a particular book:

Among the guests was the author Salman Rushdie. | The author will be signing copies of his book. | He was the author of ‘How to Win Friends and Influence People’.

novelist someone who writes books about imaginary people or events:

Charles Dickens was one of the greatest 19th century novelists. | the romantic novelist Barbara Cartland

poet someone who writes poems:

a class studying the works of modern American poets

playwright someone who writes plays:

Shakespeare was the greatest playwright in English history.

dramatist someone who writes plays - used especially in literary writing, about playwrights in the past:

the great French dramatist, Moliere

scriptwriter ( also screenwriter ) someone who writes plays for films or television:

Three or four scriptwriters work on the show.

blogger someone who regularly writes about a particular subject on their own website:

a travel blogger | a blogger who writes about the differences between American and British English 


Hellene/ˈheliːn/noun [countable] formal

a Greek, especially an ancient Greek 


Hellenistic/ˌheləˈnɪstɪk◂, ˌhelɪˈnɪstɪk◂/adjective

connected with the history, literature, art etc. of ancient Greece and the eastern Mediterranean. The centre of the Hellenistic world was Alexandria in Egypt, and the Hellenistic period continued until about 30 BC, when Egypt became part of the Roman Empire. 


embody/ɪmˈbɒdi $ ɪmˈbɑːdi/verb ( past tense and past participle embodied, present participle embodying, third person singular embodies ) [transitive]

1 to be a very good example of an idea or quality SYN represent: معرف چیزی بودن

She embodies everything I admire in a teacher. 

2 formal to include something: در بر داشتن

The latest model embodies many new improvements. 


segregated/ˈseɡrɪɡeɪtəd, ˈseɡrɪɡeɪtɪd/adjective

a segregated school or other institution can only be attended by members of one sex, race, religion etc. تفکیک شده

OPP integrated:

a racially segregated education system 


cloistered/ˈklɔɪstəd $ -ərd/adjective

1 protected from the difficulties and demands of ordinary life: تضمین شده

Academics lead a cloistered life. 


credence/ˈkriːd ə ns/noun [uncountable] formal

the acceptance of something as true باور و اعتقاد

give credence to something (= to believe or accept something as true ) اعتقاد داشتن

I don’t give any credence to these rumors.

gain credence (= to become more widely accepted or believed)

His ideas quickly gained credence among economists.

lend credence to something (= to make something more believable)

The DNA results lend credence to Hausmann’s claims of innocence. 


jigsaw/ˈdʒɪɡsɔː $ -sɒː/noun [countable]

1 (also ˈjigsaw ˌpuzzle) a picture cut up into many pieces that you try to fit together

2 [usually singular] a very complicated situation, especially one that you are trying to understand:

As he explained, another piece of the jigsaw fell into place.

3 a tool for cutting out shapes in thin pieces of wood اره ای که عمود میبره و برقی هستش