400Word_10 Flashcards Preview

1000 words > 400Word_10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 400Word_10 Deck (96):
1

resent / rɪˈzent / verb [transitive]

to feel angry or upset about a situation or about something that someone has done, especially because you think that it is not fair خشمگین شدن

resent (somebody) doing something

I resented having to work such long hours.

bitterly/deeply/strongly resent

She bitterly resented his mother’s influence over him.

Paul resented the fact that Carol didn’t trust him. 

2

molest / məˈlest / verb [transitive]

molester noun [countable]

molestation / ˌməʊleˈsteɪʃ ə n $ ˌmoʊ- / noun [uncountable]:

sexual molestation 

1 to attack or harm someone, especially a child, by touching them in a sexual way or by trying to have sex with them SYN abuse: تجاوز کردن

men who molest young boys

2 old-fashioned to attack and physically harm someone: آزار دادن

a dog that was molesting sheep

3

mediocre / ˌmiːdiˈəʊkə◂ $ -ˈoʊkər◂ / adjective

mediocrity / ˌmiːdiˈɒkrəti, ˌmiːdiˈɒkrɪti $ -ˈɑːk- / noun [uncountable] 

not very good SYN second rate: حد متوسط

I thought the book was pretty mediocre.

a mediocre student

4

onlooker / ˈɒnˌlʊkə $ ˈɑːn-, ˈɒːn- / noun [countable]

someone who watches something happening without being involved in it: تماشاچی

A crowd of onlookers had gathered at the scene of the accident.

5

spectator 

viewer 

audience 

onlooker 

observer 

spectator someone who watches an event, especially a sports event:

There were 4,500 spectators at the game. | a crowd of spectators

viewer someone who watches television:

Millions of television viewers listened to the President’s speech. | programmes for younger viewers

audience the people who watch a play or performance, or the people who watch a particular television programme:

The audience roared with laughter and clapped. | It attracted a television audience of seven million.

onlooker someone who watches something happening without being involved in it, especially in the street:

A man was standing on the roof, watched by a crowd of onlookers below.

observer someone who watches and pays attention to particular situations and events, because they are interested in them, or it is their job:

She was a shrewd observer of human nature. | a political observer who writes for The Independent newspaper | The United Nations has sent military observers to the Sudan. 

6

dungarees / ˌdʌŋɡəˈriːz / noun [plural]

2 American English old-fashioned heavy cotton trousers used for working in SYN jeans

When my sister wants to look feminine, she changes from dungarees into a dress

7

sergeant / ˈsɑːdʒ ə nt $ ˈsɑːr- / noun [countable]

a low rank in the army, air force, police etc., or someone who has this rank گروهبان

8

jockey 1 / ˈdʒɒki $ ˈdʒɑːki / noun [countable]

someone who rides horses in races اسب سوار

9

jockey 2 verb [intransitive]

to compete strongly to get into the best position or situation, or to get the most power رقابت کردن

jockey for

photographers jockeying for position at the bar

After the war, rival politicians began to jockey for power. 

10

false 

fake

forged 

counterfeit / ˈkaʊntəfɪt $ -tər- / 

imitation 

phony / ˈfəʊni $ ˈfoʊ- / disapproving informal 

spurious / ˈspjʊəriəs $ ˈspjʊr- / 

false not real, but intended to seem real and deceive people:

He uses a false name.

fake made to look or seem like something else, especially something worth a lot more money:

fake fur | a fake Rolex watch | fake designer goods | a fake $100 bill

forged a forged official document or bank note has been illegally made to look like a real one:

a forged passport | a forged £50 note

counterfeit / ˈkaʊntəfɪt $ -tər- / counterfeit money or goods have been illegally made to look exactly like something else:

How do you detect counterfeit currency? | counterfeit drugs

imitation made to look real – used especially about guns, bombs etc. or about materials:

The two men used an imitation firearm to carry out the robbery. | imitation leather/silk/silver

phony / ˈfəʊni $ ˈfoʊ- / disapproving informal false – used when you think someone is deliberately trying to deceive people:

She put on a phony New York accent. | The doctors were accused of supplying phony medical certificates. | There’s something phony about him. | phony advertisements

spurious / ˈspjʊəriəs $ ˈspjʊr- / false and giving a wrong impression about someone or something:

spurious claims | That’s a spurious argument. | The company was trying to get some spurious respectability by using our name. 

11

juror / ˈdʒʊərə $ ˈdʒʊrər / noun [countable]

a member of a jury 

12

binoculars / bɪˈnɒkjələz, bɪˈnɒkjʊləz, baɪ- $ -ˈnɑːkjələrz / noun [plural]

a pair of special glasses, that you hold up to your eyes to look at objects that are a long distance away SYN field glasses

With the aid of binoculars, my vision improved enough to see the entire vicinity.

13

spark plug noun [countable]

a part in a car engine that produces an electric spark to make the petrol mixture start burning شع ماشین

14

treasurer / ˈtreʒərə $ -ər / noun [countable]

someone who is officially responsible for the money for an organization, club, political party etc. خزانه دار

15

treasury / ˈtreʒəri / noun (plural treasuries)

1 the Treasury (Department) a government department that controls the money that the country collects and spends خزانه

2 [countable] a place in a castle, church, palace etc. where money or valuable objects are kept 

16

murmur 1 / ˈmɜːmə $ ˈmɜːrmər / verb

1 [intransitive and transitive] to say something in a soft quiet voice that is difficult to hear clearly:

‘Well done,’ murmured George.

The girl murmured something polite, and smiled.

Julie turned over and murmured in her sleep.

2 [intransitive] to make a soft low sound:

The wind murmured through the trees.

murmuring noun [uncountable and countable]:

murmurings of discontent 

17

whisper

mumble 

mutter 

murmur 

growl 

snarl 

exclaim 

blurt out 

stammer/stutter

whisper to say something very quietly, using your breath rather than your full voice:

‘Don’t wake the baby,’ Jenny whispered.

mumble to say something quietly without pronouncing the words clearly:

He mumbled his thanks.

mutter to say something quietly, especially when you are annoyed but do not want someone to hear you complaining:

‘This is ridiculous,’ he muttered under his breath. | She muttered something about having to go home early.

murmur to say something in a soft slow gentle voice:

She stroked his hair and murmured, ‘Don’t worry. You’ll be all right.’

growl to say something in a low angry voice:

‘As I was saying,’ Lewis growled, ‘it needs to be finished today.’

snarl to say something in a nasty angry way:

‘Get out of my way!’ he snarled.

exclaim to say something suddenly and loudly:

‘How beautiful!’ she exclaimed.

blurt out to suddenly say something without thinking, especially something embarrassing or secret:

It was partly nervousness that had made him blurt out the question.

stammer/stutter to speak with a lot of pauses and repeated sounds, because you have a speech problem, or because you are nervous or excited:

‘I’ll, I’ll only be a m-moment,’ he stammered. 

18

comet / ˈkɒmət, ˈkɒmɪt $ ˈkɑː- / noun [countable]

an object in space like a bright ball with a long tail, that moves around the sun: ستاره دنباله دار

Halley’s comet

Fiery comet

19

blaze 1 / bleɪz / noun

1 fire

a) [countable usually singular] a big dangerous fire – used especially in news reports 

It took almost 100 firemen to bring the blaze under control.

fight/tackle/control a blaze

Helicopters were used to help fight the blaze.

house/factory/barn etc. blaze

a huge chemical factory blaze

b) [singular] a fire burning with strong bright flames:

I lit the fire and soon had a cheerful blaze going.

2 light/colour [singular] very bright light or colour → ablaze

blaze of

the blaze of light from the security lamps

The garden is a blaze of colour at this time of year.

3 blaze of publicity/glory a lot of public attention or success and praise:

As soon as the trial was over, the blaze of publicity surrounding him vanished.

She played the Canada tournament, then retired, going out in a blaze of glory (= ending her career with a lot of success and praise).

4 [singular] a sudden show of very strong emotion:

A blaze of anger flashed across his face.

5 what the blazes/who the blazes etc. old-fashioned spoken used to emphasize a question when you are annoyed:

What the blazes is going on here?

6 like blazes old-fashioned spoken as fast, as much, or as strongly as possible:

We had to run like blazes.

7 [countable usually singular] a white mark, especially one down the front of a horse’s face 

20

fight a blaze 

control a blaze 

bring a blaze under control 

put out/extinguish a blaze 

a blaze breaks out (also a blaze starts) 

a blaze spreads 

a house/factory/car etc. blaze 

fight a blaze Nearly 80 firefighters fought the blaze for three hours on Sunday.

control a blaze It took more than an hour to control the blaze at the hotel.

bring a blaze under control For more than four hours they battled to bring the blaze under control.

put out/extinguish a blaze Staff managed to put out the blaze before firemen arrived.

a blaze breaks out (also a blaze starts) The blaze broke out on the third floor of the building.

a blaze spreads The blaze quickly spread to a neighboring house.

a house/factory/car etc. blaze (= a burning house/factory/car etc) Three people were badly hurt in a house blaze. 

21

fire 

flames

blaze written 

inferno written 

conflagration / ˌkɒnfləˈɡreɪʃ ə n $ ˌkɑːn- / formal 

fire flames that burn in an uncontrolled way and destroy or damage things: In April, a fire at the school destroyed the science block. | a forest fire

flames the bright parts of a fire that you see burning in the air: The flames from the burning building were lighting up the night sky.

blaze written a large and dangerous fire – used especially in news reports: Firemen fought to keep the blaze under control.

inferno written an extremely large and dangerous fire which is out of control – used especially in news reports: The entire building was on fire and hundreds of people were trapped in the inferno.

conflagration / ˌkɒnfləˈɡreɪʃ ə n $ ˌkɑːn- / formal a very large fire that destroys a lot of buildings, trees etc.: The conflagration spread rapidly through the old town. 

22

spectacular 1 / spekˈtækjələ, spekˈtækjʊlə $ -ər / adjective

spectacularly adverb 

1 very impressive: تماشایی

a mountainous area with spectacular scenery

a spectacular success

2 very sudden, unexpected, or extreme: ناگهانی

The news caused a spectacular fall in the stock market.

23

impressive 

dazzling 

breathtaking

spectacular

awe-inspiring

majestic [usually before noun]

imposing [usually before noun] written 

impressive used about something that people admire because it is very good, large, important etc.:

The cathedral is very impressive. | The drug has shown some impressive results.

dazzling extremely impressive – used especially when someone does something very well or looks very beautiful:

a dazzling performance | a dazzling smile

breathtaking extremely impressive – used especially about beautiful views, or the fast speed of something:

The views of the Rocky Mountains are simply breathtaking. | The economy is growing at a breathtaking pace.

spectacular very impressive and exciting to look at or watch:

a spectacular fireworks display

awe-inspiring so impressive that you feel great respect and admiration, or you feel rather frightened:

Michelangelo’s masterpiece is awe-inspiring. | The volcano was an awe-inspiring sight.

majestic [usually before noun] very impressive because of being big and beautiful:

the majestic mountain scenery | a majestic animal

imposing [usually before noun] written used about buildings and people that are large and impressive:

the imposing entrance hall | The bishop was an imposing figure. 

24

stumble / ˈstʌmb ə l / verb [intransitive]

stumble noun [countable] 

1 to hit your foot against something or put your foot down awkwardly while you are walking or running, so that you almost fall پای آدم به جایی خوردن، سکندری خوردن

In her hurry, she stumbled and spilled the milk all over the floor.

stumble over/on

Vic stumbled over the step as he came in.

2 to walk in an unsteady way and often almost fall SYN stagger

stumble in/out/across etc.

He stumbled upstairs and into bed.

3 to stop or make a mistake when you are reading to people or speaking

stumble over/at/through

I hope I don’t stumble over any of the long words.

25

fall (also fall over, fall down) 

trip on/over something 

slip 

stumble 

collapse 

lose your balance 

fall flat on your face

fall (also fall over, fall down) to suddenly go down onto the floor when standing, walking, or running:

She fell on the stairs and broke her ankle. | Children are always falling over.

trip on/over something to fall or almost fall when you hit your foot against something:

Someone might trip over those toys. | I tripped on a piece of wood.

slip to fall or almost fall when you are walking on a wet or very smooth surface:

She slipped and hurt her ankle. | I was scared I would slip on the highly polished floor.

stumble to almost fall when you put your foot down in an awkward way:

He stumbled and almost fell. | One of our porters stumbled on the rough ground.

collapse to fall suddenly and heavily to the ground, especially when you become unconscious:

One of the runners collapsed halfway through the race.

lose your balance to become unsteady so that you start to fall over:

She lost her balance on the first step and fell down the stairs. | Have something to hold onto, in case you lose your balance.

fall flat on your face to fall forwards so you are lying on your front on the ground:

She fell flat on her face getting out of the car. 

26

stumble on/across/upon something phrasal verb

to find or discover something by chance and unexpectedly SYN come across: یدفعه یافتن

Researchers have stumbled across a drug that may help patients with Parkinson’s disease. 

27

scout 1 / skaʊt / noun [countable]

1 پیشاهنگ

a) the Scouts an organization for boys that teaches them practical skills

b) (also boy scout) a boy who is a member of this organization

2 (also Girl Scout) American English a girl who is a member of an organization for girls that teaches them practical things

3 a soldier, plane etc. that is sent to search the area in front of an army and get information about the enemy:

He sent three scouts ahead to take a look at the bridge.

4 (also talent scout) someone whose job is to look for good sports players, musicians etc. in order to employ them:

He was spotted by a scout at the age of 13. 

28

observant / əbˈzɜːv ə nt $ -ɜːr- / adjective

1 good or quick at noticing things: هوشیار

a quiet and observant person

Supervisors are trained to be observant.

the writer’s observant eye for detail

2 obeying laws, religious rules etc.: مراعات کننده

observant Jews 

29

hazy / ˈheɪzi / adjective

hazily adverb

haziness noun [uncountable] 

1 air that is hazy is not clear because there is a lot of smoke, dust, or mist in it: مثل هوای تهران

hazy sunshine

2 an idea, memory etc. that is hazy is not clear or exact SYN vague: مبهم

My memories of the holiday are rather hazy.

hazy about

She was a little hazy about the details.

30

cloudy 

grey 

overcast 

leaden literary 

gloomy 

foggy 

misty 

hazy 

cloudy with a lot of clouds:

The weather was cold and cloudy. | cloudy skies

grey (also gray American English) grey in colour, because there are dark clouds – used especially in written descriptions:

Mary looked out at the cold grey sky.

overcast dark and completely covered with clouds:

a chilly overcast day

leaden literary a leaden sky is grey and full of dark clouds:

Snow fell from a leaden sky.

gloomy dark and cloudy, in a depressing way:

The gloomy weather shows no sign of improving.

foggy with thick low cloud that is difficult to see through. You use foggy especially about low-lying places:

a foggy day in London in November

misty with light low cloud that is difficult to see through. You use misty especially about places that are next to water or in the mountains:

a cold misty morning

hazy with air that looks cloudy, because there is smoke, dust, or mist in it:

hazy sunshine 

31

hasty / ˈheɪsti / adjective

1 done in a hurry, especially with bad results SYN hurried: شتاب زده

He soon regretted his hasty decision.

a hasty breakfast

2 be hasty to do something too soon, without careful enough thought:

Let’s not be hasty – sit down for a moment. 

32

gleam 2 noun [countable]

1 a small pale light, especially one that shines for a short time SYN glimmer یه لحظه نور

gleam of

They saw a sudden gleam of light.

2 the brightness of something that shines SYN glint برق چیزی

gleam of

the gleam of gold and diamonds

3 an emotion or expression that appears for a moment on someone’s face

gleam of

She saw a gleam of amusement in his eyes.

Rose looked at me with a furious gleam in her eyes.

4 something is a gleam in sb’s eye used to say that something is being planned or thought about, but does not yet exist: 

In those days, CD-ROMs were still just a gleam in the eye of some young engineer. 

33

gleam 1 / ɡliːm / verb [intransitive]

gleaming adjective:

gleaming white walls 

1 to shine softly SYN glimmer:

His teeth gleamed under his moustache.

gleam with

The wooden panelling was gleaming with wax polish.

2 if your eyes or face gleam with a feeling, they show it SYN glint

gleam with

He laughed, his eyes gleaming with amusement.

34

sparkle/glitter

gleam 

glint 

glisten literary 

catch the light 

sparkle/glitter if something sparkles, it shines with many small bright points when light is on it: The sea sparkled in the sunlight. | Jewels glittered around her neck.

gleam to shine by reflecting the light – used especially about smooth clean surfaces, or about someone’s eyes or teeth: The sword’s blade gleamed. | a gleaming sports car | His blue eyes gleamed with amusement.

glint to shine with quick flashes of light: The knife glinted in the sunlight.

glisten literary to shine – used about wet or oily surfaces. Used especially when saying that someone’s eyes are full of tears, or someone’s skin is covered in sweat: As they were leaving, her eyes glistened with tears. | His forehead was glistening with sweat. | The wet chairs glistened in the afternoon sun.

catch the light if something catches the light, it shines because it is reflecting light: Her diamond ring caught the light. 

35

gloom / ɡluːm / noun [singular, uncountable]

1 literary almost complete darkness: ظلمات

He peered into the gathering (= increasing) gloom.

2 a feeling of great sadness and lack of hope: افسردگی

a time of high unemployment and economic gloom

36

be filled with gloom 

be sunk in gloom 

cast (a) gloom over something 

dispel/lift the gloom

gloom deepens

gloom lifts 

be filled with gloom She was filled with gloom as she looked around the place.

be sunk in gloom (= feel very sad and hopeless) She made several attempts at conversation but the boy was sunk in gloom.

cast (a) gloom over something (= make people feel sad) His ill health had cast a gloom over the Christmas holidays.

dispel/lift the gloom (= make people feel less sad) Now for some good news to dispel the gloom.

gloom deepens (= people feel more sad) The party's gloom deepened as the election results came in.

gloom lifts (= people stop feeling sad) Germany's gloom lifted when Stallkamp scored a goal. 

37

doom and gloom 

economic gloom 

deep gloom 

a general gloom

doom and gloom (= when there seems no hope) The picture is not all doom and gloom - some tourist areas are still drawing in the crowds.

economic gloom It was a year of economic gloom for the car industry.

deep gloom There was deep gloom about the future.

a general gloom (= when many people feel there is not much hope) Amid the general gloom, there are some positive signs. 

38

rave 2 noun [countable]

1 a big event where people dance to loud music with a strong beat and often take drugs:

an all-night rave

rave music

rave parties

→ raver

2 strong praise for a new play, book etc.:

The play got raves from the critics. 

39

party 

get-together 

ball 

rave 

reception

function 

celebration 

bash informal 

dinner party

house-warming (party) 

cocktail party

costume party

bachelor party 

baby/wedding shower American English 

party a social event when a lot of people meet together to enjoy themselves by eating, drinking, dancing etc.:

We’re having a party for Sarah’s 40th birthday. | I met my boyfriend at a party.

get-together an informal party:

Christmas is the perfect time for a family get-together.

ball a large formal party where people dance:

the end of term ball

rave a large party which is held outside or in an empty building, where people dance to music and take illegal drugs

reception a large formal party, especially one after a wedding or to welcome an important person:

The wedding reception is at a nearby hotel. | a reception for the Thai Foreign Minister | They attended a White House reception to mark the Queen’s visit.

function a large formal or official party:

He has been asked to play at many corporate functions (= an official party held by a company).

celebration a party or special event that is organized in order to celebrate something:

the country’s 50th anniversary celebrations | It was a 21st birthday celebration which Mary would never forget.

bash informal a party, especially a big one that a lot of famous people go to – used especially in journalism:

the star’s birthday bash | a picture of him at a Hollywood bash | a showbiz bash

dinner party a party where people are invited to someone’s house for an evening meal:

I met him at a dinner party.

house-warming (party) a party that you have when you move into a new house:

We’re having a house-warming next week.

cocktail party a party that people go to in order to talk and have a drink together for a few hours

costume party a party where people dress in special clothes, for example to look like a famous person or a character in a story

bachelor party a social event just before a wedding, for a man who is getting married and his male friends

baby/wedding shower American English an event at which people give presents to a woman who is going to have a baby or get married 

40

rave 1 / reɪv / verb [intransitive]

1 rave about/over something to talk about something you enjoy or admire in an excited way SYN enthuse:

Now I understand why travelers rave about Lapland.

The customers were raving over our homemade chili.

2 to talk in an angry, uncontrolled, or crazy way

rave at

He started raving at me 

41

whirl 1 / wɜːl $ wɜːrl / verb

1 [intransitive and transitive] to turn or spin around very quickly, or to make someone or something do this: چرخیدن

We watched the seagulls whirling and shrieking over the harbour.

whirl about/around/toward etc.

She whirled around and her look shook him.

whirl somebody/something about/around/away etc.

He whirled her round in his arms.

2 [intransitive] if your head is whirling, or if thoughts are whirling in your head, your mind is full of thoughts and ideas, and you feel very confused or excited:

His head was whirling with excitement.

The implications began to whirl around her head. 

42

turn 

go around 

revolve/rotate 

spin 

whirl / wɜːl $ wɜːrl /

twirl (around) 

swirl (around) 

spiral

turn to move around a central or fixed point:

The wheels of the train began to turn.

go around to turn around a central point. Go around is a little more informal than turn and is very common in everyday English:

When the fan goes around, the warm air is pushed back downwards.

revolve/rotate to turn around and around a central point. Rotate and revolve are more formal than turn and sound more technical:

The Earth rotates on its axis once every twenty-four hours. | The stage revolves at various points during the performance.

spin to turn around many times very quickly:

The ice skater began to spin faster and faster.

whirl / wɜːl $ wɜːrl / to spin around extremely quickly, often in a powerful or uncontrolled way:

The blades of the helicopter whirled overhead.

twirl (around) to spin around quickly, especially as part of a dance or performance:

The couples were twirling around on the dance floor.

swirl (around) to move around quickly in a circular movement, especially when the movement goes outwards or upwards from the center:

Her white skirt swirled around her legs as she danced. | The leaves began to swirl around.

spiral to move in a continuous curve that gets nearer to or further from its central point as it goes around:

The smoke spiralled toward the ceiling. 

43

thrust 1 / θrʌst / verb (past tense and past participle thrust)

1 [transitive always + adverb/preposition] to push something somewhere roughly: فشردن، حول دادن خشن، چپوندن

She thrust a letter into my hand.

He thrust me roughly towards the door.

2 [intransitive] to make a sudden movement forward with a sword or knife با چاقو یا شمشیری به جلو پریدن

thrust at

He skipped aside as his opponent thrust at him.

thrust something aside phrasal verb

to refuse to think about something: نمیخواد راجع بهش فکر کنه

Our complaints were thrust aside and ignored.

thrust something upon/on somebody phrasal verb

if something is thrust upon you, you are forced to accept it even if you do not want it: تحمیل کردن

She never enjoyed the fame that was thrust upon her.

He had marriage thrust upon him. 

44

put

place 

lay 

position 

slip 

shove 

stick informal

dump

pop informal 

thrust literary 

put to move something to a particular place:

I’ve put the wine in the fridge. | Where have you put my grey shirt?

place to put something somewhere carefully:

‘It’s beautiful,’ he said, placing it back on the shelf.

lay to put someone or something down carefully on a flat surface:

He laid all the money on the table. | She laid the baby on his bed.

position to carefully put something in a suitable position:

Position the microphone to suit your height. | Troops were positioned around the city.

slip to put something somewhere with a quick movement:

He slipped his arm around her waist. | Carrie quickly slipped the money into her bag.

shove to put something into a space or container quickly or carelessly:

Shove anything you don’t want in that sack. | I’ve ironed those shirts so don’t just shove them in a drawer.

stick informal to put something somewhere quickly or carelessly:

I stuck the address in my pocket and I can’t find it now. | Could you bung those clothes in the washing machine?

dump to put something down somewhere in a careless and untidy way:

Don’t just dump all your bags in the kitchen. | People shouldn’t dump rubbish at the side of the street.

pop informal to quickly put something somewhere, usually for a short time:

Pop it in the microwave for a minute.

thrust literary to put something somewhere suddenly or forcefully:

‘Hide it,’ he said, thrusting the watch into her hand. 

45

thrust 2 noun

1 [countable] a sudden strong movement in which you push something forward:

He jumped back to avoid another thrust of the knife.

2 [singular] the main meaning or aim of what someone is saying or doing

thrust of

the main thrust of the government’s education policy

3 [uncountable] technical the force of an engine that makes a car, train, or plane move forward 

46

plea / pliː / noun

1 [countable] a request that is urgent or full of emotion تقاضا

plea for

a plea for help

Caldwell made a plea for donations.

plea to

The parents made an emotional plea to their child’s kidnappers.

2 [countable usually singular] a statement by someone in a court of law saying whether they are guilty or not: دادخواست

a guilty plea

make/enter a plea

Adams entered a plea of ‘not guilty’.

3 [singular] an excuse for something:

He refused the appointment on a plea of illness. 

47

plead / pliːd / verb

1 [intransitive and transitive] to ask for something that you want very much, in a sincere and emotional way SYN beg: درخواست کردن

‘Don’t go!’ Robert pleaded.

plead for

Civil rights groups pleaded for government help.

plead with somebody (to do something)

Moira pleaded with him to stay.

2 (past tense and past participle pleaded also pled / pled / especially American English) [intransitive, transitive not in passive] law to state in a court of law whether or not you are guilty of a crime اقامه دعوا کردن

plead guilty/not guilty/innocent

Henderson pled guilty to burglary.

3 (past tense and past participle pleaded also pled American English) plead ignorance/illness/insanity etc. formal to give a particular excuse for your actions: عذر آوردن

She stayed home from work, pleading illness.

4 [transitive] written to give reasons why you think something is true or why something should be done دلیل آوردن

plead that

Managers pleaded that there was not enough time to make the changes.

Residents successfully pleaded their case at a council meeting. 

48

ask for 

order 

demand 

request formal 

beg/plead 

nag/pester 

ask for to tell someone you want them to give you something:

I’m going to ask for a pay rise.

order to ask for food or drink in a restaurant:

We ordered some more coffee. | Have you ordered yet?

demand to ask for something in a firm way, insisting that someone gives you what you ask for:

They’re demanding immediate payment. | If the goods are faulty, you can demand a refund.

request formal to ask for something:

The pilot requested permission to land. | I enclose the information you requested.

beg/plead to ask for something in an urgent way, because you want it very much and will be very unhappy if you do not get it:

He begged me for some money. | I’m not going to plead for forgiveness.

nag/pester to keep asking someone for something, in an annoying way:

She keeps nagging me for a new phone. | People were pestering him for his autograph. 

49

pledge 1 / pledʒ / noun [countable]

1 promise formal a serious promise or agreement, especially one made publicly or officially تعهد و قول

pledge of

a pledge of support for the plan

pledge to do something

the government’s pledge to make no deals with terrorists

make/take/give a pledge

Parents make a pledge to take their children to rehearsals.

keep/fulfil/honour a pledge

Eisenhower fulfilled his election pledge to end the war in Korea.

2 money a promise to give money to an organization: قول پول دادن

Donors have made pledges totaling nearly $4 million.

pledge of

a pledge of $200 to the public TV station

3 something valuable something valuable that you leave with someone else as proof that you will do what you have agreed to do وثیقه

4 us colleges someone who has promised to become a member of a fraternity or sorority at an American university 

50

make/give a pledge 

take a pledge literary 

keep a pledge

fulfil/honour a pledge

renege on a pledge formal 

make/give a pledge Several European countries made similar pledges.

take a pledge literary (= make one, especially formally) He took a pledge never to drink again.

keep a pledge (= do what you promised to do) He has not kept his election pledges.

fulfil/honour a pledge (= more formal than keep) The time is coming when they will have to honour that pledge.

renege on a pledge formal (= not keep it) The government reneged on its electoral pledges. 

51

an election/campaign/manifesto pledge 

a spending pledge 

a firm pledge 

a solemn pledge 

an election/campaign/manifesto pledge The governor had kept her campaign pledge to slash taxes.

a spending pledge BrE: I asked him to clarify Labour’s spending pledges.

a firm pledge He also gave a firm pledge to build up the National Health Service.

a solemn pledge We will not forget. That is a solemn pledge. 

52

promise 

pledge 

vow 

oath 

undertaking 

assurance 

guarantee 

promise a statement that you will definitely do or provide something, which may not be reliable:

‘I’ll call you tomorrow.’ ‘Is that a promise?’ | Politicians are always making promises.

pledge a public or official promise to do a particular thing in the future:

The Government has fulfilled at least 50% of its election pledges. | We have received pledges of help from various organizations.

vow a very serious promise to do something or not to do something that you choose to make:

He made a vow never to drink alcohol again. | your marriage vows

oath a formal promise, especially one that someone makes in a court of law:

Witnesses swear a solemn oath to tell the truth. | Public officials must take an oath to support the US Constitution.

undertaking a serious or public promise to do something, especially something difficult which needs a lot of effort or money:

The police have given an undertaking to reduce street crime in the city centre. | He was made to sign a written undertaking that he would not go within a mile of her house.

assurance a promise that something will happen or is true, made so that someone is less worried or more confident:

You have my assurance that it won’t happen again. | The manager gave me his personal assurance that the goods would be delivered today.

guarantee a very definite promise that something will happen. A guarantee is also a formal written promise by a company to repair or replace a product free if it has a fault within a fixed period of time.:

With any diet, there’s no guarantee of success. | I’m afraid I can’t give you a 100% guarantee. | Is the camera still under guarantee (= within the period during which it can be repaired or replaced free)?

53

loath, loth / ləʊθ $ loʊθ / adjective

be loath to do something formal to be unwilling to do something SYN reluctant بیزار

OPP willing:

Sarah was loath to tell her mother what had happened. 

54

loathe / ləʊð $ loʊð / verb [transitive not in progressive]

to hate someone or something very much SYN detest: بیزار بودن

He loathes their politics.

loathe doing something

I absolutely loathe shopping. 

55

hate verb [transitive not in progressive] 

can’t stand/can’t bear

loathe / ləʊð $ loʊð / /detest verb [transitive not in progressive] 

despise verb [transitive not in progressive]

abhor / əbˈhɔː $ əbˈhɔːr, æb- / verb [transitive not in progressive] formal 

hate verb [transitive not in progressive] to dislike someone or something very much:

Billy hated his stepfather. | He hated the fact that his wife was more successful than he was. | She hates people being late.

can’t stand/can’t bear to hate someone or something. Can’t stand is less formal than hate, and is very common in everyday English:

She’s OK, but I can’t stand her husband. | He couldn’t bear the thought of life without Nicole. | She can’t stand being on her own.

loathe / ləʊð $ loʊð / /detest verb [transitive not in progressive] to hate something or someone very much. Loathe and detest are a little more formal than hate:

He loathed housework. | Greg had detested his brother for as long as he could remember. | She evidently loathes her ex-husband.

despise verb [transitive not in progressive] to hate someone or something very much and have no respect for them:

He despised the man and could never forgive him for what he had done. | They despised the wealth and consumerism of the West.

abhor / əbˈhɔː $ əbˈhɔːr, æb- / verb [transitive not in progressive] formal to hate something because you think it is morally wrong:

He abhorred violence. | We abhor racism in any form. 

56

surpass / səˈpɑːs $ sərˈpæs / verb [transitive]

to be even better or greater than someone or something else: جلو افتادن

He had surpassed all our expectations.

The number of multiple births has surpassed 100,000 for the first time.

surpass yourself (= do something better than you have ever done before)

With this painting he has surpassed himself. 

57

gratitude / ˈɡrætətjuːd, ˈɡrætɪtjuːd $ -tuːd / noun [uncountable]

the feeling of being grateful نمک شناسی، حق شناسی

OPP ingratitude:

Tears of gratitude filled her eyes.

gratitude to/towards

She had a deep gratitude towards David, but she did not love him.

gratitude for

The committee expressed its gratitude for the contribution he had made.

in gratitude for something

Will you let me take you out to dinner tomorrow in gratitude for what you’ve done?

with gratitude

She accepted his offer with gratitude.

58

express your gratitude 

show your gratitude 

feel gratitude

earn somebody's gratitude 

express your gratitude We would like to express our gratitude to everyone for their generous donations.

show your gratitude Her face showed her gratitude.

feel gratitude He felt a certain gratitude to Eleanor for giving him this idea.

earn somebody's gratitude The useful service she performed raising money has earned our gratitude. 

59

somebody's eternal/undying gratitude 

somebody's deep gratitude (also profound gratitude formal)

somebody's sincere gratitude 

somebody's immense gratitude

somebody's eternal/undying gratitude (= used to emphasize how extremely grateful you are)

The doctors who saved my daughter have my undying gratitude.

somebody's deep gratitude (also profound gratitude formal)

My only emotions afterward were relief and deep gratitude.

somebody's sincere gratitude

First, I must express our sincere gratitude for all you have done.

somebody's immense gratitude (= being very grateful)

He would like everyone to know about his immense gratitude for all their work. 

60

ˈdie ˌcasting noun [uncountable]

the process of making metal objects by forcing liquid metal into a hollow container with a particular shape, and then allowing it to become hard 

61

nimble / ˈnɪmb ə l / adjective

nimbly adverb

nimbleness noun [uncountable] 

1 able to move quickly and easily with light neat movements SYN agile: زیرک، چابک

nimble fingers

a nimble climber

2 a nimble mind/brain/wit an ability to think quickly or understand things easily

62

agile / ˈædʒaɪl $ ˈædʒ ə l / adjective

agility / əˈdʒɪləti, əˈdʒɪlɪti / noun [uncountable]:

With surprising agility, Karl darted across the road. 

1 able to move quickly and easily: زیرک، فرز

Dogs are surprisingly agile.

2 someone who has an agile mind is able to think very quickly and intelligently:

He was physically strong and mentally agile.

63

puppet / ˈpʌpət, ˈpʌpɪt / noun [countable]

1 a model of a person or animal that you move by pulling wires or strings, or by putting your hand inside it

puppet show/theatre/play

a 20-minute puppet show

glove/hand/finger puppet

2 a person or organization that allows other people to control them and make their decisions

puppet of

The government is in danger of becoming a mere puppet of the military.

puppet government/regime/state (= a government etc. controlled by a more powerful country or organization) 

64

savage 1 / ˈsævɪdʒ / adjective

savagely adverb:

He was savagely attacked and beaten.

savageness noun [uncountable] 

1 violent very violent or cruel SYN vicious: وحشی

a savage dog

a savage murder

2 criticizing criticizing someone or something very severely تند و تیز برای انتقاد کردن

OPP mild:

a savage attack on the government

3 severe very severe:

The government has announced savage cuts in spending.

a savage storm

4 people [only before noun] old-fashioned not polite an offensive word used to describe people who have a simple traditional way of life → primitive:

a savage tribe

65

violent / ˈvaɪələnt / 

vicious / ˈvɪʃəs / 

rough / rʌf / 

brutal / ˈbruːtl / 

savage / ˈsævɪdʒ /

bloody 

ferocious / fəˈrəʊʃəs / 

fierce

bloodthirsty 

gory 

violent / ˈvaɪələnt / using force to hurt or kill people – used about people, crimes etc. Also used about films or books that contain a lot of violence:

a violent man who couldn’t control his temper | the increase in violent crime | The film is too violent to be shown to children.

vicious / ˈvɪʃəs / violent and dangerous, and seeming to enjoy hurting people for no reason:

a vicious attack on an unarmed man | We were surrounded by a gang of vicious thugs, armed with knives.

rough / rʌf / using force or violence, but not causing serious injury:

Some of the boys were being a bit rough with the younger kids. | There were complaints about rough treatment by the police.

brutal / ˈbruːtl / behaving in a way that is very cruel and violent, and showing no pity:

Idi Amin was a brutal dictator. | a particularly brutal murder | The prison guards were brutal and corrupt.

savage / ˈsævɪdʒ / attacking people in a particularly cruel way – used about people and fighting, especially in news reports:

a savage killer | There was savage fighting in the capital Mogadishu.

bloody a bloody battle or war is very violent and a lot of people are killed or injured:

a bloody civil war | The Russians were engaged in a bloody battle against the German army.

ferocious / fəˈrəʊʃəs / a ferocious attack or battle is extremely violent. Also used about animals that are likley to attack in a very violent way:

The two armies fought a ferocious battle. | a ferocious beast | It was the most ferocious attack I have ever seen.

fierce a fierce animal or person looks frightening and likely to attack people:

A fierce dog stood growling at the gate. | Bears are always fierce when they have young. | fierce bodyguards

bloodthirsty a bloodthirsty person enjoys watching violence. A bloodthirsty story contains a lot of violent scenes:

In Mexico, humans were sacrificed to bloodthirsty gods. | a bloodthirsty tale of revenge

gory showing or describing injuries, blood, death etc. clearly and in detail:

a gory horror movie | The book was too gory for many readers. 

66

clumsy / ˈklʌmzi / adjective (comparative clumsier, superlative clumsiest)

clumsily adverb

clumsiness noun [uncountable] 

1 moving or doing things in a careless way, especially so that you drop things, knock into things etc.: دست و پا چلفتی

A clumsy waiter spilled wine all over her new skirt.

a clumsy attempt to catch the ball

2 a clumsy object is not easy to use and is often large and heavy

3 a clumsy action or statement is said or done carelessly or badly, and likely to upset someone: آزار دهنده برای کلام یا حرکتی

David made a clumsy attempt to comfort us.

67

clumsy adjective 

awkward adjective 

ungainly adjective 

uncoordinated adjective 

accident-prone adjective 

be all thumbs informal 

clumsy adjective moving or doing things in a careless way, especially so that you drop things, knock into things etc.:

She was very clumsy and was always walking into doors. | With clumsy fingers he took out a pack of cigarettes and tried to light one.

awkward adjective moving in a way that does not seem relaxed or comfortable:

Her husband always looked a bit awkward when he was dancing. | an awkward teenager

ungainly adjective moving in a way that is not graceful – used especially about people or things that are big:

The ostrich is rather an ungainly bird. | She collapsed into the chair in an ungainly manner.

uncoordinated adjective not able to control your movements very well, and therefore not very good at physical activities:

When she first starting playing tennis, her movements were slow and uncoordinated.

accident-prone adjective often having accidents:

I was very accident-prone as a child and was always having to go to hospital.

be all thumbs informal to be unable to control your fingers very well, so that you cannot do something:

‘Do you want some help unwrapping that?’ ‘Yes please, I’m all thumbs today.’ 

68

uneasy / ʌnˈiːzi / adjective

uneasily adverb:

Bill shifted uneasily in his chair.

Charles’ concern for the environment sits uneasily with (= does not fit well with) his collection of powerful cars.

uneasiness noun [uncountable] 

1 worried or slightly afraid because you think that something bad might happen مضطرب، نگران

uneasy about

Ninety percent of those questioned felt uneasy about nuclear power.

2 used to describe a period of time when people have agreed to stop fighting or arguing, but which is not really calm

uneasy peace/truce/alliance/compromise

The treaty restored an uneasy peace to the country.

3 not comfortable, peaceful, or relaxed:

She eventually fell into an uneasy sleep.

69

an uneasy peace

an uneasy truce 

an uneasy calm 

an uneasy alliance/relationship 

an uneasy compromise 

an uneasy peace There was an uneasy peace in the region for nearly three years before the conflict flared up again.

an uneasy truce It was an uneasy truce, however, and tension was never far from the surface.

an uneasy calm Things seemed quiet enough, but it was an uneasy calm.

an uneasy alliance/relationship The government is based on an uneasy alliance between Christian Democrats and Socialists.

an uneasy compromise The result was an uneasy compromise which no-one liked. 

70

lawn / lɔːn $ lɒːn / noun

1 [uncountable and countable] an area of ground in a garden or park that is covered with short grass: منطقه چمن کاری شده پارک یا خونه

I spent all morning mowing the lawn (= cutting the grass).

a carefully tended lawn

2 [uncountable] a fine cloth made from cotton or linen پارچه نخی

71

lawn [countable] 

flowerbed [countable] 

hedge [countable] 

vegetable patch/plot [countable] 

patio [countable] 

decking [uncountable] 

pond [countable] 

water feature [countable] 

greenhouse [countable] 

shed [countable] 

lawn [countable] an area of short grass in a garden:

They were sitting on the front lawn of the house.

flowerbed [countable] an area of ground where you grow flowers:

The flowerbeds were well maintained.

hedge [countable] a row of small bushes or trees growing close together, used for dividing one garden from another:

a beech hedge

vegetable patch/plot [countable] a part of a garden where you grow vegetables

patio [countable] a flat stone area next to a house, where people sit outside

decking [uncountable] a flat wooden area in a garden, where people can sit

pond [countable] a small area of water in a garden

water feature [countable] a small pool or structure with water running through it, used to make a garden look more attractive

greenhouse [countable] a glass building where you can grow plants that need protection from the weather

shed [countable] a small wooden building in a garden, where you can store things 

72

foul 1 / faʊl / adjective

foully adverb

foulness noun [uncountable] 

1 smell/taste a foul smell or taste is very unpleasant SYN disgusting: چندش آور، گند

He woke up with a foul taste in his mouth.

a pile of foul-smelling garbage

He put down his mug of foul-tasting coffee.

3 air/water very dirty:

Refugees in the camps are short of food and at risk from foul water.

extractor fans to remove foul air from the tunnel

4 foul language rude and offensive words:

She claimed she had been subjected to abuse and foul language.

73

horrible 

disgusting/revolting 

nasty 

nauseating / ˈnɔːzieɪtɪŋ, -si- $ ˈnɒːzi-, -ʃi- / 

foul / faʊl /

horrible very bad and unpleasant:

What’s that horrible smell? | This fish tastes horrible.

disgusting/revolting horrible, especially in a way that makes you feel slightly sick:

I had to take two spoons of some disgusting medicine. | The stench in the room was revolting.

nasty very unpleasant – often used about a taste that stays in your mouth:

Cheap wine sometimes leaves a nasty taste in your mouth. | the nasty smell of bad eggs

nauseating / ˈnɔːzieɪtɪŋ, -si- $ ˈnɒːzi-, -ʃi- / horrible and making you feel that you are going to vomit – used especially about a smell:

the nauseating smell of stale beer and cigarette smoke

foul / faʊl / horrible – used especially when there is decay or waste:

There was a foul smell coming from the water. | Whatever it was in that cup, it tasted foul. 

74

pebble / ˈpeb ə l / noun [countable]

pebbly adjective:

a pebbly beach 

a small smooth stone found especially on a beach or on the bottom of a river: سنگریزه های کف رودخونه

The beach was covered with smooth white pebbles.

75

rock 

stone 

boulder 

pebble 

fossil 

rock a piece of the hard substance that forms the main surface of the Earth. In British English, rocks are too large to pick up, but in American English, they can either be large or small:

the rocks along the riverbanks

stone a small piece of rock, found on the ground or near the surface of the ground. Speakers of American English are more likely to use the word rock than stone:

The children were throwing stones into the water.

boulder a large round piece of rock:

She climbed over a few boulders at the edge of the sea.

pebble a small smooth stone found especially on a beach or on the bottom of a river:

The beach was covered with smooth white pebbles.

fossil a rock which has the shape of an animal or plant that lived many thousands of years ago:

fossils of early reptiles 

76

linger / ˈlɪŋɡə $ -ər / verb [intransitive] 

1 (also linger on) to continue to exist, be noticeable etc. for longer than is usual or desirable: دوام داشتن

a taste that lingers in your mouth

Unfortunately the tax will linger on until April.

2 (also linger on) to stay somewhere a little longer, especially because you do not want to leave بیشتر موندن

linger over

They lingered over coffee and missed the last bus.

I spent a week at Kandersteg and could happily have lingered on.

3 [always + adverb/preposition] to continue looking at or dealing with something for longer than is usual or desirable

linger on/over

Mike let his eyes linger on her face.

There’s no need to linger over this stage of the interview.

4 (also linger on) to continue to live although you are slowly dying:

He surprised all the doctors by lingering on for several weeks.

77

stay 

remain formal 

linger 

loiter 

hang around informal 

stick around informal 

stay to not leave a place, or to be in a place for a particular period of time:

Stay where you are and don’t move. | John only stayed at the party for a couple of hours.

remain formal to stay somewhere. In written English, people often prefer to use remain rather than stay, because it sounds more formal:

Some 2,000 protesters remained outside the building and refused to leave. | The judge recommended that he remain in jail for the rest of his life.

linger to stay in a place a little longer than you need to, because you are enjoying yourself, or because you hope to see someone or something:

He lingered outside the lecture hall, hoping for a chance to talk to her. | There are plenty of small cafés where you can linger over a cappuccino.

loiter to stay in a place not doing anything – used when you think someone is waiting for the chance to do something bad or illegal:

The two men had been seen loitering in the area on the day that the car was stolen.

hang around informal to stay somewhere not doing anything:

There are gangs of boys hanging around on street corners. | I don’t mind hanging around for a few minutes. | The boss doesn’t like being kept hanging around.

stick around informal to stay in the same place or situation for a period of time, especially while you are waiting for something to happen or someone to arrive:

I decided to stick around and see how it all turned out. | Make up your mind. I’m not going to stick around forever. 

78

crafty / ˈkrɑːfti $ ˈkræf- / adjective (comparative craftier, superlative craftiest)

craftily adverb

craftiness noun [uncountable] 

good at getting what you want by clever planning and by secretly deceiving people SYN cunning, sly: حیله گر

He’s a crafty old devil.

79

intelligent 

clever especially British English, smart especially American English 

bright 

brilliant 

gifted

wise 

cunning/crafty

brainy informal 

intelligent having a high level of mental ability, and good at thinking clearly and understanding ideas:

The top universities aim to select the most intelligent students.

clever especially British English, smart especially American English intelligent, so that you can think and learn quickly and find ways to solve problems:

That was very clever of you. How did you do that? | I wasn’t smart enough to be a lawyer.

bright intelligent – used especially about children and young people:

He’s a very bright kid. | the brightest student in the class

brilliant extremely intelligent and good at the work you do:

a brilliant scientist

gifted a gifted child is much more intelligent than most other children:

a special school for gifted children

wise able to make good decisions and give sensible advice, especially because you have a lot of experience:

a wise old man

cunning/crafty good at using your intelligence to get what you want, often by making secret plans or tricking people:

She was cunning enough to keep this latest piece of information secret. | He’s a crafty old devil!

brainy informal intelligent and good at studying:

My sister is the brainy one in our family. 

80

sly / slaɪ / adjective

slyly adverb

slyness noun [uncountable] 

1 someone who is sly cleverly deceives people in order to get what they want SYN cunning حیله گر، موذی

2 sly smile/glance/wink etc. a smile, look etc. that shows you know something secret:

He leaned forward with a sly smile.

3 on the sly informal secretly, especially when you are doing something that you should not do:

They’d been seeing each other on the sly for months.

81

dishonest 

corrupt 

devious / ˈdiːviəs / 

underhanded 

sneaky 

sly

unscrupulous / ʌnˈskruːpjələs, ʌnˈskruːpjʊləs / 

fraudulent / ˈfrɔːdjələnt, ˈfrɔːdjʊlənt $ ˈfrɒːdʒə- / formal 

dishonest behaving in a way that is intended to deceive people, for example by lying, cheating, or stealing:

Are you accusing me of being dishonest? | The money was acquired through dishonest means. | People are no longer surprised to find that politicians are dishonest.

corrupt using your power in a dishonest way for your own advantage – used about people in official positions: فاسد-اداری

corrupt politicians | Law and order has broken down, and most government officials are corrupt.

devious / ˈdiːviəs / good at secretly thinking of clever plans to trick people in order to get what you want: باهوش منفی

You have a very devious mind! | They use all kinds of devious methods to find out your personal details.

underhanded underhanded methods involve secretly deceiving people in order to get what you want: یواشکی برای منافع خودت

In a series of underhanded moves, Browne managed to gain control of the company.

sneaky doing or saying things secretly, in a way that seems wrong because it is slightly dishonest or unfair: یواشکی برای کارهای منفی

It was pretty sneaky when the bank charged me interest on my account without telling me.

sly deliberately behaving in a way that hides what you are really thinking or doing, in a way that is slightly dishonest: موذی

Lucy decided not to tell him where she was going. She was often a bit sly like that. | He’s a sly old fox.

unscrupulous / ʌnˈskruːpjələs, ʌnˈskruːpjʊləs / using dishonest and unfair methods to get what you want, without caring if you harm other people: بی مرام بدون توجه به خوب و بد مردم

Some unscrupulous companies try to persuade people to borrow huge sums of money.

fraudulent / ˈfrɔːdjələnt, ˈfrɔːdjʊlənt $ ˈfrɒːdʒə- / formal deliberately deceiving people in an illegal way in order to gain money or power:

You will be prosecuted if you make a fraudulent claim on your insurance policy. 

82

defiant / dɪˈfaɪənt / adjective

defiantly adverb 

clearly refusing to do what someone tells you to do: رد کننده گفته دیگری

Mark smashed a fist on the desk in a defiant gesture.

83

vigor / ˈvɪɡə $ -ər / noun [uncountable]

physical or mental energy and determination قدرت

with vigor

He began working with renewed vigor.

84

wither / ˈwɪðə $ -ər / (also wither away) verb

1 [intransitive and transitive] if plants wither, they become drier and smaller and start to die پژمرده شدن

2 [intransitive] to gradually become weaker or less successful and then end:

His career had withered.

The organization just withered away.

3 wither on the vine if something withers on the vine, it gradually ends because it is not given enough support: به تدریج از بین رفتن

The government has allowed the program to wither on the vine by reducing its funding. 

85

perish / ˈperɪʃ / verb

1 [intransitive] formal or literary to die, especially in a terrible or sudden way: مردن، نابود شدن

Hundreds perished when the ship went down.

3 perish the thought! spoken old-fashioned used to say that you hope what someone has suggested will never happen:

If we lose, perish the thought, Watford will take first place. 

86

die 

pass away 

pass on 

lose your life 

perish literary 

give your life/lay down your life formal 

drop dead informal 

buy the farm informal 

die to stop being alive, as a result of old age or illness:

I want to see Ireland again before I die. | No wonder your plants always die – you don’t water them enough. | His son died of liver cancer three years ago.

pass away to die – used when you want to avoid using the word ‘die’, in order to show respect or to avoid upsetting someone:

My wife had just passed away, and I didn’t want to be around people.

pass on to pass away – use this especially when you believe that the soul has a life after the death of the body:

I’m sorry, Emily, but your mother has passed on.

lose your life to be killed in a terrible event:

Hundreds of people lost their lives when the ship overturned in a storm.

perish literary to die in a terrible event – used especially in literature and news reports:

Five children perished before firefighters could put out the blaze.

give your life/lay down your life formal to die in order to save someone, or because of something that you believe in:

We honor the men and women who have given their lives in service of their country.

drop dead informal to suddenly die, when people do not expect you to:

One day, he came home from work and dropped dead of a heart attack.

buy the farm informal to die – used when you are not talking seriously about death:

It’s not like I’m going to buy the farm tomorrow. 

87

devour / dɪˈvaʊə $ -ˈvaʊr / verb [transitive]

1 to eat something quickly because you are very hungry: بلعبدن

The boys devoured their pancakes.

2 to read something quickly and eagerly, or watch something with great interest:

He devoured science fiction books.

3 be devoured by something to be filled with a strong feeling that seems to control you: مملو از چیزی بودن

Cindy felt devoured by jealousy.

4 literary to destroy someone or something:

Her body had been almost entirely devoured by the disease.

5 to use up all of something:

a job that devours all my energy 

88

gobble something up/down informal 

wolf something down informal 

devour / dɪˈvaʊə $ -ˈvaʊr / especially written 

gobble something up/down informal to eat something very quickly, especially because you like it very much or you are greedy:

You’ve gobbled up all the ice-cream! | The children gobbled it down in no time.

wolf something down informal to eat food quickly, especially because you are very hungry or in a hurry:

The boy wolfed down everything on his plate and asked for more.

devour / dɪˈvaʊə $ -ˈvaʊr / especially written to eat all of something quickly because you are very hungry:

In a very short time, the snake had devoured the whole animal. 

89

barn / bɑːn $ bɑːrn / noun [countable]

1 a large farm building for storing crops, or for keeping animals in انبار غله و علوفه یا حل نگه داری حیوانات مثل اسب

2 informal a large plain building:

a huge barn of a house 

90

terrier / ˈteriə $ -ər / noun [countable]

a small active type of dog that was originally used for hunting 

91

shrewd / ʃruːd / adjective

shrewdly adverb:

‘Something tells me you’ve already decided,’ he said shrewdly.

shrewdness noun [uncountable] 

1 good at judging what people or situations are really like: زیرک و زرنگ

Malcolm is a shrewd businessman.

She was shrewd enough to guess who was responsible.

Capra looked at her with shrewd eyes.

2 well judged and likely to be right:

a shrewd decision

Bridget has a shrewd idea of what will sell.

92

vulgar / ˈvʌlɡə $ -ər / adjective

vulgarly adverb 

1 remarks, jokes etc. that are vulgar deal with sex in a very rude and offensive way مبتذل

2 not behaving politely in social situations SYN uncouth:

vulgar behaviour

3 not showing good judgment about what is beautiful or suitable:

a vulgar check suit

93

mystical / ˈmɪstɪk ə l / (also mystic) adjective [usually before noun]

mystically / -kli / adverb 

1 involving religious, spiritual, or magical powers that people cannot understand: عرفانی

music’s spiritual and mystical powers

2 relating to mysticism:

a mystic ritual

94

gore 1 / ɡɔː $ ɡɔːr / verb [transitive usually passive]

if an animal gores someone, it wounds them with its horns or tusks: مجروح کردن با شاخ

He was attacked and gored by a bull. 

95

villain / ˈvɪlən / noun [countable]

1 the main bad character in a film, play, or story تبه کار و شرور

2 the villain of the piece the person or thing that has caused all the trouble in a particular situation

3 informal a bad person or criminal 

96

valiant / ˈvæliənt / adjective

very brave, especially in a difficult situation SYN courageous: شجاع و دلاور

Tarr threw himself in front of a train in a valiant effort to save the child.