400Word_6 Flashcards Preview

1000 words > 400Word_6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 400Word_6 Deck (98):
1

delinquency / dɪˈlɪŋkwənsi / noun (plural delinquencies) [uncountable and countable]

 

illegal or immoral behavior or actions, especially by young people: بزه کاری

the ever-rising statistics of delinquency and crime 

2

fringe 1 / frɪndʒ / noun [countable]

1 British English if you have a fringe, your hair is cut so that it hangs down over your forehead SYN bangs American English: موی چتری

a tall girl with straight brown hair and a fringe

2 a decorative edge of hanging threads on a curtain, piece of clothing etc.

3 on the fringes (of sth) در حاشیه چیزی

a) not completely belonging to or accepted by a group of people who share the same job, activities etc.:

a small group on the fringes of the art world

b) (also on the fringe) at the part of sth that is farthest from the center SYN on the edge of sth:

Nina remained on the fringe of the crowd.

3

hedonist / ˈhiːd ə n-əst, ˈhiːd ə n-ɪst / noun [countable]

hedonism noun [uncountable]

hedonistic / ˌhiːd ə nˈɪstɪk◂ / adjective; Suddenly wealthy, Allen fell into a hedonistic life of parties, expensive dinners, and heavy drinking

someone who believes that pleasure is the most important thing in life لذت گرا

4

hypocritical / ˌhɪpəˈkrɪtɪk ə l◂ / adjective

 

behaving in a way that is different from what you claim to believe – used to show disapproval تظاهر کار، ریا کار

OPP sincere

it’s hypocritical (of sb) to do sth

It’s hypocritical of these universities to call their football players student-athletes.; Henry spent $2,500 on a new suit and then hypocritically accused me of spending too much on clothes.

5

rebel 1 / ˈreb ə l / noun [countable]

 

1 someone who opposes or fights against people in authority: شورشی

Anti-government rebels attacked the town.

rebel forces/soldiers

the rebel leader

2 someone who refuses to do things in the normal way, or in the way that other people want them to: سرکش

Alex has always been a bit of a rebel. 

6

status quo / ˌsteɪtəs ˈkwəʊ $ ˌsteɪtəs ˈkwoʊ, ˌstæ- / noun

 

the status quo the state of a situation as it is وضع موجود

maintain/preserve/defend the status quo (= not make any changes)

Will the West use its influence to maintain the status quo and not disrupt the flow of oil?; Let’s just maintain the status quo until we can think of a better way.

7

abstract 1 AC / ˈæbstrækt / adjective

1 based on general ideas or principles rather than specific examples or real events SYN theoretical تیوری و انتزاعی

abstract idea/concept etc.

the ability to translate abstract ideas into words

By the age of seven, children are capable of thinking in abstract terms.

Human beings are the only creatures capable of abstract thought (= thinking about ideas).

2 existing only as an idea or quality rather than as sth real that you can see or touch OPP concrete:

the abstract nature of beauty

3 abstract paintings, designs etc. consist of shapes and patterns that do not look like real people or things

8

ˌabstract ˈnoun noun [countable]

 

(اسم عام)

a noun that names a feeling, quality, or state rather than an object, animal, or person. For example, ‘hunger’ and ‘beauty’ are abstract nouns. 

9

context S2 W2 AC / ˈkɒntekst $ ˈkɑːn- / noun [uncountable and countable]

1 the situation, events, or information that are related to sth and that help you to understand it

political/social/historical etc. context

the political context of the election

place/put/see etc. sth in context

To appreciate what these changes will mean, it is necessary to look at them in context.

in the context of sth

These incidents are best understood in the broader context of developments in rural society.

2 the words that come just before and after a word or sentence and that help you understand its meaning:

The meaning of ‘mad’ depends on its context.

3 take/quote sth out of context to repeat part of what someone has said or written without describing the situation in which it was said, so that it means sth quite different:

His comments, taken out of context, seem harsh. 

10

the social/political/historical etc. context 

a wider/broader/larger context

an international/European/British etc. context 

a general context

the social/political/historical etc. context You often need to understand the cultural context of jokes.

a wider/broader/larger context (= a more general situation, set of events etc.) It’s important to look at the story in the wider context of medieval Spain.

an international/European/British etc. context We study the work of these artists in their European context.

a general context This problem is occurring within a general context of economic difficulty. 

11

see sth in the context of sth 

look at/examine etc. sth in context 

put sth in/into context 

place/set sth in context

provide a context for sth 

see sth in the context of sth (= consider and understand sth in relation to a particular situation) His life and work must be seen in the context of his youth.

look at/examine etc. sth in context Although this does not seem to be a good result, let’s examine it in context.

put sth in/into context (= consider sth in context) These statistics need to be put into context.

place/set sth in context (= consider sth in context) The issue must be placed within its historical context.

provide a context for sth The study provides a context for future research. 

12

depict / dɪˈpɪkt / verb [transitive] formal

depiction / dɪˈpɪkʃ ə n / noun [uncountable and countable] 

to describe sth or someone in writing or speech, or to show them in a painting, picture etc.: به تصویر کشیدن

a book depicting life in pre-revolutionary Russia

depict sb/sth as sth

The god is depicted as a bird with a human head.

13

describe 

tell sb about sb/sth 

depict formal 

portray/represent formal 

characterize sb/sth as sth formal 

paint sb/sth as sth 

paint a picture 

describe to talk or write about a person, place, event etc, in order to show what they are like:

Could you try and describe the man you saw? | In her book, she describes her journey across the Sahara. | Police described the attack as particularly violent.

tell sb about sb/sth to describe someone or sth to someone. This phrase is more commonly used than describe in everyday spoken English:

So, tell me about your holiday! | My friends have told me all about you!

depict formal to describe someone or sth in a piece of writing:

His stories depict life in Trinidad as seen through the eyes of a young boy. | In this new biography she is depicted as a lonely and unhappy woman.

portray/represent formal to describe someone or sth in a particular way:

College teachers are often represented on television shows as slightly eccentric. | The magazine has been criticized for the way it portrays women. | The treatment has been portrayed as a painless way of curing cancer, which is simply not true. | Police have represented her as a willing participant in the crimes.

characterize sb/sth as sth formal to describe someone or sth by emphasizing one particular quality or feature about them:

He characterized himself as ‘an average American’. | The successful schools were characterized as innovative and creative.

paint sb/sth as sth to describe someone or sth, especially in a way that makes people believe sth that is not true:

Not all young people are as bad as they’re painted in the press. | We won, yet the media is painting it as a victory for our opponents. | The woman was painted as having only a slight grasp of reality.

paint a picture to describe a situation, so that people can get a general idea of what it is like:

Can you paint a picture of life in Japan for us? | My uncle’s letters generally painted a rosy picture of how things were. | The report painted a bleak picture of the management’s failures. 

14

dimension W3 AC / daɪˈmenʃ ə n, də- / noun [countable]

1 a part of a situation or a quality involved in it SYN aspect

dimension of

the moral dimension of world politics

add a new/an extra/another etc. dimension (to sth)

His coaching has added another dimension to my game.

political/social/economic etc. dimension

It is important to keep in mind the historical dimension to these issues.

You can have a spiritual dimension to your life without being religious.

2 [usually plural] the length, height, width, depth, or diameter of sth SYN measurement:

a rectangle with the dimensions 5cm x 2cm

dimension of

We’ll need to know the exact dimensions of the room.

3 a direction in space that is at an angle of 90 degrees to two other directions:

A diagram represents things in only two dimensions.

→ fourth dimension, three-dimensional (1), two-dimensional (1)

4 dimensions [plural] how great or serious a problem is:

a catastrophe of enormous dimensions 

15

add/give/bring a new etc. dimension to sth 

have a new/social etc. dimension 

take on a new/extra etc. dimension

add/give/bring a new etc. dimension to sth Digital cameras have added a new dimension to photography.

have a new/social etc. dimension Learning a language has an important cultural dimension.

take on a new/extra etc. dimension (= develop in a way that is new or different) Since I met her, my life has taken on a completely different dimension. 

16

a new/different dimension 

an extra/added/additional/further dimension 

a social/political/cultural dimension 

a moral/ethical dimension 

a spiritual dimension 

the human dimension 

an international dimension 

a new/different dimension The size of the bombs gave a new dimension to the terrorists’ campaign.

an extra/added/additional/further dimension Movies soon had the added dimension of sound.

a social/political/cultural dimension His writing has a strong political dimension.

a moral/ethical dimension The book discusses the ethical dimension involved in genetic engineering.

a spiritual dimension He was interested in the spiritual dimension to art.

the human dimension What the figures cannot show us is the human dimension of the disaster.

an international dimension The foreign players bring an international dimension to the English Premier League. 

17

intrinsic AC / ɪnˈtrɪnsɪk, -zɪk / adjective

intrinsically / -kli / adverb:

Science is seen as intrinsically good. 

being part of the nature or character of someone or sth ذاتی، طبیعی

OPP extrinsic:

the intrinsic interest of the subject; Frequent elections are intrinsic to a democratic system

intrinsic nature/quality/value/property of sth

There is nothing in the intrinsic nature of the work that makes it more suitable for women.

intrinsic to

Flexibility is intrinsic to creative management.

18

perspective W3 AC / pəˈspektɪv $ pər- / noun

1 [countable] a way of thinking about sth, especially one which is influenced by the type of person you are or by your experiences → viewpoint

perspective on چشم انداز به

His father’s death gave him a whole new perspective on life.

from sb’s perspective

The novel is written from a child’s perspective.

from a feminist/Christian/global etc. perspective

We have to look at everything from an international perspective.

a much-needed historical perspective

wider/broader perspective

Our work in Uganda and Romania adds a wider perspective.

2 [uncountable] a sensible way of judging and comparing situations so that you do not imagine that sth is more serious than it really is:

I think Viv’s lost all sense of perspective.

The figures have to be put into perspective.

get/keep sth in perspective (= judge the importance of sth correctly)

3 [uncountable] a method of drawing a picture that makes objects look solid and shows distance and depth, or the effect this method produces in a picture:

the artist’s use of perspective

4 [countable] formal a view, especially one in which you can see a long way into the distance 

19

a new/different perspective 

a fresh perspective

a wider/broader perspective 

a historical perspective 

a global/international perspective 

a feminist perspective 

a female perspective 

a Marxist perspective 

a Christian perspective 

a business perspective 

the American/Russian/French etc. perspective 

a new/different perspective I like the programme because it gives you a different perspective on world news.

a fresh perspective (= new and interesting or useful) The venture will benefit from their fresh perspective.

a wider/broader perspective Searching through a variety of sources will give them a wider perspective on their subject.

a historical perspective It is important to have a historical perspective when considering these changes.

a global/international perspective A global perspective allows firms to spot opportunities and reduce supply costs.

a feminist perspective If you look at this from a feminist perspective, things are, in fact, not equal.

a female perspective Carson's lyrics are definitely written from the human experience, but from a female perspective.

a Marxist perspective From a Marxist perspective, crime is largely the product of capitalism.

a Christian perspective We approach the problem from a Christian perspective.

a business perspective I think it was a good thing to do, from a business perspective.

the American/Russian/French etc. perspective From the French perspective, therefore, 1934 marks a major turning point. 

20

have a perspective

see/view sth from a perspective

give (sb) a perspective 

provide a perspective 

offer a perspective 

get a perspective 

put a perspective on sth 

have a perspective Everyone seems to have a different perspective on the issue.

see/view sth from a perspective A child can only see see the world from his or her own perspective.

give (sb) a perspective A break might give her a better perspective on things.

provide a perspective Their research is concerned with providing an alternative perspective on our past.

offer a perspective Bamford offers a fresh perspective on this ongoing historical debate.

get a perspective When you get to my age, you get a different perspective on life.

put a perspective on sth This new evidence put a whole new perspective on the case. 

21

lose perspective

put sth into/in perspective 

get/see sth in perspective 

keep sth in perspective 

a sense of perspective

lose perspective People sometimes lose perspective on what is really important in life.

put sth into/in perspective (= consider sth in a sensible way by comparing it with sth else, or to help you do this) Let's put this data into perspective. | I saw their suffering, and it really put my own problems into perspective.

get/see sth in perspective (= judge the importance of sth correctly by considering it in relation to other things) You’ve got to take a wider view and get things in perspective.

keep sth in perspective I hope we can all keep this issue in perspective. 

a sense of perspective I felt I needed a break from the relationship in order to keep a sense of perspective. 

22

portrayal / pɔːˈtreɪəl $ pɔːr- / noun [uncountable and countable]

 

the way someone or sth is described or shown in a book, film, play etc. تجسم

portrayal of

the newspapers’ portrayal of Islamic culture; Most portrayals of Abraham Lincoln emphasize his sense of humor and his honesty

accurate/realistic etc. portrayal

The film is not an accurate portrayal (= correct portrayal) of his life. 

23

spectrum / ˈspektrəm / noun (plural spectra / -trə /) [countable]

 

1 a complete range of opinions, people, situations etc, going from one extreme to its opposite طیف

spectrum of

the ethnic spectrum of America

across the spectrum

The bill drew support from across the political spectrum.

broad/wide/full etc. spectrum

a broad spectrum of environmental groups

The two articles here represent opposite ends of the spectrum.

2 the set of bands of colored light into which a beam of light separates when it is passed through a prism رنگهای مرکبی

prism means: منشور

3 a complete range of radio, sound etc. waves:

the electromagnetic spectrum 

24

advent / ˈædvent / noun written

 

the advent of sth the time when sth first begins to be widely used SYN coming: ظهور

the advent of the computer; The advent of the automobile greatly increased the demand for petroleum.

25

ambiguous AC / æmˈbɪɡjuəs / adjective

ambiguously adverb:

The legislation had been ambiguously worded.

 

sth that is ambiguous is unclear, confusing, or not certain, especially because it can be understood in more than one way دوپهلو

OPP unambiguous:

The language in the Minister’s statement is highly ambiguous.

His role in the affair is ambiguous. The sentence It’s hard to say is ambiguous, with different meanings in different contexts.

Register

In everyday English, people also use the phrase you can take sth two ways instead of saying it is ambiguous:

What she says is ambiguous. ➔ You can take what she says two ways.

26

connotation / ˌkɒnəˈteɪʃ ə n $ ˌkɑː- / noun [countable]

connotative / ˈkɒnəteɪtɪv $ ˈkɑːn-, kəˈnoʊtətɪv / adjective 

A meaning implied, not stated directly; a quality or an idea that a word makes you think of that is more than its basic meaning; دلالت ضمنی

When my boss says,“Thank you,” the connotation is that she’s done talking and I should leave.  

connotation of

The word ‘professional’ has connotations of skill and excellence.

a negative connotation

27

denote AC / dɪˈnəʊt $ -ˈnoʊt / verb [transitive] formal

denotative adjective

denotation / ˌdiːnəʊˈteɪʃ ə n $ -noʊ- / noun [countable] 

1 to mean sth → connote: معنی دادن

What does the word ‘curriculum’ denote that ‘course’ does not?; An “X”next to a name on this list denotes a person who has been chosen for the soccer team

2 to represent or be a sign of sth SYN indicate:

Crosses on the map denote villages.

28

cipher, cypher / ˈsaɪfə $ -ər / noun formal

 

1 [uncountable and countable] a system of secret writing SYN code: رمز

an expert in ciphers

messages written in cipher

2 [countable] someone who is not important and has no power or influence:

At work, she was a cipher, a functionary (آدمی که کارهای بی اهمیتی اداری رو انجام میده), nothing more.

3 [countable] literary the number 0 SYN zero عدد صفر

29

decipher / dɪˈsaɪfə $ -ər / verb [transitive]

decipherment noun [uncountable] 

1 to find the meaning of sth that is difficult to read or understand کشف رمز کردن

She studied the envelope, trying to decipher the handwriting.

2 to change a message written in a code into ordinary language so that you can read it SYN decode رمز گشایی کردن

30

indecipherable / ˌɪndɪˈsaɪf ə rəb ə l◂ / adjective

 

impossible to read or understand SYN illegible: غیر قابل کشف

an indecipherable signature 

31

illiterate 1 / ɪˈlɪt ə rət, ɪˈlɪt ə rɪt / adjective

illiteracy noun [uncountable] 

1 someone who is illiterate has not learned to read or write بی سواد

2 badly written, in an uneducated way: غیر قابل خوندن

It was an illiterate letter, full of mistakes.

3 economically/politically/scientifically etc. illiterate knowing very little about economics, politics etc.

32

predator / ˈpredətə $ -ər / noun [countable]

 

1 an animal that kills and eats other animals شکارچی

2 someone who tries to use another person’s weakness to get advantages:

a sexual predator 

33

prey 1 / preɪ / noun

 

1 [singular, uncountable] an animal, bird etc. that is hunted and eaten by another animal شکار

OPP predator:

a tiger stalking its prey

2 bird/beast (جونور) of prey a bird or animal which lives by killing and eating other animals

3 be/fall prey to sb/sth if someone falls prey to someone or sth bad, they are harmed or affected by them: به دام چیزی افتادن

Street children in this part of the world often fall prey to drug dealers.

They are prey to nameless fears.

4 easy prey 

a) someone who can easily be deceived or harmed:

He was easy prey for the two conmen who called at his house.

b) an animal which is easily caught by another:

Fish at the surface of the water are easy prey for eagles. 

34

inscribe / ɪnˈskraɪb / verb [transitive]

 

to carefully cut, print, or write words on sth, especially on the surface of a stone or coin → engrave: حکاکی کردن

Inside the cover someone had inscribed the words ‘To Thomas, with love’.

be inscribed in/on sth

The team’s name is inscribed on the base of the trophy.

be inscribed with sth

The tomb was inscribed with a short poem. 

35

inscription / ɪnˈskrɪpʃ ə n / noun [countable]

 

a piece of writing inscribed on a stone, in the front of a book etc.:

a Latin inscription on the memorial stone; The inscription on my ring says “August 1,” because that was the day of our wedding

36

symbolic AC / sɪmˈbɒlɪk $ -ˈbɑː- / adjective

symbolically / -kli / adverb 

1 a symbolic action is important because of what it represents but may not have any real effect نمادین

symbolic gesture/act

The protest was a symbolic gesture of anger at official policy.

symbolic significance/importance

a meeting of symbolic importance

purely/largely symbolic

It was a largely symbolic gesture from a government trying to win support.

2 representing a particular idea or quality:

Each element of the ceremony has a symbolic meaning.

symbolic of

Today’s fighting is symbolic of the chaos which the country is facing. Since the 1970s, yellow ribbons have been symbolic of hope that someone will return from a dangerous situation

3 using or involving symbols:

A map is a form of symbolic representation.

37

a symbolic gesture 

a symbolic act

symbolic importance/significance 

largely symbolic 

purely symbolic 

a symbolic gesture They fired arrows out to sea in a symbolic gesture of defiance.

a symbolic act Lighting the Olympic flame is a symbolic act.

symbolic importance/significance The capture of the city was of great symbolic importance.

largely symbolic The vote was largely symbolic.

purely symbolic Our protest was meant to be purely symbolic. 

38

amateurish / ˈæmətərɪʃ, -tʃʊə-, -tʃə- ˌæməˈtɜːrɪʃ $ ˌæməˈtʊr-, -ˈtɜːr- / adjective

amateurishly adverb

amateurishness noun [uncountable] 

not skillfully done or made آماتوری، ناشی

OPP professional:

His paintings are rather amateurish.

39

cast 2 noun [countable]

1 actors all the people who perform in a play, film etc.

cast of

Films like ‘Ben Hur’ have a cast of thousands.

the entire cast of ‘Les Misérables

an all-star cast

a strong supporting cast (= everyone except the main actors)

a member of the cast

2 on arm/leg (also plaster cast) a hard protective case that is put over your arm, leg etc. because the bone is broken:

Murray has his leg in a cast.

3 for making a shape a mould (= hollow container) into which you pour liquid metal, plastic etc. in order to make an object of a particular shape, or the object made in this way

cast of

Make a cast of the statue.

4 sb’s cast of mind formal the way that a person thinks and the type of opinions or mental abilities they have:

Mary was of a far less intellectual cast of mind.

5 fishing the act of throwing a fishing line into the water

6 color literary a small amount of a particular color:

Sage leaves have a silvery cast.

7 eye old-fashioned a problem with your eye which causes it to look sideways

8 earth a small pile of earth that a worm produces on the surface of the ground 

40

a strong cast

a talented cast 

an all-star/a star-studded/a stellar cast 

a supporting cast 

a strong cast (= a lot of good actors) The play has a strong cast of new young actors.

a talented cast It's a fantastic production with an enormously talented cast.

an all-star/a star-studded/a stellar cast (= a lot of very famous actors) The movie features an all-star cast.

a supporting cast (= all the actors except the main ones) There’s also a fine supporting cast. 

41

have a cast 

head the cast 

a cast member/a member of the cast 

the cast list

have a cast The play had a cast of almost unknown actors.

head the cast (= be the main actor) Al Pacino heads the cast of this political thriller.

a cast member/a member of the cast Everyone remembers the cast members of 'Friends’.

the cast list (= list of members) The movie has an impressive cast list. 

42

charisma / kəˈrɪzmə / noun [uncountable]

 

a natural ability to attract and interest other people and make them admire you: گیرایی

He lacks charisma. 

43

charismatic / ˌkærəzˈmætɪk◂, ˌkærɪzˈmætɪk◂ / adjective

 

1 having charisma:

Martin Luther King was a very charismatic speaker.

2 charismatic church/movement groups of Christians who believe that God can give them special abilities, for example the ability to cure illness 

44

gala / ˈɡɑːlə $ ˈɡeɪlə, ˈɡælə / noun [countable]

 

a public entertainment or performance to celebrate a special occasion جشن و سرور

gala dinner/performance/night etc.

the Society’s Gala Dinner; A college graduation party should be a gala affair, not a backyard barbecue; a charity gala evening 

45

hilarious / hɪˈleəriəs $ -ˈler- / adjective

hilariously adverb 

extremely funny: خیلی خنده دار

a hilarious story

46

funny

amusing especially written 

humorous

witty 

hilarious / hɪˈleəriəs $ -ˈler- / (also hysterical informal) 

comical 

comic [only before noun] 

light-hearted

comedy noun [countable] 

funny making you laugh:

John told me a really funny joke. | She’s very talented and funny.

amusing especially written funny and enjoyable. Amusing is more formal than funny. It is often used when sth is a little funny and makes you smile, rather than laugh:

an amusing anecdote | He found the whole incident rather amusing.

humorous intended to be funny – used about stories, films, articles etc. that have situations that are a little funny:

humorous stories | The movie is meant to be humorous.

witty using words in a funny and clever way:

witty remarks | How witty!

hilarious / hɪˈleəriəs $ -ˈler- / (also hysterical informal) extremely funny:

The children thought it was hilarious. | The movie has some hilarious scenes. | It was hysterical! You should have seen his face!

comical funny in a strange or silly way – often used when sth is not intended to be funny:

It was quite comical watching him trying to dance. | her own comical attempts at painting

comic [only before noun] a comic film, play, novel etc. is intended to be funny:

a comic drama

light-hearted done for amusement or enjoyment, and not intended to be serious:

The programme is a light-hearted look at recent political events.

comedy noun [countable] a film, play, or television programme that is intended to be funny:

a comedy by Shakespeare | She has appeared in several television comedies. | a new comedy series on Channel 4 

47

improvise / ˈɪmprəvaɪz / verb [intransitive and transitive]

improvisation / ˌɪmprəvaɪˈzeɪʃ ə n $ ɪmˌprɑːvə- / noun [uncountable and countable] Boy Scouts take pride in their improvisation when faced with trouble during a camping trip.

 

1 to do sth without any preparation, because you are forced to do this by unexpected events: فالبداهه ساختن

I forgot to bring my notes, so I had to improvise.

2 to make sth by using whatever you can find because you do not have the equipment or materials that you need:

There were no nappies, so we had to improvise with what we could find.

Annie improvised a sandbox for the children.

3 to invent music, words, a statement etc. from your imagination, rather than planning or preparing it first:

I just started playing, and the other guys started improvising around me.

an improvised sketch

48

incompetent / ɪnˈkɒmpətənt, ɪnˈkɒmpɪtənt $ -ˈkɑːm- / adjective

incompetent noun [countable]

incompetently adverb 

not having the ability or skill to do a job properly بی کفایت، فاقد صلاحیت، نامناسب

OPP competent:

an incompetent manager; Because we hired an incompetent builder to replace our roof, we now have leaks everywhere; weak incompetent leadership

49

medium 2 AC noun (plural media / -diə / or mediums) [countable]

1 a way of communicating information and news to people, such as newspapers, television etc. رسانه

Advertising is a powerful medium.

2 a way of expressing your ideas, especially as a writer or an artist وسیله- برای ابراز افکار و غیره

medium for

the novel as a medium for satire (طنز تلخ)

sat‧ire / ˈsætaɪə $ -taɪr / noun

the visual media (= painting and films)

3 medium of instruction a language that is used for teaching:

English is still the main medium of instruction in Nigeria.

4 medium of exchange money or other ways of paying for things

5 technical a substance or material in which things grow or exist: lpdx ;aj

a good growing medium for tomatoes

6 technical a substance through which a force travels 

50

medium 3 noun (plural mediums) [countable]

someone who claims to have the power to receive messages from dead people 

51

medium 1 S3 AC / ˈmiːdiəm / adjective

 

1 of middle size, level, or amount:

What size shirt does he wear – small, medium or large?

(of) medium height/length/build

She’s of medium height.

hair of medium length

Fry the onions over a medium heat until they are golden.

medium to large companies

Use average, not ‘medium’, when you want to say that someone’s level of skill or ability is neither high nor low: students of average ability (NOT students of medium ability)

2 (also medium rare) meat that is medium or medium rare is partly cooked but still slightly pink inside → rare, well-done

3 medium dry medium dry wine is slightly sweeter than dry wine

4 medium brown/blue etc. a color which is neither light nor dark:

His jacket’s a medium brown color. 

52

skit / skɪt / noun [countable]

 

a short humorous performance or piece of writing SYN sketch 

53

sketch 1 / sketʃ / noun [countable]

 

1 a simple, quickly made drawing that does not show much detail طرح اولیه

sketch of

Cantor drew a rough sketch of his apartment on a napkin.

2 a short humorous scene on a television programme, in a theatre etc, that is part of a larger show: صحنه های کوتاه کمدی

Her TV programme is made up of a series of comic sketches.

3 a short written or spoken description توضیح کوتاه

sketch of

a brief sketch of the main weaknesses of the British economy

a thumbnail sketch (= very brief description) of topics treated in depth elsewhere 

54

zeal / ziːl / noun [uncountable]

 

eagerness to do sth, especially to achieve a particular religious or political aim; شور و اشتیاق

Unfortunately,Tom’s zeal to become a rock star distracted him from his studies

religious/revolutionary/missionary etc. zeal

He approached the job with missionary zeal.

in your zeal to do sth

In their zeal to catch drug dealers, police have ignored citizens’ basic civil rights.

zeal for

their zeal for privatization 

55

bulk 1 AC / bʌlk / noun

1 the bulk (of sth) the main or largest part of sth: اکثریت

The bulk of consumers are based in towns.

2 [countable usually singular] a big mass or shape of sth:

the great bulk of a building

3 [uncountable] the size of sth or someone: حجم

The dough will rise until it is double in bulk.

4 in bulk if you buy goods in bulk, you buy large amounts each time you buy them 

56

size noun [uncountable and countable] 

dimensions noun [plural] 

measurements noun [plural] 

proportions noun [plural] 

area noun [uncountable and countable] 

extent noun [uncountable] 

bulk noun [uncountable] 

capacity noun [singular] 

volume noun [singular] 

size noun [uncountable and countable] how big someone or sth is:

What size is that shirt? | The price will depend on the size and quality of the carpet. | Your desk is exactly the same size as mine. | Fire has destroyed an area of forest the size of Luxembourg. | The seeds are very small, about half the size of a grain of salt. | There were several pieces of wood of different sizes. | Cover the dough and allow it to rise until it has doubled in size. | The black spots on her skin seemed to be slowly increasing in size. | The American states vary enormously in size, from very large to very small. | In a class this size, there will always be a few problems.

dimensions noun [plural] the length, width, and height of an object, room, building etc.:

What are the dimensions of the table?

measurements noun [plural] the length, width, or height of sth, or of someone’s body:

I need to check the measurements of the window. | your waist measurement is 31 inches | The nurse took my measurements.

proportions noun [plural] the relative sizes of the different parts of an object, room, building etc.:

The proportions don’t look right to me. | You can sit in the Plaza and admire the proportions of the cathedral.

area noun [uncountable and countable] the amount of space that a flat surface such as a floor or field covers:

To measure the area of a room, you need to multiply the length by the width.

extent noun [uncountable] the size of a large area:

The extent of the ranch is enormous. | The island measured about 1,600 kilometres in extent.

bulk noun [uncountable] the very large size of sth:

The statue’s massive bulk made it difficult to move. | his enormous bulk | The view was dominated by the huge bulk of the power station.

capacity noun [singular] the amount that a container will hold:

The capacity of the tank is around 500 gallons. | The computer’s memory has a capacity of over 200 megabytes. | All the storage units were filled to capacity.

volume noun [singular] the amount of space that a substance fills, or that an object contains:

The average domestic swimming pool has a volume of 45,000 litres. | This instrument measures the volume of air in your lungs. | Help me figure out the volume of this fish tank. | The shifting of continents has an impact on the volume of water the oceans can contain. 

57

capricious / kəˈprɪʃəs / adjective

capriciously adverb 

1 likely to change your mind suddenly or behave in an unexpected way: دم دمی مزاج

She was as capricious as her mother had been. Your college studies will go on too long if you make capricious jumps from one major to another.

2 literary changing quickly and suddenly:

a capricious wind

58

dump 1 S3 / dʌmp / verb [transitive]

1 put sth somewhere [always + adverb/preposition] to put sth somewhere in a careless untidy way: گذاشتن چیزی در جایی بدونظم

Merrill dumped her suitcase down in the hall.

dump sth on sth

They dump tons of salt on icy road surfaces to make driving safer.

dump sth in/into sth

He found a can of beef stew and dumped it in a saucepan to heat.

2 get rid of sth دور انداختن

a) to get rid of sth that you do not want:

Ellie dumped all the photos of her ex-husband.

He dumped her body into the sea.

b) to get rid of waste material by taking it from people’s houses and burying it under the soil:

Britain dumps more of its waste than any other European country.

3 end relationship informal to end a relationship with someone: قطع رابطه دوستی کردن

Vicky dumped Neil yesterday.

4 sell goods to get rid of goods by selling them in a foreign country at a much lower price

dump in/on

a campaign to stop cheap European beef being dumped in West Africa

5 copy information technical to copy information stored in a computer’s memory on to sth else such as a disk or magnetic tape کپی کردن اطلاعات کامپیوتر

59

dump on sb

dump on sb phrasal verb informal  بد رفتاری کردن با کسی، کار اضافه به کسی دادن، انتقاد غیرمنصفانه از کسی کردن

1 dump sth on sb to unfairly give someone an unwanted job, duty, or problem to deal with:

Don’t just dump the extra work on me.

2 American English to treat someone badly

3 American English to criticize someone very strongly and often unfairly:

politicians dumping on their opponents

4 dump (sth) on sb to tell someone all your problems and worries:

We all dump our troubles on Mike. 

60

put

place 

lay

position 

slip 

shove

stick informal 

dump 

pop informal 

thrust literary 

put to move sth to a particular place:

I’ve put the wine in the fridge. | Where have you put my grey shirt?

place to put sth somewhere carefully:

‘It’s beautiful,’ he said, placing it back on the shelf.

lay to put someone or sth down carefully on a flat surface:

He laid all the money on the table. | She laid the baby on his bed.

position to carefully put sth in a suitable position:

Position the microphone to suit your height. | Troops were positioned around the city.

slip to put sth somewhere with a quick movement:

He slipped his arm around her waist. | Carrie quickly slipped the money into her bag.

shove to put sth into a space or container quickly or carelessly:

Shove anything you don’t want in that sack. | I’ve ironed those shirts so don’t just shove them in a drawer.

stick informal to put sth somewhere quickly or carelessly:

I stuck the address in my pocket and I can’t find it now. | Could you stick those clothes in the washing machine?

dump to put sth down somewhere in a careless and untidy way:

Don’t just dump all your bags in the kitchen. | People shouldn’t dump rubbish at the side of the street.

pop informal to quickly put sth somewhere, usually for a short time:

Pop it in the microwave for a minute.

thrust literary to put sth somewhere suddenly or forcefully:

‘Hide it,’ he said, thrusting the watch into her hand. 

61

cumbersome / ˈkʌmbəs ə m $ -bər- / adjective

 

1 a process or system that is cumbersome is slow and difficult: دست و پاگیر

Doctors are complaining that the system is cumbersome and bureaucratic.

cumbersome procedures; To make it to the top of the mountain before dark, the hikers dumped their cumbersome tent.

2 heavy and difficult to move: سنگین

a large cumbersome machine

3 words or phrases that are cumbersome are long or complicated قلمبه سلمبه و سخت

62

exotic / ɪɡˈzɒtɪk $ ɪɡˈzɑː- / adjective

exotically / -kli / adverb 

sth that is exotic seems unusual and interesting because it is related to a foreign country – use this to show approval: عجیب و غریب خارجی

exotic birds; exotic places; walked into the restaurant and smelled the exotic aromas of Malaysian spices

63

inhibit AC / ɪnˈhɪbət, ɪnˈhɪbɪt / verb [transitive]

 

1 to prevent sth from growing or developing well: مانع شدن

An unhappy family life may inhibit children’s learning. This lotion will inhibit the itching caused by mosquito bites

2 to make someone feel embarrassed or nervous so that they cannot do or say what they want to

inhibit sb from doing sth

Recording the meeting may inhibit people from expressing their real views. 

64

trend S3 W2 / trend / noun [countable]

1 a general tendency in the way a situation is changing or developing; گرایش

The trend among some young men is to wear their caps with the bill off to one side.

trend towards

Lately there has been a trend towards hiring younger, cheaper employees.

trend in

recent trends in education

The current trend is towards more part-time employment.

the general trend towards the centralization of political power

A disturbing trend is that victims of violence are getting younger.

The growing trend is for single mothers to bring up children by themselves.

Even so, the underlying trend is positive.

national and international economic trends

the downward trend in the price of gold

Successive presidents have tried to reverse this trend, but without success.

2 set the trend to start doing sth that other people copy: راه انداختن یک روند

Larger corporations are setting the trend for better maternity (حاملگی) benefits.

3 on trend fashionable – used especially in magazines:

This striped dress is bang on trend. 

65

a recent/new trend 

the current/latest trend 

a general trend 

a growing/increasing/rising trend

an alarming/worrying/disturbing trend 

the underlying/long-term trend

a downward/upward trend 

economic/market trends 

the national trend

the international/world-wide/global trend 

a recent/new trend He wrote an article attacking many recent trends in education.

the current/latest trend If current trends continue, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will double by the year 2030.

a general trend (= one followed by most people or happening in most places) There was a general trend towards marriage at a younger age.

a growing/increasing/rising trend a growing trend towards globalization in world markets

an alarming/worrying/disturbing trend I have detected a worrying trend of late.

the underlying/long-term trend (= the trend over a long period of time) The underlying trend is for rich economies to get richer.

a downward/upward trend (= a tendency for sth to increase or decrease) The downward trend in population growth was not seen as a problem.

economic/market trends This forecast is based on current economic trends.

the national trend Crime rates in Manchester bucked the national trend.

the international/world-wide/global trend the global trend towards intensive farming 

66

reverse a trend 

buck the trend

follow a trend 

start a trend 

reverse a trend (= make sth start to change back)

He succeeded in reversing the downward trend of the railway’s fortunes.

buck the trend (= do sth that is not what is generally happening)

The recession may still be biting, but video games company Nintendo continues to buck the trend.

follow a trend

Divorce rates in Scotland are following the general trend.

start a trend The young started a trend toward living in the downtown area. 

67

fashion noun [uncountable and countable]

vogue noun [singular,uncountable] 

trend noun [countable] 

craze/fad noun [countable] informal 

sth is all the rage formal 

fashion noun [uncountable and countable] a style of clothes, hair, behavior etc. that is fashionable. Fashion is also used as an uncountable noun, when talking about all of these styles in general:

the latest fashions from Donna Karan | changing fashions in popular music | I'm not interested in fashion.

vogue noun [singular,uncountable] if there is a vogue for sth, or it is in vogue, it is fashionable. Vogue sounds more formal and typical of the language that more educated speakers use than fashion:

the current vogue for realistic animated films | There was a vogue for cream furniture in the 1920s. | His pictures are very much in vogue these days.

trend noun [countable] a way of doing sth or a way of thinking that is becoming fashionable or popular:

The magazine focuses on the latest trends in contemporary design. | The trend is for people to wait longer to marry and have children.

craze/fad noun [countable] informal a fashion, activity, type of music etc. that suddenly becomes very popular, but only remains popular for a short time – often used about things that you think are rather silly:

a new fitness craze | the current fad for bare white walls and uncomfortable-looking metal furniture | I'm sure it's just a passing fad (= sth that will soon stop being fashionable). | fad diets

sth is all the rage formal used when saying that sth is very popular and fashionable for a short time: The game was all the rage at her school. 

68

vanity / ˈvænəti, ˈvænɪti / noun (plural vanities)

 

1 [uncountable] too much pride in yourself, so that you are always thinking about yourself and your appearance: خودبینی و غرور

Sabrina had none of the vanity so often associated with beautiful women.

2 [countable] (also vanity table) a dressing table میز آرایش

3 the vanity of sth literary the lack of importance of sth compared to other things that are much more important پوچی و بی اهمیتی چیزی در قبال چیزهای دیگه

69

ˈvanity ˌcase noun [countable]

ˈvanity ˌplate noun [countable]

ˈvanity ˌcase noun [countable] کیف آرایش

a small bag used by a woman for carrying make-up etc. 

ˈvanity ˌplate noun [countable] پلاک شخصی ماشین

a car number plate that has a combination of numbers or letters chosen by the owner, so that they spell a word that is connected with or describes the owner 

70

proud S2 W3 / praʊd / adjective (comparative prouder, superlative proudest)

proudly adverb 

1 pleased feeling pleased about sth that you have done or sth that you own, or about someone or sth you are involved with or related to → pride OPP ashamed

proud of

Her parents are very proud of her.

You should be proud of yourself.

His past record is certainly sth to be proud of.

be justly/rightly proud of sth (= have good reasons for being proud)

The company is justly proud of its achievements.

proud to do/be sth

Seven-year-old Ian is proud to have earned his red belt in karate.

proud (that)

She was proud that the magazine had agreed to publish one of her stories.

Seth was the proud owner of a new sports car.

2 proudest moment/achievement/possession the moment etc. that makes you feel most proud:

His proudest moment was winning the European Cup final.

3 too high opinion thinking that you are more important, skillful etc. than you really are – used to show disapproval → pride:

a proud man who would not admit his mistakes

4 great self-respect having respect for yourself, so that you are embarrassed to ask for help when you are in a difficult situation → pride:

Some farmers were too proud to ask for government help.

5 do sb proud

a) informal to make people feel proud of you by doing sth well:

I tried to do my country proud.

b) old-fashioned to treat someone well by providing them with good food or entertainment

6 impressive literary tall and impressive

71

very/really proud 

justifiably/justly/rightly proud 

fiercely proud 

immensely/intensely/inordinately proud 

the proud owner (of sth) (also the proud possessor of sth formal) 

a proud mother/father/parent

very/really proud Your family must be very proud of you.

justifiably/justly/rightly proud (= with good reason) He is justifiably proud of what he and his father achieved.

fiercely proud They are fiercely proud of their native land.

immensely/intensely/inordinately proud (= extremely proud) He said he was immensely proud to have been elected Prime Minister. | She was intensely proud of being Japanese.

the proud owner (of sth) (also the proud possessor of sth formal) She is now the proud owner of a four-bedroomed house.

a proud mother/father/parent Mark is the proud father of a three-week-old baby boy. 

72

pride 1 S3 W3 / praɪd / noun

1 feeling of pleasure [uncountable] a feeling that you are proud of sth that you or someone connected with you has achieved → proud:

He wore his medals with pride.

pride in

He takes great pride in his children’s achievements.

The people have a sense of pride in their community.

His heart swelled with pride when his daughter came in.

She felt a glow of pride when her name was announced for the prize.

Success in sport is a source of national pride.

2 respect [uncountable] a feeling that you like and respect yourself and that you deserve to be respected by other people → proud

sb’s pride

It hurt his pride when his wife left him.

I think that getting a job would give him his pride back.

She didn’t try to hide her anger and injured pride.

It’s a matter of pride for some men that their wives don’t have to work.

3 too much pride [uncountable] a belief that you are better than other people and do not need their help or support → proud

sb’s pride

His pride wouldn’t allow him to ask for help.

She ought to swallow her pride (= ignore or forget her feelings of pride) and call him.

4 take pride in your work/appearance etc. to do sth very carefully and well, in a way that gives you a lot of satisfaction:

Your should take more pride in your work.

She took great pride in her appearance.

5 sb’s pride and joy a person or thing that someone is very proud of:

His garden is his pride and joy.

6 the pride of sth

a) the thing or person that the people in a particular place are most proud of:

Wigan’s rugby team was the pride of the town.

b) the best thing in a group:

a beautiful Japanese sword that is the pride of our collection

7 have/take pride of place if sth has or takes pride of place, it is put in the best place for people to see because it is the thing you are most proud of:

A large photograph of the children had pride of place on the sitting room wall.

8 lions [countable] a group of lions:

A young lion had strayed some distance from the pride. 

73

great pride 

immense pride 

national pride

civic pride  

great pride Caroline is pictured here holding the trophy with great pride.

immense pride (= very great) He takes immense pride in his grandson.

national pride (= pride in your country) A flag is a symbol of national pride.

civic pride (= pride in your town or city) The museum is a vital source of civic pride. 

74

take pride in sth 

be bursting with pride 

swell with pride 

glow with pride 

a sense of pride 

a source of pride 

take pride in sth (= feel proud of sth) She takes pride in her beautiful gardens.

be bursting with pride (= feel very proud) I could see that her mother was bursting with pride.

swell with pride (= start to feel very proud) He would swell with pride as he discussed his department’s achievements.

glow with pride (= look very proud) ‘I knew he could do it,’ she said, glowing with pride.

a sense of pride I still feel a sense of pride at having been a member of the regiment.

a source of pride (= a reason to feel proud) The Chinese Olympic Games were a source of pride to the whole country. 

75

satisfaction

pride 

contentment 

fulfillment 

satisfaction a feeling of happiness or pleasure, especially because you have achieved sth good or useful:

Most teachers take great pride and satisfaction in their work.

pride a feeling of pleasure and satisfaction that you get when you or someone connected with you has achieved sth good:

Her father’s pride in her accomplishments was clear. | I was blushing with pride because I had been chosen to be on the team.

contentment the feeling of being happy and satisfied because you have what you want or need. Contentment is rather a formal use:

Only when you truly know yourself can you find contentment. | He sat back with a look of deep contentment on his face.

fulfillment a feeling of being satisfied and happy with your life. Fulfillment is rather a formal use:

Some women find fulfillment in being a mother, but this is not true for all women. 

76

priest 

bishop

vicar

preacher 

minister 

chaplain 

pastor American English 

rabbi 

mullah

holy man 

the clergy

clergyman

priest someone who is specially trained to perform religious duties and ceremonies in the Christian church:

a Catholic priest | a Buddhist priest | Women priests are much more common these days. | The priest who married us was very friendly and helpful.

bishop a priest of high rank in some branches of the Christian church, who is the head of all the churches and priests in a large area:

the Bishop of Oxford | a meeting of bishops

vicar a priest in the Church of England who is in charge of a church in a particular area:

our local vicar

preacher someone who gives the sermon (= a religious talk as part of a church service) in some Protestant churches:

a Methodist preacher

minister the formal word for any priest in some branches of the Christian church:

In 1843, 450 ministers of the church broke away from the established church of Scotland.

chaplain someone, especially a priest, who takes care of the religious needs of an organization such as a college, hospital, prison, or the military:

the prison chaplain

pastor American English someone who is in charge of the prayers, ceremonies etc. in some branches of the Protestant church:

a Baptist pastor

rabbi the person who is in charge of the prayers, ceremonies etc. in the Jewish religion:

Israel’s chief rabbis

mullah a Muslim teacher of law and religion:

The people turned to their traditional leaders, the mullahs.

holy man someone who is treated with great respect by people who belong to a religion:

A Sadhu, or Hindu holy man, was performing yoga on the banks of the River Ganges.

the clergy the official leaders in organized religions, such as the priests, rabbis, and mullahs:

Around 30 members of the clergy gathered for the meeting.

clergyman a male member of the clergy – used especially in the past:

His youngest son decided to become a clergyman. 

77

vulnerable W3 / ˈvʌln ə rəb ə l / adjective

vulnerably adverb

vulnerability / ˌvʌln ə rəˈbɪləti, ˌvʌln ə rəˈbɪlɪti / noun [uncountable] 

1 someone who is vulnerable can be easily harmed or hurt آسیب پذیر

OPP invulnerable:

He took advantage of me when I was at my most vulnerable. Babies and very old people are especially vulnerable to the new disease

We work mainly with the elderly and other vulnerable groups.

be vulnerable to sth

Children are most vulnerable to abuse within their own home.

2 a place, thing, or idea that is vulnerable is easy to attack or criticize OPP invulnerable

vulnerable to

The fort was vulnerable to attack from the north.

Their theories were badly thought out and very vulnerable to ridicule.

78

hurdle 1 / ˈhɜːdl $ ˈhɜːr- / noun

1 [countable] a problem or difficulty that you must deal with before you can achieve something SYN obstacle: مانع

Finding enough money for the project was the first hurdle.

overcome/clear/get over etc. a hurdle (= deal successfully with a problem)

2 [countable] one of a series of small fences that a person or horse has to jump over during a race مانع در اسب سواری

clear a hurdle (= successfully jump over a hurdle)

3 the 100-metres/400-metres hurdles a race in which the runners have to jump over hurdles دو با مانع

79

sustainable AC / səˈsteɪnəb ə l / adjective

sustainability / səˌsteɪnəˈbɪləti, səˌsteɪnəˈbɪlɪti / noun [uncountable] 

1 able to continue without causing damage to the environment: پایدار و قابل دوام بدون آسیب به محیط زیست

The government should do more to promote sustainable agriculture.

the sustainable use of rainforest resources

Cycling is a totally sustainable form of transport.

environmentally sustainable development

2 able to continue for a long time: پایدار و با ثبات

The party is promising low inflation and sustainable economic growth.

80

environmentally friendly 

eco-friendly [usually before noun] 

green [usually before noun] 

clean [usually before noun] 

renewable 

sustainable 

carbon-neutral 

low-carbon [usually before noun] 

low-energy [usually before noun] 

environmentally friendly not harmful to the environment:

Cycling is very environmentally friendly. | environmentally friendly holidays | Is there such a thing as an environmentally friendly car?

eco-friendly [usually before noun] not harmful to the environment – used especially about products:

We always try to use eco-friendly cleaning products. | eco-friendly coffins made from newspapers

green [usually before noun] not harmful to the environment – used especially in the following phrases:

green products | green technology | green energy | It was voted the greenest building in Britain.

clean [usually before noun] clean fuels or forms of energy do not release any harmful substances into the atmosphere:

We need cleaner fuels for cars and other road vehicles. | clean energy sources such as solar panels and wind turbines

renewable renewable energy comes from sources that can be easily replaced naturally, so that there is always more available:

The building is heated using renewable energy from the sun. | The government needs to invest more in renewable energy sources. | Wind power is renewable and produces no greenhouse gases during operation.

sustainable using the earth’s resources, without causing damage to the environment – used especially about farming, ways of living, and development:

The flowers are produced to high environmental standards using sustainable farming methods. | Many people want to lead more sustainable lifestyles and to conserve the planet’s resources. | sustainable use of the world’s resources

carbon-neutral balancing the amount of carbon gases that you put into the earth’s atmosphere with other activities that will effectively reduce the amount of carbon gases, for example by planting trees:

a carbon-neutral company | Stirling is aiming to become the UK’s first carbon neutral city. | All new homes will be carbon-neutral.

low-carbon [usually before noun] producing only a small amount of carbon:

Research is being done into the development of low-carbon electricity. | We will need to have a low-carbon economy.

low-energy [usually before noun] low-energy buildings and lightbulbs use very little energy:

Position is a key factor in the design of a low-energy house. 

81

ample / ˈæmp ə l / adjective

amply adverb:

Recent US history has amply demonstrated the risks of foreign intervention. 

1 more than enough SYN sufficient کافی

OPP insufficient

ample time/evidence/opportunity

You’ll have ample time for questions later.

There is ample evidence that climate patterns are changing.

ample room/space etc.

She found ample room for her things in the wardrobe.

2 literary large in a way that is attractive or pleasant:

an ample bosom

amply بطور فراوان

82

enough / ɪˈnʌf / 

sufficient formal 

adequate formal 

ample

plenty 

something will do/something should do spoken 

enough / ɪˈnʌf / as much or as many as necessary, or as you want:

My family never had enough money for holidays abroad. | Have you had enough to eat?

sufficient formal enough for a particular purpose:

The police did not have sufficient evidence to justify a charge. | The accuracy of the older technique was sufficient for our needs.

adequate formal enough in quantity or good enough in quality for a particular purpose:

All staff must be given adequate training in health and safety. | The heating system was barely adequate.

ample more than enough for what is needed:

Local residents will be given ample opportunity to express their views. | People used to think that 1 GB of memory was ample for the average personal computer.

plenty an amount that is enough or more than enough:

Allow yourself plenty of time to get to the airport. | Your daughter won’t need much cash at camp ($20-$25 will be plenty).

something will do/something should do spoken used to say that a particular number or amount will be enough for what you need:

‘How many envelopes do you want?’ ‘Ten should do.’ 

83

hull 2 verb [transitive]

to take off the outer part of vegetables, rice, grain etc. پوست کندن غلات

84

hull 1 / hʌl / noun [countable]

1 the main part of a ship that goes in the water 

wooden-hulled/steel-hulled etc. (= having a wood, steel etc. hull)

2 the outer covering of seeds, rice, grain etc. → husk 

85

scuffle 1 / ˈskʌf ə l / noun [countable]

a short fight that is not very violent SYN tussle: کشمکش و نزاع

Scuffles broke out between rival (رقیب) supporters during the match.

scuffle with/between

scuffles with police 

86

fight 

battle 

scuffle

brawl

altercation formal 

riot 

fight a situation in which people hit or attack each other because of an argument, or as a sport:

He had a fight with an older boy. | the famous fight between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman

battle a fight between opposing armies or groups of people:

The English king was killed at the Battle of Hastings. | a battle between two rival gangs

scuffle a short fight that is not very violent:

There was a short scuffle with the police, but no arrests were made.

brawl a noisy fight between a group of people: دعوا پر سر و صدا

He was hurt in a drunken brawl.

altercation formal a short noisy argument or fight, especially one that is not serious: دعوا و بحث کوتاه

There was a brief altercation and someone called the police.

riot a fight involving a large number of people, especially people who are protesting about something: شورش آشوب

The book provoked (برانگیخت، دامن زد) riots all over Europe. 

87

superstition / ˌsuːpəˈstɪʃ ə n $ -pər- / noun [uncountable and countable]

a belief that some objects or actions are lucky or unlucky, or that they cause events to happen, based on old ideas of magic: خرافات

the old superstition that walking under a ladder is unlucky 

88

superstitious / ˌsuːpəˈstɪʃəs◂ $ -pər- / adjective

superstitiously adverb 

influenced by superstitions: خرافاتی

a superstitious woman

89

wrath / rɒθ $ ræθ / noun [uncountable]

formal extreme anger: 

He was scared of incurring his father’s wrath. از خشم گین شدن پدرش

90

fury 

rage 

outrage 

wrath formal 

fury a very strong feeling of anger:

The judge sparked fury when he freed a man who had attacked three women. | The decision caused fury among local people.

rage a very strong feeling of anger that is difficult to control or is expressed very suddenly or violently: خشم

When we accused him of lying, he flew into a rage (= became very angry very suddenly). | Brown killed his wife in a jealous rage.

outrage extreme anger and shock because you think something is unfair or wrong: بی حرمتی

The racist comments caused outrage in India and Britain.

wrath formal extreme anger:

Pietersen was the next to incur the wrath of the referee (= make him angry).

91

eternity / ɪˈtɜːnəti, ɪˈtɜːnɪti $ -ɜːr- / noun

1 an eternity a period of time that seems very long because you are annoyed, anxious etc: ابدیت

Here she waited for what seemed like an eternity.

That week was an eternity of solitude (تنهایی) and boredom.

2 [uncountable] the whole of time without any end:

a little animal preserved for all eternity as a fossil

3 [uncountable] the state of existence after death that some people believe continues for ever 

92

purge 1 / pɜːdʒ $ pɜːrdʒ / verb

1 [transitive] to force people to leave a place or organization because the people in power do not like them پاکسازی کردن

purge something of somebody/something

He sought to purge the Democrat party of conservatives.

purge somebody/something from something

plans to purge ethnic minorities from rebel-controlled areas

2 [transitive] to remove something that is thought to be harmful or unacceptable

purge something of somebody/something

an initiative to purge the PC market of software pirates

Local languages were purged of Russian words.

purge somebody/something from something

It’s hard to imagine now that Lawrence’s novels were purged from public libraries.

3 [transitive] to destroy something that is no longer needed: پاک کردن

The system automatically purges unread emails after two weeks.

4 [transitive] literary to remove bad feelings تطهیر کردن

purge somebody/something of something

We have to begin by purging our minds of prejudice.

Any doubts about his leadership were purged by the courage of his performance.

5 [transitive] to take a substance that makes your bowels empty: 

 

Anorexics (بی اشتهایی) may overeat (پرخوریی کردن) before purging themselves or vomiting.

6 [intransitive] to force yourself to bring food up from your stomach and out of your mouth, especially because you have bulimia 

93

foyer / ˈfɔɪeɪ $ ˈfɔɪər / noun [countable]

1 a room or hall at the entrance to a public building SYN lobby لابی

hotel/theatre/cinema etc. foyer

2 American English a small room or hall at the entrance to a house or apartment 

94

determined 

stubborn 

single-minded 

tough / tʌf / 

firm 

feisty 

headstrong 

resolute formal 

tenacious formal 

dogged [only before noun] determination/persistence/resistance/refusal

persistent 

strong-willed 

ruthless / ˈruːθləs /

mean business 

determined if you are determined to do something, you have decided that you are definitely going to do it, and you will not let anything stop you. Determined is also used about someone’s character, when they usually behave in this way: مصمم

I was determined to be a doctor. | She’s a very determined woman.

stubborn determined not to change what you are doing, especially when other people think you are behaving in an unreasonable way. Stubborn is often used when you disapprove of someone. It is also sometimes used when you admire them: کله شق

I wish you would stop being so stubborn! | Churchill’s stubborn refusal to surrender

single-minded someone who is single-minded works very hard in order to achieve one particular thing, and thinks that everything else is much less important: با اراده و مصمم

During a war, a leader must be single-minded and, if necessary, ruthless. | her single-minded pursuit of power

tough / tʌf / determined to succeed, even if a situation is difficult or frightening: سر سخت

In competitive sports, it is as important to be mentally tough as it is to be physically fit. | Gorelick is known as a tough manager.

firm showing by your behavior that you are determined not to change your mind, especially when you are telling someone what to do: محکم و استوار

What this country needs is firm leadership. | You have to be firm with young children.

feisty determined and full of energy, and not afraid to say what you think and argue with people - used especially when you admire this person. Feisty is often used about women:

In the film she plays a feisty young woman who is smarter than all the men put together. | a feisty kid with a mind of his own | the city’s feisty mayor

headstrong determined to do what you want, without listening to other people’s advice or thinking about the results of your actions - used especially about young people: خودرای و لجباز

Her sister was headstrong and impulsive, and made a point of going out whenever and wherever she liked.

resolute formal doing something in a very determined way because you have very strong beliefs, aims etc: مصمم و ثابت قدم

the soldiers’ resolute defence of the town

tenacious formal determined and refusing to give up: مصمم

McTaggart was seen by many in the environment movement as a tenacious hero. | his tenacious grip on power

dogged [only before noun] dogged behavior shows that you are very determined and that you will not give up - used especially in the following phrases: dogged determination/ persistence/ resistance/refusal: برای رفتارها بکار میره نه آدمها

The team played with dogged determination. | his dogged refusal to admit defeat | the dogged persistence of the defenders

persistent continuing to do something, although this is difficult, or other people warn you not to do it: پیگیر 

If you want to get a job, you have to be persistent. Don’t give up.

strong-willed always very determined to do what you want to do, even if other people think it is not a good idea to do it: با اراده

She has always been a strong-willed child.

ruthless / ˈruːθləs / someone who is ruthless is so determined to get what they want, that they do not care if they harm other people: مصممی که بی رحمه

a ruthless dictator | He was ruthless in his ambition.

mean business to be determined to do something and show other people that you are determined to do it, even if it involves harming someone: مصمم

The one-day strike proved that the union meant business. 

95

patriarch / ˈpeɪtriɑːk $ -ɑːrk / noun [countable]

1 an old man who is respected as the head of a family or tribe → matriarch بزرگ خاندان

2 a bishop in the early Christian church

3 a bishop of the Orthodox Christian churches who is very high in rank 

96

matriarch / ˈmeɪtriɑːk $ -ɑːrk / noun [ countable ]

a woman, especially an older woman, who controls a family or a social group 

97

pilgrimage / ˈpɪlɡrəmɪdʒ, ˈpɪlɡrɪmɪdʒ / noun [uncountable and countable]

1 a journey to a holy place for religious reasons زیارت عتبات

make a pilgrimage/go on (a) pilgrimage

the chance to go on pilgrimage to Mecca

2 a journey to a place connected with someone or something famous:

Presley’s home has become a place of pilgrimage.

98

grim / ɡrɪm / adjective

grimly adverb:

Arnold smiled grimly.

grimness noun [uncountable] 

1 making you feel worried or unhappy SYN harsh: نگران کننده

the grim reality of rebuilding the shattered (داغون و در هم شکسته) town

When he lost his job, his future looked grim.

We received the grim news in silence.

2 looking or sounding very serious: خیلی جدی

‘I’ll survive,’ he said with a grim smile.

The child hung on to her arm with grim determination.

The police officers were silent and grim-faced.

They painted a grim picture of what life used to be like there.

a grim industrial town

4 [not before noun] informal ill: مریض

Juliet felt grim through the early months of her pregnancy.