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Flashcards in Pathway4_6 Deck (98):

dubious / ˈdjuːbiəs $ ˈduː- / adjective /honesty/

highly dubious

1 probably not honest, true, right etc: مشکوک

The firm was accused of dubious accounting practices.

Many critics regard this argument as dubious or, at best, misleading.

The assumption that growth in one country benefits the whole world is highly dubious.


dubious / ˈdjuːbiəs $ ˈduː- / adjective 2 [not before noun] /doubtful/

dubious about

looking dubious.

not sure whether something is good or true SYN doubtful:

I can see you are dubious; take some time to think about it.

Some universities are dubious about accepting students over the age of 30.

‘Are you sure you know what you are doing?’ Andy said, looking dubious.


dubious / ˈdjuːbiəs $ ˈduː- / adjective 3 the dubious honour/distinction/pleasure (of doing something)

had the dubious honor

dubiously adverb

dubiousness noun [uncountable]

a dubious honour etc. is the opposite of an honour – used about something unpleasant that happens:

The Stephensons had the dubious honor of being the 100th family to lose their home in the fire.






suspicious if someone or something seems suspicious, they make you think that something dishonest or illegal is happening: The police are treating the boy’s death as suspicious.

dubious if something seems dubious, you think it may not be completely true, right, or honest: He has a rather dubious reputation. | It all sounds highly dubious to me. | the country’s dubious record on human rights

shady shady business deals or people seem to be dishonest or connected with secret and illegal activities: Several senior members of the party had been involved in shady deals. | a shady character

shifty: someone who looks shifty looks as if they are doing or planning something dishonest: The man on the market stall looked a bit shifty when he gave me my change.


hawk verb 1 [transitive] /sell/

to try to sell goods, usually by going from place to place and trying to persuade people to buy them دوره گردی


hawk 2 verb [intransitive and transitive] /cough/

to cough up phlegm (خلط)

سینه صاف کردن


hawk noun



elixir / ɪˈlɪksə $ -ər / noun [countable] literary

1 a magical liquid that is supposed to cure people of illness, make them younger etc: اکسیر، کیمیا

the search for the elixir of life

2 something that is supposed to solve problems as if by magic:

The current new wave of technology should prove an economic elixir.


insight AC / ˈɪnsaɪt / noun 1 [countable]

insight into

give insight

provide insights

a sudden clear understanding of something or part of something, especially a complicated situation or idea بصیرت، بینش، فهم

The article gives us a real insight into the causes of the present economic crisis.

The research provides new insights into the way we process language.


insight AC / ˈɪnsaɪt / noun 2 [uncountable]

the ability to understand and realize what people or situations are really like: بصیرت

a woman of great insight


malady / ˈmælədi / noun (plural maladies) [countable]

1 formal a serious problem in society فساد اجتماعی

2 old use an illness


ultimately W3 AC / ˈʌltəmətli, ˈʌltɪmətli / adverb [sentence adverb]

finally, after everything else has been done or considered نهایتاً

Ultimately, the decision rests with the child’s parents.

a long but ultimately successful campaign


vibrant / ˈvaɪbrənt / adjective
vibrancy noun [uncountable]

vibrantly adverb

1 full of activity or energy in a way that is exciting and attractive SYN lively: پر جنب و جوش، سرزنده و شاداب

Hong Kong is a vibrant, fascinating city.

She was sixteen, young and vibrant.


vibrant / ˈvaɪbrənt / adjective 2 a vibrant colour is ?

bright and strong:

a painting full of vibrant reds and blues


confer AC / kənˈfɜː $ -ˈfɜːr / verb (past tense and past participle conferred, present participle conferring) formal  1 [intransitive]

confer with

to discuss something with other people, so that everyone can express their opinions and decide on something مطرح کردن

Franklin leant over and conferred with his attorneys.


2 confer a title/degree/honour etc. on/upon


confer a title/degree/honour etc. on/upon

to officially give someone a title etc, especially as a reward for something they have achieved SYN bestow اعطا، تفویض

An honorary degree was conferred on him by the University.






leave (also bequeath / bɪˈkwiːð, bɪˈkwiːθ / formal)

lavish somebody with something/lavish something on somebody formal

confer formal

bestow formal

give to let someone have something, without expecting to be paid for it:

He was always giving me gifts. | They gave a free drink to all their customers.

donate to give money to an organization that helps people or protects something, or to give your blood or part of your body to save someone’s life:

The company donates 1 per cent of its profits to charity. | 70% of people wanted to donate their organs after death.

award to officially give money or a prize to someone:

She was awarded a million dollars in damages. | Hollywood awarded him an Oscar for his performance.

present to formally or officially give something to someone by putting it in their hands, especially at a formal ceremony:

They presented her with a bouquet (دسته گل) of flowers.

leave (also bequeath / bɪˈkwiːð, bɪˈkwiːθ / formal)  (وقف کردن) to officially arrange for someone to have something that you own after your death:

He left most of his property to his wife.

lavish somebody with something/lavish something on somebody formal to give someone a lot of something, especially praise, attention, or gifts: حال غلیظ دادن

After his team won, the press lavished him with praise.

confer formal (اعطا کردن) to give someone an honour, a university degree, or the right or power to do something:

the powers conferred on him by Parliament | the highest honor that her country could confer on her

bestow formal (اعطا کردن) to give someone something to show how much they are respected, for example an honour, a title, or a gift – a very formal use:

He was also bestowed the title of’Cultural Ambassador of Grenada’.


stunning / ˈstʌnɪŋ / adjective

stunningly adverb:

a stunningly beautiful woman

1 extremely attractive or beautiful: خیره کننده، خیلی جذاب

You look absolutely stunning in that dress.

a stunning view

2 very surprising or shocking SYN staggering:

stunning news


staggering / ˈstæɡ ə rɪŋ / adjective

staggeringly adverb :

a staggeringly beautiful landscape

extremely great or surprising SYN amazing: خیلی زیاد

The cost was a staggering $10 million.

The financial impact on the town was staggering.







unbelievable ( also incredible )

surprising making you feel surprised: It’s surprising how quickly you get used to it. | We got some very surprising results.

astonishing/astounding very surprising. شگفت انگیز Astounding sounds a little more formal and a little stronger than astonishing: The results of the tests were astounding. | Things are changing at an astonishing speed .

extraordinary very unusual and surprising: خارق العاده، فوق العاده It is extraordinary that such a young boy should be so good at maths.

amazing very surprising شگفت انگیز– used especially about good or impressive things: an amazing achievement | It’s amazing what you can do when you really try.

staggering very surprising, especially by being so large: The project cost a staggering $8 million.

unbelievable ( also incredible ) so surprising that you can hardly believe it: It is unbelievable that she is only the same age as me. | The incredible thing is that he thinks he is ugly.


breathtaking / ˈbreθˌteɪkɪŋ / adjective

breathtakingly adverb

very impressive, exciting, or surprising: هیجان انگیز-مهیج

The view from my bedroom window was absolutely breathtaking.

an act of breathtaking arrogance (تکبر و غرور)


ledger / ˈledʒə $ -ər / noun [countable]

a book in which a business, bank etc. records how much money it receives and spends دفتر کل




accounts (also books informal)


minutes / ˈmɪnəts, ˈmɪnɪts /






record information about something that is written down:

your medical records | the public records office | I have to keep a record of all my spending when I’m travelling on business.

file a set of written records, or information stored on a computer under a particular name:

He began reading the file on the case. | I think I may have accidentally deleted the file.

accounts (also books informal) (تراز مالی) an exact record of the money that a company has received and spent:

Companies are required by law to publish their annual accounts. | Someone had been falsifying the accounts. | The company’s books all seemed to be in order.

ledger (دفتر کل) one of the official books in which a company’s financial records are kept, which show how much it has received and spent:

The costs have been moved from one column of the ledger to another.

minutes (صورت جلسه) an official written record of what is said and decided at a meeting:

Both points are mentioned in the minutes of the last meeting on August 3rd.

diary (دفتر خاطرات) a book in which you regularly write down the things that have happened to you: In his diary he wrote,’It s lovely having him here, we’ve had so many cosy (راحت، دنج و گرم و نرم هم معنی میده) talks.’ | I’ll just check in my diary to see if I’m free.

blog a web page on the Internet on which someone regularly writes about their life, opinions, or a particular subject:

I may not always agree with David, but I always read his blog.

register (دفتر ثبت) an official list of names of people, organizations etc:

Guests must sign the hotel register. | the national register of births, deaths, and marriages | Lloyds Register of Shipping

roll an official list of names, especially of people who are allowed to do something such as vote or be in a class at school:

the electoral roll (= list of people who can vote in an area) | The teacher called the roll (= read out the list of the names of the students, who then have to say if they are present). electoral= related to انتخابات

log an official record that is kept on a ship or plane: Mr Appleby said he complained to a senior officer, who made a note in the ship’s log.


chaos / ˈkeɪ-ɒs $ -ɑːs / noun [uncountable]

complete/utter (مطلق)/absolute etc. chaos
in chaos

1 a situation in which everything is happening in a confused way and nothing is organized or arranged in order: هرج و مرج، بی نظمی کامل

The country was plunged (غرق شدن) into economic chaos.
There was total chaos on the roads.

in chaos

The kitchen was in chaos.


chaos / ˈkeɪ-ɒs $ -ɑːs / noun [uncountable] /universe/

the state of the universe before there was any order


cause/create/bring chaos

end in chaos

be thrown/plunged into chaos

descend/slip into chaos

be on the brink of chaos

chaos ensues

chaos reigns

cause/create/bring chaos Snow has caused chaos on the roads this morning.

end in chaos The game ended in chaos with thunder and heavy rain.

be thrown/plunged into chaos A serious accident has thrown the roads into chaos.

descend (فرو رفتن)/slip (لیز خوردن) into chaos (= gradually become completely confused and disorganized) After the invasion, the country lapsed into chaos.

be on the brink (مرز) of chaos (= to be about to become completely confused and disorganized) The peace talks were on the brink of chaos.

chaos ensues (= it happens as a result of something) A decade of civil war and chaos ensued.

en‧sue / ɪnˈsjuː $ ɪnˈsuː / verb [ intransitive ] formal منتج شدن
to happen after or as a result of something SYN follow
ensue from
problems that ensue from food and medical shortages

chaos reigns  (حکم فرما شدن) (= it happens) Everyone was trying to talk at once and for a while chaos reigned.



total/complete chaos

utter chaos

economic/political/social etc. chaos

traffic chaos

total/complete chaos When we arrived, there was total chaos.

utter chaos (= total chaos) After the party, the whole house was in utter chaos.

economic/political/social etc. chaos Afterwards there was widespread famine and economic chaos.

traffic chaos (= when there are a lot of vehicles on the roads and they cannot move) The first day of the school holidays brought traffic chaos to the roads.


a state of chaos

a scene of chaos

chaos and confusion

a state of chaos Nick's bedroom is permanently in a state of chaos.

a scene of chaos I came home to a scene of chaos, with food and empty bottles everywhere.

chaos and confusion Heavy flooding has created chaos and confusion throughout the country.


township / ˈtaʊnʃɪp / noun [countable]

a town in Canada or the US that has some local government


comb 2 verb [transitive] /hair/

to make hair look tidy using a comb: شانه کردن

Melanie ran upstairs to comb her hair.


comb 2 verb [transitive] /search/

2 to search a place thoroughly

comb something for somebody/something

Police are still combing the woods for the missing boy.


comb something out phrasal verb

to use a comb to make untidy hair look smooth and tidy:

She sat combing out her hair in front of the kitchen mirror.


comb through something phrasal verb /search/

to search through a lot of objects or information in order to find a specific thing or piece of information:

We spent weeks combing through huge piles of old documents.


compile AC / kəmˈpaɪl / verb [transitive] /make/

compile something from/for something

1 to make a book, list, record etc, using different pieces of information, music etc. گردآوری

The document was compiled by the Department of Health The report was compiled from a survey of 5,000 households.


compile AC / kəmˈpaɪl / verb [transitive] 2 technical /PC/

to put a set of instructions into a computer in a form that it can understand and use


frailty / ˈfreɪlti / noun (plural frailties)1 [uncountable]

the lack of strength or health SYN weakness سستی، ضعف

frailty of

the frailty of her thin body


frailty / ˈfreɪlti / noun (plural frailties) 2 [uncountable and countable] /character/

something bad or weak in your character SYN weakness:

human frailties نقطه ضعف


set something aside phrasal verb

1 to keep something, especially money, time, or a particular area, for a special purpose کنار گذاشتن

set something aside for

Try to set aside some time each day for exercise.

a room that had been set aside for visitors


set forth phrasal verb

1 set something forth formal to explain ideas, facts, or opinions in a clearly organized way in writing or in a speech SYN set out: توضیح کامل دادن

He set forth an idealistic view of society.

2 literary to begin a journey: پا به سفر گذاشتن

They were about to set forth on a voyage into the unknown.


set in phrasal verb

if something sets in, especially something unpleasant, it begins and seems likely to continue for a long time: در حال اومدن

Winter seems to be setting in early this year.

Further economic decline set in during the 1930s.


set off phrasal verb

1 to start to go somewhere: عازم شدن، رفتن

I’ll set off early to avoid the traffic.

set off for

Jerry and I set off on foot for the beach.

2 set something off to make something start (باعث شدن) happening, especially when you do not intend to do so:

News that the claims might be true set off widespread panic.

Hong Kong’s stock market fell, setting off a global financial crisis.


In written English, people often say that something triggers a particular reaction or event, rather than sets it off, because it sounds more formal:

This could trigger a global financial crisis.


set out phrasal verb

set out on a journey/drive/voyage etc.

1 to start a journey, especially a long journey عازم سفر شدن

set out for

Kate set out for the house on the other side of the bay.

set out on a journey/drive/voyage etc.

The band are setting out on a European tour in March.


set up phrasal verb 1 company/organization etc.

set (yourself) up (as something)

to start a company, organization, committee etc. SYN establish

set something up

They want to set up their own import–export business.

new regulations for setting up political parties

set (yourself) up (as something) (= start your own business)

John decided to set up as a graphic designer.


hasten / ˈheɪs ə n / verb formal 1 [transitive] /happen/

to make something happen faster or sooner: تسریع کردن، شتاب دادن

Their departure was hastened by an abnormally cold winter.


hasten / ˈheɪs ə n / verb formal 2 [intransitive] /do or say/

to do or say something quickly or without delay SYN hurry

hasten to do something عجله کردن

I hastened to assure her that there was no danger.


I hasten to add

used when you realize that what you have said may not have been understood correctly: البته اضافه کنم که

an exhausting course, which, I hasten to add, was also great fun


hasten / ˈheɪs ə n / verb formal  4 [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] literary

to go somewhere quickly







hustle American English informal

hasten literary

rush to move very quickly, especially because you need to be somewhere soon:

He was rushing out of his office in order to go to a meeting. | There’s no need to rush - we have plenty of time.

hurry to do something or go somewhere more quickly than usual, especially because there is not much time:

People hurried into stores to escape the rain. | You ll have to hurry or we’ll be late for breakfast | I hurried through the rest of my workout and showered as quickly as I could.

race (به سرعت رفتن) to go somewhere as fast as you can:

She raced downstairs to tell her mother. | He raced back to his car and called for help.

tear to run very quickly and without really looking where you are going, because you are in a hurry:

I saw two boys tearing across the field towards the tree. | He tore down the stairs and out of the house. | They tore out of the building.

dash (به سرعت رفتن) to run somewhere very fast, especially only a short distance:

Bob dashed across the road to his friend’s house. | Her heart was pumping furiously as she dashed through the kitchen to the front door. | I dashed outside to try to rescue the unfortunate creature.

hustle American English informal (عجله کردن) to hurry when you are doing something or going somewhere:

You better hustle or you’re going to miss the school bus.

hasten literary (عجله کردن) to hurry somewhere, especially because you need to do something:

Suddenly frightened, she hastened back to where her friends were standing. | She took a deep breath and then hastened after him.


cursive / ˈkɜːsɪv $ ˈkɜːr- / adjective written

cursively adverb

in a style of writing with the letters joined together: سرهم

cursive script


demography / dɪˈmɒɡrəfi $ -ˈmɑː- / noun [uncountable]

demographer noun [countable]

the study of human populations and the ways in which they change, for example the study of how many births, marriages and deaths happen in a particular place at a particular time سرشماری نفوس


genealogy / ˌdʒiːniˈælədʒi / noun (plural genealogies)

1 [uncountable] the study of the history of families

2 [countable] a drawing or description that explains how each person in a family is related to the others → family tree شجره نامه، دودمان

genealogist noun [countable]

genealogical / ˌdʒiːniəˈlɒdʒɪk ə l◂ $ -ˈlɑː- / adjective:

a useful source of genealogical information


ˌfamily ˈtree noun [countable]

a drawing that gives the names of all the members of a family over a long period of time, and shows how they are related to each other

SYN: genealogical tree


pedigree 1 / ˈpedəɡriː, ˈpedɪɡriː / noun [uncountable and countable]

1 the parents and other past family members of an animal or person, or an official written record of this شجره نامه


pedigree 1 / ˈpedəɡriː, ˈpedɪɡriː / noun [uncountable and countable] /background/

2 the history and achievements of something or someone, especially when they are good and should be admired → background: تاریخچه

Founded in 1781, the school has an excellent pedigree.

a scientist’s academic pedigree


meticulous / məˈtɪkjələs, mɪˈtɪkjələs / adjective

meticulous in

meticulous about

meticulously adverb:

The attack was meticulously planned and executed.

very careful about small details, and always making sure that everything is done correctly: خیلی دقیق

He kept meticulous accounts.

Their planning and preparation were meticulous.

He cleaned the tools with meticulous care.

The book describes his journey in meticulous detail.

He was meticulous in his use of words.

He has always been so meticulous about his appearance.




thorough / ˈθʌrə $ ˈθʌroʊ, ˈθʌrə /




careful trying to avoid mistakes and do everything correctly by paying a lot of attention to details:

Try to be more careful with your punctuation. | A careful inspection showed cracks in the foundation of the building.

methodical (دقیق و مرتبتر) always doing things in a careful and well-organized way:

He is very methodical in his work and likes to plan everything in advance. | This time the researchers used a more methodical approach to the problem.

thorough / ˈθʌrə $ ˈθʌroʊ, ˈθʌrə / (از اول تا آخر، تمام و کمال) careful to examine or deal with every part of something, so that you do not miss anything important:

There will be a thorough investigation into the circumstances of her death. | Our mechanics will check everything – they’re very thorough.

meticulous (خیلی دقیق) very careful about every small detail in order to make sure everything is done correctly:

She keeps meticulous records of the students’ progress. | He was meticulous about keeping the place clean and tidy.

systematic using a fixed plan in a careful and well-organized way in order to do everything that you should:

a systematic review of the scientific evidence | We need a systematic way to evaluate employees.

painstaking using a lot of time and effort to do something in a very careful and thorough way: The book is the result of ten years of painstaking research. | They began the long and painstaking task of translating his work into English.


nonagenarian / ˌnɒnədʒəˈneəriən, ˌnɒnədʒɪˈneəriən, ˌnəʊn- $ ˌnoʊnədʒəˈner-, ˌnɑːn- / noun [countable]

someone between 90 and 99 years old


centenarian / ˌsentəˈneəriən, ˌsentɪˈneəriən $ -ˈner- / noun [countable]

someone who is 100 years old or older


gender AC / ˈdʒendə $ -ər / noun 1 [uncountable and countable]

the fact of being male or female:

people of the same gender

Discrimination (تبعیض) on grounds of race or gender is forbidden.

There may be gender differences in attitudes to paid work.

traditional gender roles

gender biases in books

toys that do not reinforce gender stereotypes

a science fiction story dealing with gender issues

2 [countable] males or females, considered as a group SYN sex:

differences between the genders


a gender difference

the gender gap

gender roles

gender bias/inequality/discrimination

gender equality

gender relations

a gender stereotype

gender politics

gender issues

gender identity

a gender difference Research has shown that there are gender differences in the way alcohol affects the brain.

the gender gap (= a difference between men and women) The gender gap was visible in the way men and women voted during the presidential elections.

gender roles (= the positions of men and women in society) It is a country where gender roles have remained largely unchanged.

gender bias/inequality/discrimination (= when one gender is treated unfairly) Her research investigates gender bias in the classroom.

gender equality (= when men and women are treated in the same way) Organizations have a duty to promote gender equality.

gender relations (= the way in which men and women behave towards each other) The best way to understand gender relations is to study children.

a gender stereotype (= a fixed idea of what men or women are like) The characters in the novel were criticized for being gender stereotypes.

gender politics (= the way in which men and women compete with each other for power) Much of the discussion of gender politics is rather simplistic.

gender issues (= ideas and problems related to being male or female) Businesses seem to pay more attention to gender issues in senior positions.

gender identity (= whether someone is male or female) Gender identity refers to our inner feeling of being masculine or feminine.


genre / ˈʒɒnrə $ ˈʒɑːnrə / noun [countable] formal

a particular type of art, writing, music etc, which has certain features that all examples of this type share

genre of

a new genre of film-making

a literary genre







of a... nature formal



genre formal

type/kind/sort one member of a group of people or things that have similar features or qualities. Type is the usual word to use in scientific or technical contexts. In everyday English, people usually use kind or sort: What type of fish is this? | There are two main personality types.

kind a type of person or thing. Kind is less formal than type, and is used especially in everyday English: What kind of food do you like? | There were all kinds of people there. | The study is the first of its kind in Ireland.

form one type of something from all the ones that are possible – used especially when things have different physical characteristics, or in certain fixed phrases: There are many forms of heart disease. | Melanoma is a form of skin cancer. | The first primitive life forms consumed various materials, including hydrogen sulfide, and released oxygen. | In those days, horses were the commonest form of transport. | We need to use alternative forms of energy. | a popular form of entertainment

variety a type that is slightly different from others in the same group: The French make many varieties of cheese. | This is a new variety of apple.

species a type of plant or animal, which can breed together to produce plants or animals of the same type: These forests contain many species of trees. | The giant panda is an endangered species.

of a... nature formal used when talking about a particular type of thing: Many people find it embarrassing to discuss problems of a sexual nature. | Minor incidents of this nature normally occur about once a month.

category a group of people or things that are all of the same type – used when there is a clear system for deciding which group something belongs to: The three major categories of rock are: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. | She won the best actress category at the Oscars.

brand used when talking about the particular way that someone does something or thinks about something, when this is very different from that of other people: She has her own special brand of humour. | He has called for a more positive brand of politics.

genre formal a type of art, music, literature etc. that has a particular style or feature: He has written novels in several genres, most notably science fiction.


tease 1 / tiːz / verb 1 laugh [intransitive and transitive]

just/only teasing.

tease somebody about something

to laugh at someone and make jokes in order to have fun by embarrassing them, either in a friendly way or in an unkind way:

Don’t get upset. I was only teasing.

He used to tease her mercilessly (بی رحمانه).

tease somebody about something

She used to tease me about my hair.


In everyday English, people often say make fun of rather than tease:

Stop making fun of me!


tease 1 / tiːz / verb 2 annoy an animal [transitive]

to deliberately annoy an animal:

Stop teasing the cat!


tease 1 / tiːz / verb 3 sex [intransitive and transitive]

to deliberately make someone sexually excited without intending to have sex with them, in a way that seems unkind


tease 1 / tiːz / verb 4 hair [transitive] American English

to comb your hair in the opposite direction to which it grows, so that it looks thicker SYN backcomb British English



make fun of somebody/something

taunt / tɔːnt tɔːnt /

pull sb’s leg informal

tease to laugh at someone and make jokes in order to have fun by embarrassing them, either in a friendly way or in an unkind way. In everyday English, people often say make fun of rather than tease: At work, we all tease her because she’s always late. | Sam’s sisters used to tease him because he was overweight.

make fun of somebody/something to tease someone, especially in an unkind way, by laughing at something they do and making them seem stupid: The boys at school used to make fun of me and call me names. | Everyone made fun of the way our Maths teacher walked.

taunt / tɔːnt tɔːnt / to tease someone in a very unpleasant way that shows you do not respect them, in order to make them angry or upset: In the end he hit the man for taunting him about his wife. | The other prisoners taunted him until he couldn’t bear it any more.

pull sb’s leg informal to tease someone in a friendly way, by trying to make them think something is true when it is not: I’m not really 18. I was only pulling your leg. | I don’t believe you! You’re pulling my leg!


tease something out phrasal verb /learning/

1 to succeed in learning information that is hidden, or that someone does not want to tell you; By teasing out details from family trees, the researchers discovered a paradox.


tease something out  2 /hairs/

to gently move hairs or threads that are stuck together so that they become loose or straight again:

She combed her hair, gently teasing out the knots.


dim 1 / dɪm / adjective (comparative dimmer, superlative dimmest) /dark/

1 dark (کم نور) fairly dark or not giving much light, so that you cannot see well OPP bright:

in the dim light of the early dawn سپیده دم، بامداد، سحر

a dim glow  تابش، شعله


take a dim view of something

to disapprove of something: خوشش نیومد

Miss Watson took a dim view of Paul’s behaviour.


dim recollection/awareness etc.

a memory or understanding of something that is not clear in your mind SYN vague: مبهم

Laura had a dim recollection of someone telling her this before.


in the dim and distant past

a very long time ago – used humorously خیلی وقت پیشا


dim 1 / dɪm / adjective (comparative dimmer, superlative dimmest) /not intelligent informal/

not intelligent:

You can be really dim sometimes!










dark if a place is dark, there is little or no light: The room was very dark. | No, you can’t play outside, it’s too dark. | It was a dark night with clouds covering the moon.

dimly-lit a dimly-lit building or place is fairly dark because the lights there are not very bright: a dimly-lit restaurant | The church was dimly lit.

dim a dim light is fairly dark: The camera can take good pictures even in dim lighting. | The evening sky grew dim.

darkened a darkened room or building is darker than usual, especially because its lights have been turned off or the curtains have been drawn: The prisoner lay in a darkened room. | The play starts with a darkened stage, and the sound of a woman singing softly.

gloomy (تاریک و غم انگیز) a gloomy place or room is not at all bright or cheerful: The bar was gloomy and smelled of stale cigar smoke.

murky dark and difficult to see through – used especially about water: the murky waters of the lake | I could hardly see him in the murky light of the bar.

pitch-dark/pitch-black (ظلمات) completely dark, so that nothing can be seen: It was pitch-dark inside the shed.

shady a shady place is cooler and darker than the area around it, because the light of the sun cannot reach it: It was nice and shady under the trees. | They found a shady spot for a picnic.


rev 1 / rev / (also rev up) verb (past tense and past participle revved, present participle revving) [intransitive and transitive]

if you rev an engine, or if an engine revs, you make it work faster تند کردن


rev up phrasal verb informal
rev up for

rev something ↔ up

if you rev up a system or organization, or if it revs up, it becomes more active; The researcher has also found in the centenarians a revved-up version of a gene for what is called an uncoupling protein.

rev up for

They are revving up for one of the biggest fund-raising events ever organized.

rev something up

Investors keep putting money in U.S. companies, revving up the economy even more.


dissect / dɪˈsekt, daɪ- / verb [transitive] /body/

1 to cut up the body of a dead animal or person in order to study it کالبد شکافی


dissect / dɪˈsekt, daɪ- / verb [transitive] /examine/

2 to examine something carefully in order to understand it:

books in which the lives of famous people are dissected


dissect / dɪˈsekt, daɪ- / verb [transitive] /area/

dissection / -ˈsekʃ ə n / noun [uncountable and countable]

to divide an area of land into several smaller pieces:

fields dissected by small streams


curtail / kɜːˈteɪl $ kɜːr- / verb [transitive] formal

curtailment noun [uncountable and countable]

to reduce or limit something SYN cut: محدود کردن

The new law will curtail police powers.

severely/drastically curtail

Budget cuts have drastically curtailed training programs.


errand / ˈerənd / noun [countable]

run errands

sending me on an errand

errand of mercy

a short journey in order to do something for someone, for example delivering or collecting something for them: ماموریت

I seemed to spend my life running errands for people.

She was always sending me on errands.

on an errand

I couldn’t stop because I was on an errand.

He quickly set out on his errand of mercy (= journey to help someone in danger).


piecemeal / ˈpiːsmiːl / adjective

piecemeal adverb:

The new fire regulations have been introduced piecemeal.

a process that is piecemeal happens slowly and in stages that are not regular or planned properly: تکه تکه، به تدریج

The buildings have been adapted in a piecemeal fashion.

a piecemeal approach to the problem


dub 1 / dʌb / verb (past tense and past participle dubbed, present participle dubbing) [transitive]1 [usually passive]

be dubbed something

to give something or someone a name that describes them in some way → label, name

be dubbed something

The body, thousands of years old, was found in the Alps and dubbed ‘The Iceman’.


dub 1 / dʌb / verb (past tense and past participle dubbed, present participle dubbing) [transitive]

be dubbed into something

2 to change the original spoken language of a film or television programme into another language

be dubbed into something

a British film dubbed into French


cautionary / ˈkɔːʃən ə ri $ ˈkɒːʃəneri / adjective [usually before noun]

cautionary note/comment/words etc.

giving a warning about what not to do

cautionary note/comment/words etc.

Most observers were optimistic, yet some sounded a cautionary note.


cautionary tale

(= the story of an event that is used to warn people) درس عبرت

a cautionary tale about how not to buy a computer


primate / ˈpraɪmeɪt / noun [countable]

a member of the group of animals that includes humans and monkeys


fathom 2 (also fathom out) verb [transitive]

to understand what something means after thinking about it carefully SYN work out: درک کردن

I still can’t fathom out what she meant.

fathom how/why/where etc.

Mark couldn’t fathom why she resented (عصبانی شدن از ) him so much.



fathom / ˈfæð ə m / formal

make sense of something

can’t make head nor tail of something spoken

grasp to completely understand an idea or a fact, especially a complicated one: Some of his theories can be rather difficult for the ordinary reader to grasp. | I don’t think Stuart really grasped the point I was making.

fathom / ˈfæð ə m / formal to understand what something means or the reasons for something, after thinking carefully about it: She looked at him, puzzled, trying to fathom the reasons for his actions.

make sense of something to understand something that is not easy to understand, especially by thinking about it: People are still trying to make sense of the news.

can’t make head nor tail of something spoken used when something seems impossible to understand: I can’t make head nor tail of his plays, and I’m not sure that anyone else can either.


sedentary / ˈsed ə nt ə ri $ -teri / adjective 1 formal

sedentary life/job/lifestyle etc.

spending a lot of time sitting down, and not moving or exercising very much

sedentary life/job/lifestyle etc.

health problems caused by our sedentary lifestyles


sedentary / ˈsed ə nt ə ri $ -teri / adjective 2 technical

a sedentary group of people tend always to live in the same place:

a sedentary people living north of the Danube


devout / dɪˈvaʊt / adjective /someone/

1 someone who is devout has a very strong belief in a religion: مذهبی

a devout Catholic


devout / dɪˈvaʊt / adjective 2 formal  /hope/

devoutly adverb

a devout hope or wish is one that you feel very strongly:  آرزوی قلبی

It is my devout hope that we can work together in peace.





religious believing strongly in a religion and obeying its rules: My father was a very religious man. | Are you religious?

devout having a very strong belief in a religion: a devout Catholic

orthodox believing in the traditional beliefs, laws, and practices of a religion: orthodox Jews


fanatic / fəˈnætɪk / noun [countable] /extreme/

1 someone who has extreme political or religious ideas and is often dangerous SYN extremist: افراطی

fanatics who represent a real danger to democracy

a religious fanatic


fanatic / fəˈnætɪk / noun [countable]

fanatical adjective:

a fanatical sportsman

He was fanatical about tidiness.

fanatically / -kli / adverb

2 someone who likes a particular thing or activity very much SYN enthusiast: خوره

a health food fanatic

a fitness fanatic


zeal / ziːl / noun [uncountable]
religious/revolutionary/missionary etc. zeal

in your zeal to do something

zeal for

eagerness to do something, especially to achieve a particular religious or political aim ذوق و شوق

religious/revolutionary/missionary etc. zeal

He approached the job with missionary zeal.

in your zeal to do something

In their zeal to catch drug dealers, police have ignored citizens’ basic civil rights.

zeal for

their zeal for privatization

mis‧sion‧a‧ry 1 / ˈmɪʃən ə ri $ -neri / noun ( plural missionaries ) [ countable ]

someone who has been sent to a foreign country to teach people about Christianity and persuade them to become Christians