swamp 1 / swɒmp $ swɑːmp / noun [uncountable and countable]
— swampy adjective:
the soft, swampy ground
land that is always very wet or covered with a layer of water باتلاق
marsh an area of low flat ground that is always wet and soft, that often has grasses or reeds growing in it but no trees:
The low hills you can see are like islands surrounded by the marsh. | Miles of salt marsh (= which has salt water under it because it is near the sea) stretched before us, reaching to the shores of the River Severn. | Hackney Marshes | the rustling of the marsh grass
swamp land that is always very wet or covered with a layer of water, that often has trees growing in it - used especially about areas in hot countries:
the swamps of Florida | Less than 200 years ago, the city was a swamp, infested by mosquitoes.
bog an area of low wet muddy ground, sometimes with bushes or grasses growing in it:
His foot started slowly sinking into the bog. | The destruction of peat bogs is contributing to global warming, according to a report commissioned by Friends of the Earth.
wetland an area of land that is partly covered with water, and that has grasses and other plants growing in it – often used about areas that are important to birds or wildlife:
The ecosystem of the world 's largest wetland, the Pantanal in southwest Brazil, is being threatened by tourists. | wetland birds
fen a large area of low flat wet land - used especially about the area of this type of land in eastern England in Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire, which is known as the Fens:
He grew up in the Fens | Intensive cultivation and continued drainage of the Fens further accelerates the degradation of the land.
mire literary an area of wet muddy ground, which people and vehicles etc. get stuck in:
The wagon was stuck fast in the mire. | The rain was turning the highway into a mire.
ty‧rant / ˈtaɪərənt $ ˈtaɪr- / noun [countable]
1 a ruler who has complete power and uses it in a cruel and unfair way: سلطان ستمگر
The country had long been ruled by tyrants.
2 someone who has power over other people, and uses it cruelly or unfairly:
My headmaster was a real tyrant.
cult 1 / kʌlt / noun
1 [countable] an extreme religious group that is not part of an established religion آیین دینی- فرقه
2 [countable] a fashionable belief, idea, or attitude that influences people’s lives
Diet, exercise... It’s all part of this cult of self-improvement.
3 [singular] a group of people who are very interested in a particular thing: گروهی که به چیز خاصی علاقمند هستند
O'Brien has a cult of devoted readers.
4 [uncountable and countable] formal a system of religious beliefs and practices
→ personality cult
pet‧ri‧fied / ˈpetrəfaɪd, ˈpetrɪfaɪd / adjective
— petrify verb [transitive]
1 extremely frightened, especially so frightened that you cannot move or think میخکوب شده - بخاطر ترس
I’m petrified of spiders.
petrified with fright/fear
He was petrified with fear when he saw the gun.
2 petrified wood/trees etc. wood, trees etc. that have changed into stone over a long period of time سنگ شده
scared stiff/scared to death informal
in terror written
terrified very frightened:
He looked terrified as the plane took off. | James was absolutely terrified of losing his only child. | He dragged the terrified woman into his car.
petrified very frightened – used especially when you are so frightened that you cannot think or move:
She’s absolutely petrified of spiders.
scared stiff/scared to death informal very frightened:
I had to make a speech, and I was scared stiff. | She was scared to death of her father.
in terror written if you do something in terror, you do it because you are very frightened:
People fled in terror as the building went up in flames.
ex‧cre‧ment / ˈekskrəmənt, ˈekskrɪmənt / noun [uncountable]
the solid waste material that you get rid of through your bowels مدفوع
swap 1 S3/ swɒp $ swɑːp / verb (past tense and past participle swapped , present participle swapping)
1 [intransitive and transitive] to give something to someone and get something in return SYN exchange: مبادله کردن - عوض کردن
Do you want to swap umbrellas?
swap something for something
He swapped his watch for a box of cigars.
swap something with somebody
The girls chatted and swapped clothes with each other.
2 [transitive] to tell information to someone and be given information in return SYN exchange:
We need to get together to swap ideas and information.
They sat in a corner and swapped gossip.
3 (also swap over) [intransitive and transitive] to do the thing that someone else has been doing, and let them do the thing that you have been doing SYN change:
They decided to swap roles for the day.
You start on the windows and I’ll do the walls, then we can swap over after an hour or so.
swap something with somebody
She ended up swapping jobs with her secretary.
4 [transitive] to stop using or get rid of one thing and put or get another thing in its place:
The driver announced that we would have to swap buses.
swap something for something
She had swapped her long skirts for jeans and T-shirts.
He swapped his London home for a cottage in Scotland.
5 [transitive] (also swap something around) to move one thing and put another in its place:
Someone had gone into the nursery (مهدکودک) and swapped all the babies around.
swap something with something
Why don’t we swap the TV with the bookcase?
trade (also do a trade American English)
in exchange/return (for something)
exchange to give something to someone, and receive a similar thing from them at the same time. Exchange is often used about people telling each other about their ideas, phone numbers, addresses etc:
They exchanged photographs before they met. | a place where people can exchange ideas | We exchanged email addresses. | if you are unhappy with the jacket, you can always take it back and exchange it for another one. | These coupons can be exchanged for meals and accommodation.
change to exchange something, especially money. Also used in British English about exchanging something you have bought for something different:
I need to change some dollars. | She changed all her money into euros. | We thought it was time we changed our car for something more modern.
swap informal to give something to someone, who gives you something similar:
The two schools use the Internet to swap pictures, stories, and jokes. | I like your room better – do you want to swap?
trade (also do a trade American English) to exchange something that you have for something that someone else has:
The stolen phones are being traded for drugs. | The boys trade sports cards on the playground. | We've got lots of plants we don't need – do you want to do a trade?
switch to change the places of two or more people or things, so that each one is in the place the other was before:
Can I switch seats with you?
reciprocate to do or give something, because someone has done or given something similar to you – a rather formal use:
They invited us to dinner a while ago, and I'd like to reciprocate.
in exchange/return (for something) if you give something in exchange or in return for something else, you give it in order to get something else back:
Williams will plead guilty in exchange for a reduced sentence.
prop 1 / prɒp $ prɑːp / verb (past tense and past participle propped , present participle propping) [transitive always + adverb/preposition]
to support something by leaning it against something, or by putting something else under, next to, or behind it سرپا نگاه داشتن
prop something against/on something
He propped his bike against a tree.
Can we prop the window open with something?
prop something ↔ up phrasal verb
1 to prevent something from falling by putting something against it or under it:
The builders are trying to prop up the crumbling walls of the church.
prop something ↔ up against
paintings propped up against the wall
2 to help an economy , industry, or government so that it can continue to exist, especially by giving money:
The government introduced measures to prop up the stock market.
3 prop yourself up to hold your body up by leaning against something
prop yourself up on/against/with
She propped herself up on one elbow.
vig‧i‧lance / ˈvɪdʒələns, ˈvɪdʒɪləns / noun [uncountable]
careful attention that you give to what is happening, so that you will notice any danger or illegal activity: مراقبت و آمادگی
the need for increased police vigilance
regard for something
care if you do something with care, you are careful to avoid damage, mistakes etc:
She put the needle in with great care. | Everyone should take care in the sun.
caution care to avoid danger or risks, or care about trusting information that might not be true:
Her evidence should be treated with caution. | There was a certain lack of caution among investors.
prudence a sensible and careful attitude that makes you avoid unnecessary risks - a rather formal use: احتیاط و ملاحظه
Banks should show more prudence in lending money.
vigilance careful attention to what is happening, so that you will notice any danger or illegal activity: مراقبت و آمادگی
Governments from across the world have called for greater vigilance against Internet-based crime. | There is a need for constant vigilance to protect vulnerable people.
regard for something careful attention and consideration shown to something, to avoid danger or risks - used especially when someone fails to do this:
The court heard that the company had shown no regard for the safety of its employees. | These men are cold-blooded killers and have little regard for human life.
tact care not to say anything that might offend or upset someone: درایت
He handled the matter with a great deal of tact.
discretion care to deal with situations in a way that does not embarrass, upset or offend people, especially by not telling any of their secrets: با بصیرت
Any confidential information was treated with discretion.
buff 1 / bʌf / noun
1 wine/film/opera etc. buff someone who is interested in wine, films etc. and knows a lot about them طرفدار
2 [uncountable] a pale yellow-brown color SYN beige بژ
3 in the buff لخت
old-fashioned not wearing any clothes SYN naked
connoisseur / ˌkɒnəˈsɜː $ ˌkɑːnəˈsɜːr /
buff / bʌf / informal
virtuoso / ˌvɜːtʃuˈəʊsəʊ $ ˌvɜːrtʃuˈoʊsoʊ /
expert someone who has a lot of knowledge about something or skill at doing something:
a computer expert | an expert on beetles | It’s best to ask an expert.
specialist an expert who has studied a particular medical or technical subject for a long time and knows much more about it than other people:
She is a specialist in corporate finance. | My doctor sent me to see a heart specialist.
authority an expert whose knowledge and opinions are greatly respected: متخصص
The professor is one of the world’s leading authorities on African art.
connoisseur / ˌkɒnəˈsɜː $ ˌkɑːnəˈsɜːr / an expert on food, art, literature, or design, who has had a lot of experience and knows when something is of very good quality: خبره
He was a connoisseur of fine wines. | His works are popular among connoisseurs.
buff / bʌf / informal someone who is very interested in a subject and knows a lot about it:
a wine buff | Jazz buffs will be familiar with the band’s first album.
virtuoso / ˌvɜːtʃuˈəʊsəʊ $ ˌvɜːrtʃuˈoʊsoʊ / an expert player or performer: هنرمند
The piece was played by violin virtuoso Pavel Sporcl. | a virtuoso pianist
fis‧sion / ˈfɪʃ ə n / noun [uncountable] technical
1 the process of splitting an atom to produce large amounts of energy or an explosion شکافت اتم
2 the process of dividing a cell into two or more parts
harness 2 verb [transitive]
1 to control and use the natural force or power of something:تحت کنترل درآوردن
We can harness the power of the wind to generate electricity.
2 to fasten two animals together, or to fasten an animal to something using a harness افسار کردن حیوان
3 to put a harness on a horse
har‧ness 1 / ˈhɑːnəs, ˈhɑːnɪs $ ˈhɑːr- / noun [uncountable and countable]
1 a set of leather bands used to control a horse or to attach it to a vehicle it is pulling افسار
2 a set of bands used to hold someone in a place or to stop them from falling:
a safety harness
in‧flict / ɪnˈflɪkt / verb
— infliction / ɪnˈflɪkʃ ə n / noun [uncountable]:
the deliberate infliction of pain
1 [transitive] to make someone suffer something unpleasant
inflict something on/upon somebody تحمیل کردن
The strikes inflicted serious damage on the economy.
Detectives warned that the men could inflict serious injury.
2 inflict yourself/somebody on somebody to visit or be with someone when they do not want you – used humorously:
Was it really fair to her friends to inflict her nephew on them?
a‧jar / əˈdʒɑː $ əˈdʒɑːr / adjective [not before noun]
a door that is ajar is slightly open نیمه باز
wilt 1 / wɪlt / verb [intransitive]
1 if a plant wilts, it bends over because it is too dry or old → droop پلاسیده و پژمرده شدن
2 informal to feel weak or tired, especially because you are too hot
droop / druːp / verb
— droop noun [singular]
— droopy adjective:
a droopy moustache
1 [intransitive and transitive] to hang or bend down, or to make something do this: پلاسیده و پژمرده شدن
The plant needs some water – it’s starting to droop.
His eyelids began to droop (= close, because he was sleepy).
Jessie drooped her head.
2 [intransitive] to become sad or weak:
Our spirits drooped as we faced the long trip home.
tame 2 verb [transitive]
1 to reduce the power or strength of something and prevent it from causing trouble: رام کردن
The Prime Minister managed to tame the trade unions.
2 to train a wild animal to obey you and not to attack people SYN domesticate:
The Asian elephant can be tamed and trained.
tame 1 / teɪm / adjective
— tamely adverb
— tameness noun [uncountable]
1 a tame animal or bird is not wild any longer, because it has been trained to live with people رام
2 informal dull and disappointing: بی مزه
Most of the criticism has been pretty tame.
I decided that teaching was too tame for me.
urn / ɜːn $ ɜːrn / noun [countable]
1 a decorated container, especially one that is used for holding the ash es of a dead body گلدون تزیینی برای خاکستره مرده ها
2 a metal container that holds a large amount of tea or coffee
me‧men‧to / məˈmentəʊ, mɪˈmentəʊ $ -toʊ / noun (plural mementos) [countable]
a small thing that you keep to remind you of someone or something یادگاری
I kept the bottle as a memento of my time in Spain.
ab‧o‧rig‧i‧ne , Aborigine / ˌæbəˈrɪdʒəni, ˌæbəˈrɪdʒɪni / noun [countable]
someone who belongs to the race of people who have lived in Australia from the earliest times
an area where people can camp, often with a water supply and toilets اردوگاه
camp‧site / ˈkæmpsaɪt / noun [countable]
a place, usually within a campground, where one person or group can camp
sub‧sist / səbˈsɪst / verb [intransitive]
1 to stay alive when you only have small amounts of food or money SYN survive زنده ماندن
We had to subsist on bread and water.
Old people often have to subsist on very low incomes.
cir‧cum‧cise / ˈsɜːkəmsaɪz $ ˈsɜːr- / verb [transitive]
1 to cut off the skin at the end of the penis (= male sex organ)
2 to cut off a woman’s clitoris (= part of her sex organs)
fan‧ci‧ful / ˈfænsɪf ə l / adjective
— fancifully adverb
1 imagined rather than based on facts – often used to show disapproval: تخیلی
a fanciful story
The suggestion that there was a conspiracy is not entirely fanciful.
2 full of unusual and very detailed shapes or complicated designs:
con‧spi‧ra‧cy / kənˈspɪrəsi / noun (plural conspiracies) [uncountable and countable]
1 a secret plan made by two or more people to do something that is harmful or illegal توطئه - دسیسه
conspiracy to do something
He was charged with conspiracy to commit criminal damage.
a conspiracy against the government
There were many conspiracy theories (= beliefs that something is the result of a conspiracy) surrounding Princess Diana’s death.
2 conspiracy of silence an agreement not to talk about something, even though it should not be a secret:
There’s often a conspiracy of silence surrounding bullying in schools.
an international/worldwide/global conspiracy
a criminal conspiracy
a political conspiracy
an alleged conspiracy
an international/worldwide/global conspiracy Hitler believed there was a worldwide conspiracy to enslave Germany.
a criminal conspiracy His crimes were illegal possession of arms and criminal conspiracy.
a political conspiracy Were the killings part of a political conspiracy?
an alleged conspiracy (= that people say exists but that is not yet proved to exist) The charges against him relate to an alleged conspiracy.
be part of a conspiracy (also take part in a conspiracy)
be involved in a conspiracy
be charged with conspiracy
be convicted of conspiracy
be part of a conspiracy (also take part in a conspiracy) The jury found that Poindexter was part of a conspiracy to ship arms to Iran.
be involved in a conspiracy Apparently the commander of the army had also been involved in the conspiracy.
be charged with conspiracy (= be formally accused of it) The women were charged with conspiracy to supply heroin.
be convicted of conspiracy (= be found guilty of it in a court) He was convicted of conspiracy to carry out terrorist acts.
a conspiracy theory
a conspiracy theorist
a conspiracy charge/charge of conspiracy
a conspiracy theory (= a belief by a number of people that something is the result of a conspiracy) President Kennedy’s assassination inspired a lot of conspiracy theories.
a conspiracy theorist (= someone who believes in a particular conspiracy) Conspiracy theorists believe that Princess Diana’s death was not an accident.
a conspiracy charge/charge of conspiracy Three men have been convicted on fraud and conspiracy charges.
plan a set of actions for achieving something in the future, especially a set of actions that has been considered carefully and in detail:
Leaders outlined a plan to end the fighting.
plot/conspiracy a secret plan to do something bad or illegal, made by a group of people:
There was a plot to assassinate the President. | a terrorist conspiracy
strategy a carefully designed plan which is intended to achieve a particular purpose over a long period of time:
the company’s business strategy | The government’s economic strategy has been criticized by many experts. | We need to develop effective strategies for combating the sale of counterfeit goods.
initiative a new plan for dealing with a particular problem or for achieving a particular aim:
a peace initiative | a major new initiative to tackle street crime
policy a plan that members of a government, political party, company etc. agree on, that states how they intend to deal with a particular subject or problem:
the government’s immigration policy | It’s company policy to allow people to work from home.
program a series of activities that a government or organization organizes, which aims to achieve something important and will continue for a long time:
a five-year program which will create 2000 new jobs | federal programs for low-income housing
in‧tim‧i‧date / ɪnˈtɪmədeɪt, ɪnˈtɪmɪdeɪt / verb [transitive]
— intimidation / ɪnˌtɪməˈdeɪʃ ə n, ɪnˌtɪmɪˈdeɪʃ ə n / noun [uncountable]:
She had endured years of intimidation and violence.
the intimidation of voters
1 to frighten or threaten someone into making them do what you want مرعوب کردن، ترساندن
intimidate somebody into doing something
They tried to intimidate the young people into voting for them.
Attempts to intimidate her failed.
2 to make someone feel worried and not confident: اعتماد کسی رو از بین بردن
The whole idea of going to Oxford intimidated me.
scare especially spoken
give somebody a fright
give somebody the creeps
frighten to make someone feel afraid:
The thought of being in court frightened him.
scare especially spoken to frighten someone. Scare is less formal than frighten , and is the usual word to use in everyday English:
He was driving fast just to scare us. | It scared him to think that his mother might never recover.
terrify to make someone feel extremely frightened:
The idea of going down into the caves terrified her. | Robbers terrified bank staff by threatening them at gunpoint.
give somebody a fright to make someone suddenly feel frightened in a way that makes their heart beat more quickly:
It gave me a terrible fright when I found him unconscious on the floor.
give somebody the creeps if a person or place gives you the creeps, they make you feel slightly frightened because they are strange:
This house gives me the creeps.
startle to frighten someone. Used when you suddenly see someone and did not know they were there, or when you suddenly hear something: وحشت زده شدن
I’m sorry. I didn’t mean to startle you. | The noise startled him, and he dropped his glass on the floor.
alarm to make someone feel frightened and worried that something bad might happen:
I didn’t want to alarm her by calling in the middle of the night.
intimidate to deliberately frighten someone, especially so that they will do what you want:
Many of the gangs were using dogs to intimidate people.
dep‧u‧ty / ˈdepjəti, ˈdepjʊti / noun (plural deputies) [countable]
1 (also Deputy) someone who is directly below another person in rank, and who is officially in charge when that person is not there قایم مقام، جانشین
deputy director/chairman/governor etc.
the Deputy Secretary of State
2 someone whose job is to help a sheriff in the US
schol‧ar / ˈskɒlə $ ˈskɑːlər / noun [countable]
1 an intelligent and well-educated person:
the great Dutch scholar Erasmus
2 someone who knows a lot about a particular subject, especially one that is not a science subject:
a Shakespearean scholar
3 someone who has been given a scholarship to study at a school or college:
He was a King’s scholar at Eton College.
e‧lit‧ist / eɪˈliːtəst, eɪˈliːtɪst, ɪ- / adjective
— elitism noun [uncountable]
— elitist noun [countable]
an elitist system, government etc. is one in which a small group of people have more power and advantages than other people: نخبه گرا
an elitist education system
bard / bɑːd $ bɑːrd / noun
1 [countable] literary a poet شاعر
2 the Bard William Shakespeare
take‧o‧ver / ˈteɪkˌəʊvə $ -ˌoʊvər / noun [countable]
1 when one company takes control of another by buying more than half its shares:
Thornbury has announced a takeover bid of a regional TV company.
He prevented a hostile takeover (= when the takeover is not wanted by the company being bought) of the company.
2 an act of getting control of a country or political organization, using force:
a communist takeover
ter‧rain / teˈreɪn, tə- / noun [uncountable and countable]
a particular type of land:
the ocean/forest/cave etc. floor
the ground the surface of the earth, or the soil on its surface:
He collapsed and fell to the ground. | The ground was wet and muddy.
the ocean/forest/cave etc. floor the ground at the bottom of the ocean, a forest, a cave etc:
Many wonderful creatures live on the ocean floor.
land used when talking about an area of ground that is owned by someone, or is used for an activity. Also used when talking about the part of the earth’s surface that is not covered with water:
His family owns a lot of land. | agricultural land | She got off the ferry, happy to be back on dry land.
terrain a type of land – used when talking about how easy an area of land is to cross, and whether it is rocky, flat etc:
The Land Rover is built to go over rough terrain. | The terrain gets flatter when you go further south.
earth/soil the substance that plants grow in:
The vegetables were still covered in black soil.
mud wet earth:
Your shoes are covered in mud.
in‧cur‧sion / ɪnˈkɜːʃ ə n, -ʒ ə n $ ɪnˈkɜːrʒ ə n / noun [countable] formal
1 a sudden attack into an area that belongs to other people تهاجم، تاخت و تاز
a combined British and French incursion into China in 1857
2 the sudden arrival of something or someone into a place or activity where they do not belong or have not been before, used especially to say that they are not welcome
The media was criticized for its thoughtless incursion into the domestic grief of the family.
the Japanese incursion into the U.S. domestic electronics market
es‧tate S2 W2 AC / ɪˈsteɪt / noun
1 [singular] law all of someone’s property and money, especially everything that is left after they die املاک
The property is part of the deceased’s estate.
2 [countable] a large area of land in the country, usually with one large house on it and one owner:
a country estate
council/industrial/housing etc. estate
→ fourth estate , real estate
ar‧is‧to‧crat / ˈærəstəkræt, ˈærɪstəkræt, əˈrɪs- $ əˈrɪs- / noun [countable]
someone who belongs to the highest social class
dis‧man‧tle / dɪsˈmæntl / verb [transitive]
1 to take a machine or piece of equipment apart so that it is in separate pieces: قطعه قطعه کردن
Chris dismantled the bike in five minutes.
2 to gradually get rid of a system or organization: بی مصرف کردن
an election promise to dismantle the existing tax legislation
friv‧o‧lous / ˈfrɪvələs / adjective
— frivolously adverb
1 not serious or sensible, especially in a way that is not suitable for a particular occasion: بیهوده
The court discourages frivolous law suits.
2 a frivolous person likes having fun rather than doing serious or sensible things – used to show disapproval سبک رفتار
cro‧cus / ˈkrəʊkəs $ ˈkroʊ- / noun [countable]
a small purple, yellow, or white flower that appears in early spring زعفران saffron
dread 1 / dred / verb
[transitive] to feel anxious or worried about something that is going to happen or may happen: ترس داشتن، نگران بودن
I’ve got an interview tomorrow and I’m dreading it.
dread doing something
I’m dreading going back to work.
dread somebody doing something
Tim dreaded his parents finding out.
I’m dreading that I’ll be asked to make a speech.
dread the thought/prospect of (doing) something
He dreaded the prospect of being all alone in that house.
I dread to think what will happen if they get elected (= I think it will be very bad).
syn‧a‧gogue / ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ $ -ɡɒːɡ / noun [countable]
a building where Jewish people meet for religious worship
pollster / ˈpəʊlstə $ ˈpoʊlstər / noun [countable]
someone who works for a company that prepares and asks questions to find out what people think about a particular subject شخصی که نظرسنجی میکنه
me‧te‧o‧rol‧o‧gy / ˌmiːtiəˈrɒlədʒi $ -ˈrɑː- / noun [uncountable]
— meteorological / ˌmiːtiərəˈlɒdʒɪk ə l◂ $ -ˈlɑː- / adjective:
satellites that provide meteorological data to the National Weather Service
the scientific study of weather conditions هواشناسی
— meteorologist noun [countable]:
The storms have baffled meteorologists in the United States.
me‧te‧o‧rite / ˈmiːtiəraɪt / noun [countable]
a piece of rock or metal from space that has landed on Earth شهاب سنگ
raid 1 / reɪd / noun [countable]
1 a short attack on a place by soldiers, planes, or ships, intended to cause damage but not take control: یورش
a bombing raid
an air raid warning siren
The colonel led a successful raid against a rebel base.
launch/carry out/stage a raid
The army launched several cross-border raids last night.
→ air raid
2 a surprise visit made to a place by the police to search for something illegal:
a police raid
an FBI raid
Four people were arrested during a raid on a house in London.
a dawn raid (= one made very early in the morning)
3 an attack by criminals on a building where they believe they can steal money or drugs:
a bank raid
an armed raid on a shop in Glasgow
4 technical an attempt by a company to buy enough shares in another company to take control of it
make a raid
carry out a raid
launch a raid
take part in a raid
make a raid Pirates often made daring raids on the port.
carry out a raid (= make a raid) They were encouraged by the French king to carry out raids upon English ships.
launch a raid (= start a raid) Rebel forces launched cross-border raids.
take part in a raid They took part in various raids, including the bombing of Cologne in 1942.
an air raid
a bombing raid
a commando raid
a guerrilla raid
a night raid
a cross-border raid
an air raid (= when bombs are dropped from planes) His parents were killed in an air raid.
a bombing raid Bombing raids had destroyed most of the country's oil refineries.
a commando raid (= a raid by specially trained soldiers) There had been two unsuccessful British commando raids.
a guerrilla raid (= a raid by a small unofficial military group) From their base in the rainforest they staged guerilla raids on Nicaragua.
a night raid (= an attack that takes place at night) The night raids were almost non-stop.
a cross-border raid (= across a border between two countries) Cross-border raids into Kenya last year caused a serious diplomatic conflict.
squad W3 / skwɒd $ skwɑːd / noun [countable]
1 a group of players from which a team will be chosen for a particular sports event:
the Italian World Cup squad
2 the police department responsible for dealing with a particular kind of crime
drugs/fraud/vice etc. squad
A controlled explosion was carried out by bomb squad officers.
3 a small group of soldiers working together as a unit:
a drill squad
4 American English a group of cheerleaders (هورا کشها)
→ death squad , firing squad , flying squad
bar‧ley / ˈbɑːli $ ˈbɑːrli / noun [uncountable]
a plant that produces a grain used for making food or alcohol جو
bi‧zarre / bəˈzɑː, bɪˈzɑː $ -ˈzɑːr / adjective
— bizarrely adverb
very unusual or strange: عجیب و غریب
a bizarre coincidence
dancers in rather bizarre costumes
le‧mur / ˈliːmə $ -ər / noun [countable]
an animal that looks like a monkey and has a long thick tail میمون دم دار
weird very strange or very different from what you are used to:
I had a weird dream last night. | It’s a weird and wonderful place.
bizarre extremely strange and different from what is usually considered normal:
It was a bizarre situation. | Mark’s behavior was really bizarre.
surreal extremely strange and unconnected with real life or normal experiences, like something out of a dream: سورئال
His paintings are full of surreal images. | There is something surreal about the climate change talks in Bali. | The plant’s flowers were so big that they seemed almost surreal
uncanny very strange – used especially about someone having an unusual ability to do something, or looking surprisingly similar to someone:
She had an uncanny knack (= ability) of putting her finger right on a problem. | Alice had an uncanny resemblance to Josie. | his uncanny ability to pick racing winners
hoax / həʊks $ hoʊks / noun [countable]
1 a false warning about something dangerous: اخطار غلط برای موردهای خطرناک
a bomb hoax
hoax calls (= telephone calls giving false information) to the police
2 an attempt to make people believe something that is not true: تلاشی برای باوروندن چیزهای غلط
an elaborate hoax
jum‧ble 1 / ˈdʒʌmb ə l / noun
1 [singular] a lot of different things mixed together in an untidy way, without any order شلوغی
a jumble of old toys
Inside, she was a jumble of emotions.
mishmash /hodgepodge informal
jumble a lot of different things mixed together in an untidy way: Rae looked through the jumble of old record albums and tapes.
mishmash /hodgepodge informal a mixture of a lot of different things, styles etc. that do not seem right together: آش شله قلمکار
If you look closely at the individual buildings they are a real hodgepodge of styles. | The story is a bit of a mishmash.
ran‧som 1 / ˈræns ə m / noun [countable]
1 an amount of money that is paid to free someone who is held as a prisoner: جزیه
The kidnappers were demanding a ransom of $250,000.
The government refused to pay the ransom.
There has still been no ransom demand.
He’s got the ransom money.
pri‧va‧teer / ˌpraɪvəˈtɪə $ -ˈtɪr / noun [countable]
1 an armed ship in the past that was not in the navy but attacked and robbed enemy ships carrying goods
2 someone who sailed on a privateer
buc‧ca‧neer / ˌbʌkəˈnɪə $ -ˈnɪr / noun [countable]
1 someone who attacks ships at sea and steals from them SYN pirate دزد دریایی
2 someone who is very successful, especially in business, but may not be honest
ro‧dent / ˈrəʊd ə nt $ ˈroʊ- / noun [countable]
any small animal of the type that has long sharp front teeth, such as a rat or a rabbit جوندگان
man‧sion / ˈmænʃ ə n / noun [countable]
1 a very large house: عمارت
a beautiful country mansion
2 Mansions used in Britain in the names of some apartment buildings:
19 Carlyle Mansions
ranch house American English
duplex American English
house a building that someone lives in, especially one that is intended for one family, person, or couple to live in:
Annie and Rick have just bought their first house. | The price of houses is going up all the time.
row house one of a row of houses that are joined together
cottage a small house in the country – used especially about houses in the UK:
a little cottage in the country | a thatched cottage (= with a roof made of straw)
bungalow a small house that is all on one level:
Bungalows are suitable for many elderly people.
country house a large house in the countryside, especially one that is of historical interest:
The hotel was originally an Edwardian country house.
mansion a very large house:
the family’s Beverly Hills mansion
mobile home (also trailer American English) a type of house that can be pulled by a large vehicle and moved to another place
ranch house American English a long narrow house that is all on one level:
a California ranch house
duplex American English a house that is divided into two separate homes
pay‧out / ˈpeɪ-aʊt / noun [countable]
a large payment of money to someone, for example from an insurance claim or from winning a competition: پرداخت
There should be a big payout on this month’s lottery.
Some of the victims have been offered massive cash payouts.
jock / dʒɒk $ dʒɑːk / noun [countable] informal
1 American English someone, especially a student, who plays a lot of sport and is often considered to be stupid
geek / ɡiːk / noun [countable]informal
— geeky adjective
someone who is not popular because they wear unfashionable clothes, do not know how to behave in social situations, or do strange things SYN nerd:
a computer geek
goth / ɡɒθ $ ɡɑːθ / noun
the Goths [P] noun
goth / ɡɒθ $ ɡɑːθ / noun
1 [uncountable] a type of slow sad popular music that is played on electric guitars and keyboards
2 [countable] someone who likes goth music
the Goths [P] a tribe of people from central Europe, in what is now Germany, who attacked and moved into the roman empire several times between the 3rd and 5th centuries AD
2 [countable] a member of this tribe
3 [countable] a person following a fashion of the late 1980s and early 1990s for pale skin and black or purple clothes
prep‧py / ˈprepi / adjective American English informal
preppy clothes or styles are very neat, in a way that is typical of students who go to expensive private schools in the US اتو کشیده
tur‧moil / ˈtɜːmɔɪl $ ˈtɜːr- / noun [singular, uncountable]
a state of confusion, excitement, or anxietyآشفتگی، بهم ریختگی
political/emotional/economic/religious etc. turmoil
the prospect of another week of political turmoil
in (a) turmoil
Ashley gazed at him, her thoughts in turmoil.
in‧nu‧me‧ra‧ble / ɪˈnjuːm ə rəb ə l $ ɪˈnuː- / adjective
very many, or too many to be counted SYN countless: بی حد و حصر
She’s served on innumerable committees.
a large number of written
countless/innumerable / ɪˈnjuːm ə rəb ə l $ ɪˈnuː- / [only before noun]
a host of
a raft of
a whole raft of changes.
quite a few especially spoken
many a large number of people or things – used in everyday English in questions and negative sentences, and after ‘too’ and ‘so’. In formal or written English, you can also use it in other sentences:
There weren’t many people at the meeting. | Did you get many birthday presents? | Many people voted against the proposal.
a lot many. A lot is less formal than many and is the usual phrase to use in everyday English:
A lot of tourists visit Venice in the summer. | The club has a lot more members now.
dozens/hundreds/thousands/millions many – used when you cannot be exact but the number is two dozen or more, two hundred or more etc:
At least five people died and dozens more were injured in a gas explosion. | They’ve wasted thousands of pounds on the project.
a large number of written a lot of a particular type of person or thing:
China plans to build a large number of nuclear power plants.
numerous formal many – used especially when saying that something has happened many times:
We’ve contacted him on numerous occasions. | Numerous studies have shown a link between smoking and lung cancer.
countless/innumerable / ɪˈnjuːm ə rəb ə l $ ɪˈnuː- / [only before noun] many – used when it is impossible to count or imagine how many. Innumerable is more formal than countless:
He spent countless hours in the gym. | They had been given innumerable warnings.
a host of many – used especially when something seems surprising or impressive:
Age is the biggest risk factor in a host of diseases. | People leave jobs for a whole host of reasons.
a raft of many – used especially when talking about ideas, suggestions, changes in business or politics:
The report made a raft of recommendations. | The new government is planning a whole raft of changes.
quite a few especially spoken a fairly large number of people or things:
We’ve had quite a few problems with the software. | I’ve met quite a few of his friends.
lots informal many:
I’ve invited lots of people. | ‘How many cats has she got?’ ‘Lots!’
tons/loads informal many – a very informal use:
I’ve got tons of books. | Have a strawberry – there are loads here.
greed‧y / ˈɡriːdi / adjective (comparative greedier , superlative greediest)
— greedily adverb:
He grabbed the bottle and drank greedily.
— greediness noun [uncountable]
1 always wanting more food, money, power, possessions etc. than you need: حریص، طماع
a greedy and selfish society
He looked at the gold with greedy eyes.
Have you eaten them all, you greedy pig?
They are greedy for profits.
tomb / tuːm / noun [countable]
a stone structure above or below the ground where a dead person is buried: مقبره آرامگاه
the family tomb
tomb‧stone / ˈtuːmstəʊn $ -stoʊn / noun [countable]
a stone that is put on a grave and shows the dead person’s name, dates of birth and death etc. SYN gravestone سنگ قبر
mile‧post / ˈmaɪlpəʊst $ -poʊst / noun [countable] American English
1 a post next to a road or railway that shows the distance in miles to the next town تابلو کیلومترشمار کنار جاده
mile‧stone / ˈmaɪlstəʊn $ -stoʊn / noun [countable]
1 a very important event in the development of something مرحله برجسته
SYN milepost American English
an important milestone in South African history
The treatment of diabetes reached a significant milestone in the 1970s.
2 a stone next to a road that shows the distance in miles to the next town
pic‧to‧gram / ˈpɪktəɡræm / noun [countable]
1 a picture that represents a word or phrase عکسهایی مثل تابلوهای رانندگی که کلماتی رو یادآور میشوند
2 a mathematical drawing that shows numbers or amounts in the form of pictures
drown / draʊn / verb
1 [intransitive and transitive] to die from being under water for too long, or to kill someone in this way: غرق شدن یا غرق کردن
Many people drowned when the boat overturned.
Jane was drowned in the river.
Depressed, Peter tried to drown himself.
2 (also drown out) [transitive] if a loud noise drowns out another sound, it prevents it from being heard:
A train blew its whistle and drowned his voice.
The noise of the battle was drowned out by his aircraft’s engine.
3 [transitive] to cover something, especially food, with more liquid than is necessary or nice
drown something in something
The fish was drowned in a rich sauce.
4 [intransitive and transitive] to have a very strong feeling or a serious problem that is difficult to deal with
Relief agencies are drowning in frustration.
The country is drowning in debt.
5 drown your sorrows to drink a lot of alcohol in order to forget your problems
re‧sort 1 W3 / rɪˈzɔːt $ -ɔːrt / noun
1 [countable] a place where a lot of people go for holidays مکان استراحت و تفریحی
seaside/beach/ski etc. resort
Aspen, a ski resort in Colorado
Lagoon Reef is one of the best resort hotels.
2 last/final resort what you will do if everything else fails آخرین کار یا دارو
as a last resort
Drug treatment should only be used as a last resort.
of last resort
a weapon of last resort
3 first resort اولین چیز
what you will do first before you try other things:
In the past, your family was the first resort when looking for a job.
4 resort to something formal when you must use or depend on something because nothing better is available
without resort to something بدون تکیه بر چیزی
We hope they will be able to resolve the situation without resort to force.
a tourist resort
a seaside/beach resort
a mountain resort
a lakeside resort
a holiday resort
a ski resort
a health resort
a popular resort
a lively resort
a bustling resort
a fashionable resort
a tourist resort There are plans to turn the town into a tourist resort.
a seaside/beach resort We stayed in a relaxed beach resort on the east coast.
a mountain resort mountain resorts in Colorado
a lakeside resort the popular lakeside resort of Lake Como
a holiday resort Benidorm is a terrific holiday resort.
a ski resort The lack of snow is causing problems for ski resorts.
a health resort We booked ourselves into a health resort for a weekend of pure indulgence.
a popular resort The popular seaside resort of Brighton is 40 minutes away.
a lively resort It is a lively resort with plenty of bars and cafés.
a bustling resort (= lively and full of people) The hotel is right in the middle of this bustling resort.
a fashionable resort Hastings was a once fashionable resort.
a resort town/area/centre
a resort hotel
a resort complex
a resort town/area/centre They're only a five minute stroll away from the main resort centre with all its bars, restaurants and nightlife.
a resort hotel There are plans for a major resort hotel and golf course to be built.
a resort complex (= a group of buildings, or a large building with many parts) Club Hotel is part of a resort complex offering a range of facilities.
resort to something phrasal verb
resort to doing something
resort to something phrasal verb
to do something bad, extreme, or difficult because you cannot think of any other way to deal with a problem:
Officials fear that extremists may resort to violence.
resort to doing something
Vets have had to resort to killing the animals.
labor verb [intransitive]
1 to work hard: کارگری کردن، زحمت زیاد کشیدن
They labored all day in the mills.
I’ve been laboring over this report all morning.
labor to do something
Ray had little talent but labored to acquire the skills of a writer.
2 labor under a delusion/misconception/misapprehension etc. to believe something that is not true:
She had labored under the misconception that Bella liked her.
3 labor the point to describe or explain something in too much detail or when people have already understood it
4 [always + adverb/preposition] to move slowly and with difficulty:
I could see the bus laboring up the steep, windy road.
ear‧nest 1 / ˈɜːnəst, ˈɜːnɪst $ ˈɜːr- / adjective
— earnestly adverb:
earnestly discussing politics
— earnestness noun [uncountable]
very serious and sincere: جدی، مشتاق
a rather earnest young man
Matthews was in earnest conversation with a young girl.
an earnest desire to offer something useful to society
earnest expression/look/voice etc.
earnest attempt/effort etc.
somber / ˈsɒmbə $ ˈsɑːmbər / written
serious not joking or laughing, or not pretending:
His voice sounded serious. | They seem to be serious about their relationship.
solemn very serious because of an important or sad occasion or ceremony:
My father looked solemn, the way grown-ups look at funerals. | The judge read the verdict in a solemn voice.
grave written quiet and very serious – used especially about the way people look when something important or worrying happens: جدی
She consulted Doctor Staples and returned looking grave. | He listened with a grave expression on his face.
somber / ˈsɒmbə $ ˈsɑːmbər / written sad, quiet, or serious because something unpleasant or worrying has happened or is going to happen: غم انگیز
They sat in somber silence. | The meeting began in a somber mood.
earnest very serious and sincere – often used about someone who is young and not very experienced:
He was a rather earnest-looking young man.
seed‧ling / ˈsiːdlɪŋ / noun [countable]
a young plant or tree grown from a seed جوانه