400Word_8 Flashcards Preview

1000 words > 400Word_8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 400Word_8 Deck (99):
1

premium 1 / ˈpriːmiəm / noun

1 [countable] the cost of insurance, especially the amount that you pay each year: حق بیمه

insurance premiums

2 [countable] an additional amount of money, above a standard rate or amount: 

Consumers are prepared to pay a premium for organically grown vegetables.

Top quality cigars are being sold at a premium.

3 be at a premium if something is at a premium, people need it or want it, but there is little of it available or it is difficult to get:کمبود چیزی بودن

During the Olympic Games, accommodation will be at a premium.

space/time is at a premium

Foldaway furniture is the answer where space is at a premium.

4 put/place a premium on something to consider one quality or type of thing as being much more important than others: اولویت به کاری دادن

Modern economies place a premium on educated workers.

5 [uncountable] especially American English good quality petrol 

2

payment 

installment 

deposit (also down payment) 

subscription

tip 

premium 

payment an amount of money that you pay for something, especially when it is only one part of the total amount you have to pay:

They have a monthly car payment of £220.

installment a regular payment you make to pay back money that you have borrowed or to pay for things that you have already received:

I borrowed $2,000, which was to be paid back in monthly installments of $250.

deposit (also down payment) part of the cost of something that you pay before you get it, so that it will not be sold to anyone else:

They used the money they inherited as a down payment on a house. | The hotel asks for a $20 deposit to reserve a room.

subscription an amount of money you pay, usually once a year, to receive copies of a newspaper or magazine:

A subscription to the magazine is $52 a year.

tip a small amount of money that you give someone, for example a waitress or taxi driver, in addition to paying for a service they have given you:

I usually leave a 10% tip.

premium the amount you pay for insurance each year:

your monthly life insurance premiums 

3

vicious / ˈvɪʃəs / adjective

viciously adverb:

He twisted her arm viciously.

viciousness noun [uncountable] 

1 violent and cruel in a way that hurts someone physically: وحشیانه

a vicious murder

a vicious killer

Keep away from that dog, he can be vicious.

2 very unkind in a way that is intended to hurt someone’s feelings or make their character seem bad SYN malicious: بد ذات، از روی بدخواهی

Sarah can be quite vicious at times.

a vicious personal attack on the Duchess (بانوی دوک)

She was shocked by the vicious tone in his voice.

3 unpleasantly strong or severe SYN violent: خیلی شدید

a vicious gust (تند باد) of wind

a vicious headache

4

ˌvicious ˈcircle (also ˌvicious ˈcycle) noun [singular]

a situation in which one problem causes another problem, that then causes the first problem again, so that the whole process continues to be repeated سیکل معیوب

5

smallholding / ˈsmɔːlˌhəʊldɪŋ $ ˈsmɒːlˌhoʊld- / noun [countable]

a piece of land used for farming, that is smaller than an ordinary farm 

6

farm 

ranch 

smallholding 

plantation 

homestead

spread American English informal 

market garden 

orchard 

agriculture

arable adjective 

farm an area of land, used for growing crops or keeping animals:

a 300-hectare farm | a dairy farm | a sheep farm

ranch a very large farm in the western US, Canada, or South America where sheep, cattle, or horses are bred:

a cattle ranch in Wyoming

smallholding a piece of land used for farming, that is smaller than an ordinary farm:

a smallholding used for organic farming

plantation a large area of land in a hot country, where crops such as tea, cotton, and sugar are grown:

a rubber plantation | a tea plantation

homestead a piece of land for farming that was given to people in the past by the US and Canadian governments:

He still farms on the family homestead, a hundred years after his grandfather received it.

spread American English informal an area of land used for farming or ranching:

They have a pretty big spread just south of the Canadian border.

market garden an area of land, often with greenhouses on it, used for growing vegetables and fruit:

He runs his own market garden, and sells his produce to the big supermarkets.

orchard an area of land with trees, used for growing fruit:

an apple orchard | cherry orchards

agriculture the practice of farming:

More than 75% of the land is used for agriculture.

arable adjective relating to growing crops:

a lack of arable land 

7

uphold / ʌpˈhəʊld $ -ˈhoʊld / verb (past tense and past participle upheld / -ˈheld /) [transitive]

upholder noun [countable] 

حمایت کردن

1 to defend or support a law, system, or principle so that it continues to exist:

a committee that aims to uphold educational standards

2 if a court upholds a decision made by another court, it states that the decision was correct OPP overrule: تایید کردن

The conviction was upheld by the Court of Appeal.

8

confront / kənˈfrʌnt / verb [transitive]

1 if a problem, difficulty etc. confronts you, it appears and needs to be dealt with: روبرو شدن با

The problems confronting the new government were enormous.

be confronted with something

Customers are confronted with a bewildering amount of choice.

2 to deal with something very difficult or unpleasant in a brave and determined way:

We try to help people confront their problems.

3 to face someone in a threatening way, as though you are going to attack them:

Troops were confronted by an angry mob.

4 to accuse someone of doing something, especially by showing them the proof متهم کردن کسی

confront somebody with/about something

I confronted him with my suspicions, and he admitted everything.

I haven’t confronted her about it yet. 

9

bewildering / bɪˈwɪld ə rɪŋ / adjective

bewilderingly adverb:

The details are bewilderingly complex. 

confusing, especially because there are too many choices or things happening at the same time گیج کننده

a bewildering variety/array/range a bewildering variety of choices

10

confusing 

puzzling (also perplexing formal) 

baffling 

bewildering 

confusing unclear and difficult to understand:

a confusing message | The road signs were very confusing and we ended up getting lost.

puzzling (also perplexing formal) confusing, especially because something is different from what you expect:

Jan's decision not to take part in the race was very puzzling. | It was the trivial details which he found so perplexing.

baffling extremely difficult to understand even though you have tried for a long time:

Police are close to solving one of Australia's most baffling murder cases. | The failure was baffling, given the success of his previous businesses.

bewildering very confusing, especially because something is strange or new, or because there are a lot of different things:

Brain diseases can cause many bewildering changes in a person's emotions and behaviour. | There is a bewildering number of mobile phone deals on offer. 

11

manuscript / ˈmænjəskrɪpt, ˈmænjʊskrɪpt / noun [countable]

1 a book or piece of writing before it is printed دست نوشته

in manuscript

I read his novel in manuscript.

Unfortunately, parts of the original manuscript have been lost.

2 a book or document written by hand before printing was invented:

a fine collection of medieval manuscripts نسخه خطی

12

lyre / laɪə $ laɪr / noun [countable]

a musical instrument with strings across a U-shaped frame, played with the fingers, especially in ancient Greece 

13

revive / rɪˈvaɪv / verb

1 [transitive] to bring something back after it has not been used or has not existed for a period of time: دوباره رواج دادن، احیا کردن

Local people have decided to revive this centuries-old tradition.

2 [intransitive and transitive] to become healthy and strong again, or to make someone or something healthy and strong again → recover: جون گرفتن

The economy is beginning to revive.

an attempt to revive the steel industry

The doctors revived her with injections of glucose.

3 [transitive] to produce a play again after it has not been performed for a long time:

A London theatre has decided to revive the 1950s musical ‘In Town’. 

14

libretto / lɪˈbretəʊ $ -toʊ / noun (plural librettos) [countable] 

the words of an opera or musical play 

15

baroque 1 / bəˈrɒk, bəˈrəʊk $ bəˈroʊk, -ˈrɑːk / adjective

relating to the very decorated style of art, music, buildings etc, that was common in Europe in the 17th and early 18th centuries:

furnished in a baroque style

baroque music/architecture/paintings etc. 

16

acquiesce / ˌækwiˈes / verb [intransitive]

formal to do what someone else wants, or allow something to happen, even though you do not really agree with it کاری که دوست نداری رو بکنی

acquiesce in/to

Oil companies have been accused of acquiescing in the pollution of the ocean. 

17

succession AC / səkˈseʃ ə n / noun

1 in succession به ترتیب

happening one after the other without anything different happening in between:

She won the championship four times in succession.

in quick/rapid/close succession (= quickly one after the other)

He fired two shots in quick succession.

2 a succession of something a number of people or things of the same kind, following, coming, or happening one after the other SYN stream: یه تعدادی از 

A succession of visitors came to the door.

3 [uncountable] the act of taking over an official job or position, or the right to be the next to take it جانشین

If the prince dies, the succession passes to his son.

succession to

the queen’s succession to the throne 

18

aria / ˈɑːriə / noun [countable]

a song that is sung by only one person in an opera or oratorio 

19

recitative / ˌresətəˈtiːv, ˌresɪtəˈtiːv / noun [uncountable and countable] technical

a speech set to music that is sung by one person and continues the story of an opera (= musical play) between the songs 

20

duet 1 / djuˈet $ duˈet / noun [countable]

a piece of music for two singers or players → quartet, solo, trio 

21

pair 

a couple (of something) 

couple noun [countable] 

twins noun [plural] 

duo noun [countable] 

duet noun [countable]

twice 

pair two things of the same type that you use together. Also used about two people who do something together or who you often see together:

a pair of shoes | a pair of socks | Winners will receive a pair of tickets for the show. | The pair were arrested six days after the killing. | They're a funny pair! | The British pair will be playing in the final on Saturday.

a couple (of something) two things of the same type, or a very small number of things:

There were a couple of empty seats at the table. | Do you have any stamps? I just need a couple.

couple noun [countable] two people who are married or having a sexual relationship:

a married couple | The couple met at university.

twins noun [plural] two children who were born on the same day to the same mother:

The twins look very alike. | identical twins

duo noun [countable] two people who perform together or who are often seen together:

a comedy duo

duet noun [countable] a piece of music written for two people to play:

They played a duet by Brahms.

twice two times adverb:

The group meets twice a week. | She sneezed twice. 

22

recitation / ˌresəˈteɪʃ ə n, ˌresɪˈteɪʃ ə n / noun [uncountable and countable]

1 an act of saying a poem, piece of literature etc. that you have learned, for people to listen to: از برخونی

recitations from the great poets

2 a spoken description of an event or a series of events 

recitation of

He went into a recitation of his life from the earliest years. 

23

sunspot / ˈsʌnspɒt $ -spɑːt / noun [countable] technical

a small dark area on the sun’s surface 

24

penumbra / pəˈnʌmbrə, pɪˈnʌmbrə / noun [countable]

technical

an area of slight darkness 

25

monetary / ˈmʌnət ə ri, ˈmʌnɪt ə ri $ ˈmɑːnəteri / adjective [only before noun]

relating to money, especially all the money in a particular country:

the government’s tight monetary policy

objects of little monetary value 

26

financial 

economic 

fiscal [only before noun] formal 

monetary [only before noun] formal 

budgetary [only before noun] formal 

financial relating to money or the management of money:

businesses that provide personal financial services | the financial problems of old age

economic relating to the money of a country, area, or society, and the way it is earned, spent, and controlled:

American voters were anxious for a change in economic policy. | an economic crisis

fiscal [only before noun] formal relating to the money, debts, tax etc. that are owned and managed by the government: مالی

fiscal control | The Indian government is trying to reduce the fiscal deficit.

monetary [only before noun] formal relating to money, especially all the money in a country, and how it is managed:

The Bank of Thailand has retained a tight monetary policy. | the European Monetary System

budgetary [only before noun] formal relating to the official plan of how the money of a country or organization is spent: مربوط به بودجه

City officials are facing tough budgetary decisions. | the process of budgetary control 

27

allocation AC / ˌæləˈkeɪʃ ə n / noun

1 [countable] the amount or share of something that has been allocated for a particular purpose: تخصیص

Twelve hours a week seemed a generous allocation of your time.

2 [uncountable] the decision to allocate something, or the act of allocating it

allocation of اختصاص چیزی

the allocation of funds to universities 

28

partisan 1 / ˌpɑːtəˈzæn, ˌpɑːtɪˈzæn $ ˈpɑːrtəz ə n, -s ə n / adjective

1 strongly supporting a particular political party, plan, or leader, usually without considering the other choices carefully: طرفدار

British newspapers are highly partisan.

2 relating to the fighting of an armed group against an enemy that has taken control of its country: پاتیزانی، چریکی

the nature of partisan warfare 

29

stray 1 / streɪ / verb [intransitive]

1 to move away from the place you should be 

stray into/onto/from

Three of the soldiers strayed into enemy territory.

2 to begin to deal with or think about a different subject from the main one, without intending to

stray into/onto/from

We’re straying into ethnic issues here.

This meeting is beginning to stray from the point.

3 if your eyes stray, you begin to look at something else, usually without intending to

stray to/back/over etc.

Her eyes strayed to the clock.

4 to start doing something that is wrong or immoral, when usually you do not do this 

30

bandmaster / ˈbændˌmɑːstə $ -ˌmæstər / noun [countable]

someone who conducts a military band, brass band etc.  رهبر اکستر

31

insinuate / ɪnˈsɪnjueɪt / verb [transitive]

1 to say something which seems to mean something unpleasant without saying it openly, especially suggesting that someone is being dishonest SYN imply اشاره کردن

insinuate that

Are you insinuating that the money was stolen?

What are you trying to insinuate?

2 formal to gradually gain someone’s love, trust etc. by pretending to be friendly and sincere: جلب نظر یا عشق کسی کردن

He managed to insinuate his way into her affections.

insinuate yourself into something

He insinuated himself into Mehmet’s confidence.

3 formal to move yourself or a part of your body into a place: خودت رو به محلی بکشونی

a large cat insinuated itself through the gap 

32

reconcile / ˈrekənsaɪl / verb

1 [transitive] if you reconcile two ideas, situations, or facts, you find a way in which they can both be true or acceptable: مصالحه و آشتی کردن

The possibility remains that the two theories may be reconciled.

reconcile something with something

Bevan tried to reconcile British socialism with a wider international vision.

2 be reconciled (with somebody) to have a good relationship again with someone after you have quarrelled with them:

Jonah and his youngest son were, on the surface at least, reconciled.

Register

In everyday English, people usually say that two people make up rather than saying that they are reconciled:

They had a fight, but they seem to have made up now.

reconcile somebody to something phrasal verb

to make someone able to accept a difficult or unpleasant situation:

He tried to reconcile his father to the idea of the wedding.

reconcile yourself to something

Henry had more or less reconciled himself to Don’s death. 

33

dissonance / ˈdɪsənəns / noun

dissonant adjective 

1 [uncountable and countable] technical a combination of notes that sound strange because they are not in harmony OPP consonance

2 [uncountable] formal lack of agreement

34

laudatory / ˈlɔːdət ə ri $ ˈlɒːdətɔːri / adjective formal

expressing praise: تحسین و تمجید کننده

a laudatory biography 

35

proclaim / prəˈkleɪm $ proʊ- / verb [transitive] formal

1 to say publicly or officially that something important is true or exists اعلام کردن proclamation: اعلامیه

The President proclaimed the republic’s independence.

proclaim that

Protesters proclaimed that the girl was innocent.

proclaim somebody something

His son was immediately proclaimed King.

2 to show something clearly or be a sign of something:

The stripes on her uniform proclaimed her seniority. 

36

provision 1 S3 W1 / prəˈvɪʒ ə n / noun

1 [countable usually singular, uncountable] when you provide something that someone needs now or in the future 

provision of تدارک چیزی

the provision of childcare facilities

provision for

provision for people with disabilities

He made provisions for his wife and his children in his will.

2 provisions [plural] food, drink, and other supplies, especially for a journey: خواربار و خوراکی راه

We had enough provisions for two weeks.

3 [countable] a condition in an agreement or law: شرایط قانونی

The agreement includes a provision for each side to check the other side’s weapons.

under the provisions of something

Under the provisions of the Act, employers must supply safety equipment. 

37

subsistence / səbˈsɪst ə ns / noun [uncountable]

1 the condition of only just having enough money or food to stay alive: حداقل امکانات زندگی

Many of the families are forced to live at the subsistence level.

The land provided subsistence and little more.

2 subsistence farming/agriculture etc. farming that produces just enough food for the farmer to live on, but does not produce enough food to sell to other people

3 subsistence allowance/payment etc. money that is paid to someone so that they can buy meals, pay for a place to stay etc. 

38

fare 2 verb

fare well/badly/better etc. to be successful, unsuccessful etc: یه چیزی بودن

Although Chicago has fared better than some cities, unemployment remains a problem.

He wondered how Ed had fared in the interview. 

39

herd 2 verb

1 [transitive always + adverb/preposition] to bring people together in a large group, especially roughly: جمع کردن آدمها با خشونت

The prisoners were herded together.

I don’t want to be herded around with a lot of tourists.

herd somebody into something

The visitors were herded into two large halls.

2 [transitive] to make animals move together in a group:

It was Tom’s duty to herd the cows.

3 something is like herding cats used to say that trying to control or organize a group of people is very difficult 

40

graze 1 / ɡreɪz / verb

1 [intransitive and transitive] if an animal grazes, or if you graze it, it eats grass that is growing چراندن، چریدن

graze on

Groups of cattle were grazing on the rich grass.

fields where they used to graze their sheep

2 [transitive] to accidentally break the surface of your skin by rubbing it against something: خراشیدن پوست

I fell on the gravel, severely grazing my knee.

3 [transitive] to touch something lightly while passing it, sometimes damaging it:

A bullet grazed his arm.

4 [intransitive] informal to eat small amounts of food all through the day instead of having regular meals 

41

gestation / dʒeˈsteɪʃ ə n / noun [singular, uncountable]

1 medical the process by which a child or young animal develops inside its mother’s body before birth, or the period of time when this happens بارداری

The gestation period of a horse is about 11 months.

2 formal the process by which a new idea, piece of work etc. is developed, or the period of time when this happens SYN development

in gestation

The report was a very long time in gestation. 

42

marsupial / mɑːˈsuːpiəl $ mɑːr- / noun [countable]

marsupial adjective 

an animal such as a kangaroo which carries its babies in a pocket of skin on its body جانوران کیسه دار

43

nocturnal / nɒkˈtɜːnl $ nɑːkˈtɜːr- / adjective

1 an animal that is nocturnal is active at night: شبانه

Hamsters are nocturnal creatures.

2 formal happening at night:

Rebecca paid a nocturnal visit to the flat. 

44

geyser / ˈɡiːzə $ ˈɡaɪzər / noun [countable]

1 a natural spring that sends hot water and steam suddenly into the air from a hole in the ground چشمه آب گرم

45

rehearsal / rɪˈhɜːs ə l $ -ɜːr- / noun

1 [uncountable and countable] a time when all the people in a play, concert etc. practise before a public performance تمرین نمایش

rehearsal for/of

a rehearsal for ‘Romeo and Juliet’

in rehearsal

The dialogue was worked out by actors in rehearsal.

→ dress rehearsal

2 [countable] a time when all the people involved in a big event practise it together before it happens:

a wedding rehearsal 

46

paleontology (/ ˌpæliɒnˈtɒlədʒi, ˌpeɪ- $ ˌpeɪliɑːnˈtɑː / noun [uncountable]

paleontologist noun [countable] 

the study of fossils (= ancient bones, plants etc. that have been preserved in rock) دیرینه شناس

47

speculation / ˌspekjəˈleɪʃ ə n, ˌspekjʊˈleɪʃ ə n / noun [uncountable and countable]

1 when you guess about the possible causes or effects of something without knowing all the facts, or the guesses that you make خیال و حدس

speculation that

There is speculation that the president is ill.

speculation about/on

speculation about the future

The witness’s statement was pure speculation (= not based on any knowledge).

wild/idle speculation (= speculation that is unlikely to be true)

2 when you try to make a large profit by buying goods, property, shares etc. and then selling them: زمین خواری

property speculation 

48

pure/mere speculation 

wild/idle speculation 

intense speculation 

widespread speculation 

renewed speculation 

press/media speculation 

pure/mere speculation (= not based on any knowledge) A government official yesterday dismissed the reports as ‘pure speculation’.

wild/idle speculation (= unlikely to be true) Such fears are wild speculation.

intense speculation The reason for his resignation was the subject of intense speculation.

widespread speculation There was widespread speculation about his political plans.

renewed speculation The move has prompted renewed speculation that an election will be held in April.

press/media speculation She appealed for an end to press speculation about her marriage. 

49

lead to/prompt/give rise to speculation 

fuel speculation 

dismiss speculation

end speculation 

lead to/prompt/give rise to speculation (= result in it) This development led to speculation that she was about to resign.

fuel speculation (= make it increase) The announcement has fueled speculation that the company will be the target of a takeover bid.

dismiss speculation (= say that it is not true) He dismissed speculation that he might run for president.

end speculation Smith has ended speculation about his future by signing a new contract. 

50

be a matter for speculation 

be the subject of speculation 

be a matter for speculation (= be unknown) The precise nature of the deal is a matter for speculation.

be the subject of speculation (= be thought and guessed about) His role in the affair has been the subject of speculation in the press. 

51

rumor noun [uncountable and countable]

speculation noun [uncountable] 

gossip noun [uncountable]

talk noun [uncountable] 

hearsay noun [uncountable] 

rumor noun [uncountable and countable] information or a story that is passed from one person to another and which may or may not be true:

The band denied the rumors that they may be splitting up. | The truth finally came out after months of rumor. | I've heard rumors about a ghost in the building.

speculation noun [uncountable] a situation in which a lot of people are talking about something that is happening, especially something that is happening in politics or public life, and trying to guess what the truth is:

There was a great deal of speculation about a possible merger involving Belgium’s largest banks. | The report fuelled speculation (= caused more speculation) that he was about to resign. | His future as a player has been the subject of intense speculation.

gossip noun [uncountable] things that people say about what they think has happened in other people's private lives, which is usually not true:

She tells me all the latest gossip from the office. | The magazine was full of gossip about celebrities. | You shouldn't believe every piece of gossip you hear.

talk noun [uncountable] something that people talk about a lot but which is not official:

The government has dismissed talk of a military strike on the country. | There's been a lot of talk of him resigning.

hearsay noun [uncountable] something that you have heard from someone else, but cannot prove whether it is true or untrue – often used in legal contexts:

All the accounts were based on hearsay rather than eye-witness reports. | hearsay evidence 

52

instigate / ˈɪnstəɡeɪt, ˈɪnstɪɡeɪt / verb [transitive]

instigator noun [countable] 

1 to make a process start, especially one relating to law or politics: شروع کردن

Charles instigated a program of reforms.

2 to persuade someone to do something bad or violent: تحریک کردن

He accused union leaders of instigating the disturbances.

53

geology / dʒiˈɒlədʒi $ -ˈɑːlə- / noun [uncountable]

geologist noun [countable]

geological / ˌdʒiːəˈlɒdʒɪk ə l◂ $ -ˈlɑː- / adjective

geologically / -kli / adverb 

the study of the rocks, soil etc. that make up the Earth, and of the way they have changed since the Earth was formed زمین شناسی

54

Pliocene / ˈplaɪəsiːn / adjective

belonging to the period in the Earth’s history that started about five million years ago and continued until about three million years ago 

55

Bering Strait, the / ˌbe ə rɪŋ ˈstreɪt /

a narrow passage of water between Asia and North America that connects the Bering Sea to the Arctic Ocean 

56

draft adjective [only before noun]

1 draft beer is served from a large container rather than a bottle 

2 a draft animal is used for pulling heavy loads 

57

dawn 2 verb [intransitive]

1 if day or morning dawns, it begins: سپیده دم

The morning dawned fresh and clear after the storm.

2 if a period of time or situation dawns, it begins:

The age of Darwin had dawned.

3 if a feeling or idea dawns, you have it for the first time:

It began to dawn that something was wrong.

dawn on somebody phrasal verb

if a fact dawns on you, you realize it for the first time:

The ghastly truth dawned on me.

It dawned on me that Jo had been right all along. 

58

interbreed / ˌɪntəˈbriːd $ -ər- / verb (past tense and past participle interbred / -ˈbred /) [intransitive + with, transitive]

to produce young animals from parents of different breeds or groups اصلاح نژاد کردن

crossbreed, inbreeding 

59

Antarctica / ænˈtɑːktɪkə $ -ɑːr- /

the continent which is the most southern area of land on the Earth and is mostly covered with ice. قطب جنوب

→ South Pole 

60

ordinance / ˈɔːdənəns, ˈɔːdɪnəns $ ˈɔːrd ə nəns / noun [countable]

1 American English a law, usually of a city or town, that forbids or restricts an activity: فرمان منع چیزی

a city ordinance that says parks must be closed at 11 p.m.

2 an order given by a ruler or governing organization:

a Royal ordinance 

61

rule 

law 

regulation 

restriction 

guidelines

code 

statute formal 

ordinance American English 

rule an instruction that says what people are allowed to do or not allowed to do, for example in a game, school, or company:

the rules of baseball | He disobeyed the school rules.

law an official rule that everyone in a country, city, or state must obey:

It is against the law to carry a concealed weapon. | The law requires motorcyclists to wear helmets.

regulation an official rule or order, which is part of a set of rules made by a government or organization:

the regulations for applying for a passport | building regulations | environmental regulations on air pollution

restriction an official rule that limits what people can do:

new restrictions on immigration | The government is planning to impose regulations on the amount of alcohol you can bring into the country.

guidelines rules or instructions about the best way to do something:

the Department of Health’s guidelines for a healthy diet | guidelines for classroom teachers

code a set of rules that people or organizations agree to obey but are not forced to obey:

The school has a dress code for its students. | the company’s code of conduct

statute formal a law that has been officially approved by a parliament, council etc, and written down:

The statute banned corporal punishment.

ordinance American English a law, made by a city or town, that forbids or restricts an activity:

A local ordinance limited speed in the parks to ten miles an hour. 

62

biome / ˈbaɪəʊm $ -oʊm / noun [countable] technical

a type of environment that is described according to the typical weather conditions and plants that exist there 

63

horticulture / ˈhɔːtəˌkʌltʃə, ˈhɔːtɪˌkʌltʃə $ ˈhɔːrtəˌkʌltʃər / noun [uncountable]

horticultural / ˌhɔːtəˈkʌltʃərəl◂, ˌhɔːtɪˈkʌltʃərəl◂ $ ˌhɔːr- / adjective

horticulturalist noun [countable] 

the practice or science of growing flowers, fruit, and vegetables خود باغبانی و علم باغبانی

64

agrarian / əˈɡreəriən $ əˈɡrer- / adjective [usually before noun]

relating to farming or farmers: کشاورزی

an agrarian economy (= based on farming)

65

plow  / plaʊ / noun [countable]

1 a piece of farm equipment used to turn over the earth so that seeds can be planted گاو آهن - چه قدیمی و چه صنعتی

66

archaic / ɑːˈkeɪ-ɪk $ ɑːr- / adjective

1 old and no longer used SYN outdated قدیمی و کهنه

OPP modern:

archaic words

2 old-fashioned and needing to be replaced:

Many smaller radio stations broadcast on archaic equipment.

3 from or relating to ancient times SYN ancient: باستانی

archaic civilizations 

67

broke 2 adjective [not before noun]

1 having no money: ورشکسته

I’m fed up with being broke all the time.

flat/stony broke (= completely broke)

2 go broke if a company or business goes broke, it can no longer operate because it has no money:

A lot of small businesses went broke in the recession.

3 go for broke informal to take big risks when you try to achieve something:

At 2–0 down with ten minutes left, you have to go for broke.

4 if it ain't broke, don't fix it informal used to say that you should not try to improve a system, situation etc. that is satisfactory 

68

ambition W3 / æmˈbɪʃ ə n / noun

1 [countable] a strong desire to achieve something آرزو

an ambition to do something

She had always had an ambition to be a pilot.

sb’s ambitions of doing something

An injury ended his ambitions of becoming a professional footballer.

2 [uncountable] determination to be successful, rich, powerful etc: بلند همتی

He was young and full of ambition.

3 have no ambition to do something used when saying that you definitely do not want to do something:

I have no ambition to go back there again. 

69

sb’s ambition is to be/do something 

have an ambition 

achieve/fulfil/realize your ambition

lack ambition/have no ambition 

nurse/harbour/cherish an ambition 

frustrate/thwart sb’s ambitions formal 

sb’s ambition is to be/do something

My ambition was to be a journalist.

have an ambition

He had an ambition to be a top cello player.

achieve/fulfil/realize your ambition (= do what you wanted to do)

It took her ten years to achieve her ambition. | He was prepared to go to any lengths to fulfil his ambition. | I want to thank all those who made it possible for me to realize a lifetime 's ambition.

lack ambition/have no ambition

Many of the students lack ambition.

nurse/harbour/cherish an ambition (= have it for a long time, especially secretly)

He had nursed an ambition to become a writer for many years.

frustrate/thwart sb’s ambitions formal (= prevent someone from achieving them)

The weather threatened to frustrate their ambitions. | Her lifelong ambitions had been thwarted again and again. 

70

sb’s main ambition 

sb’s great ambition 

a lifelong/long-held ambition 

a personal ambition 

a secret ambition 

a burning/driving ambition 

career ambitions 

political/presidential ambitions 

sb’s main ambition What’s your main ambition in life?

sb’s great ambition He didn’t achieve his greatest ambition – to be Wimbledon Champion.

a lifelong/long-held ambition (= one that you have had all your life) It’s been her lifelong ambition to work with horses.

a personal ambition Crossing the Sahara was a personal ambition of mine.

a secret ambition His secret ambition was to become a pilot.

a burning/driving ambition (= a very strong ambition) She had a burning ambition to become a racing car driver.

career ambitions The course is designed to help you achieve your career ambitions.

political/presidential ambitions His political ambitions were put on hold while he waited for a suitable opportunity. 

71

sb’s dreams and ambitions 

sb’s lack of ambition 

be full of ambition 

sb’s dreams and ambitions He told her all about his dreams and ambitions.

sb’s lack of ambition I was frustrated by their apparent lack of ambition.

be full of ambition She was full of ambition when she joined the company. 

72

deception / dɪˈsepʃ ə n / noun [uncountable and countable]

the act of deliberately making someone believe something that is not true → deceive: فریب و نیرنگ

She didn’t have the courage to admit to her deception.

He was convicted of obtaining money by deception.

73

elaborate 1 / ɪˈlæb ə rət, ɪˈlæb ə rɪt / adjective

elaborately adverb:

an elaborately carved wooden statue 

1 having a lot of small parts or details put together in a complicated way SYN intricate: دارای جزییات زیاد

pure silks embroidered with elaborate patterns

2 carefully planned and organized in great detail SYN complex: خیلی حرفه ای و برنامه ریزی شده

a very elaborate telecommunications network

74

complicated

complex 

elaborate 

involved 

convoluted

intricate 

complicated consisting of a lot of different parts or details and therefore difficult to understand:

The rules of the game seemed very complicated. | I didn’t realize programming the VCR would be so complicated. | The brain is like a very powerful, very complicated computer. | a complicated issue

complex a complex process, relationship etc. is difficult to understand because it has a lot of parts that are all connected in different ways:

The chemical processes involved are extremely complex. | the complex relationship between government and the media

elaborate having a lot of parts or details and very carefully planned, but often more complicated than is necessary:

Mike had worked out an elaborate system for categorizing his collection of DVDs. | The plan to kidnap her had become even more elaborate. | Sociologists have been coming up with increasingly elaborate theories to explain unsafe sexual practices.

involved very long and complicated – use this especially about something that you think should be made simpler:

The system for choosing candidates is very involved, and I won’t go into it here. | Adopting a child can be a long involved process.

convoluted too complicated and difficult to understand – used especially about someone’s language or arguments, or about a system:

convoluted sentences | Procedures for government funding have become more convoluted. | James’s books are full of long paragraphs and convoluted sentences, which many people do not find appealing.

intricate having a lot of small parts or details – used especially about something that is cleverly designed or made:

Lasers are used to cut intricate designs in the metal. | The farmers use an intricate system of drainage canals. | the intricate workings of a watch | intricate patterns of coloured marble 

75

attribute 1 AC / əˈtrɪbjuːt $ -bjət / verb

attribution / ˌætrəˈbjuːʃ ə n, ˌætrɪˈbjuːʃ ə n / noun [uncountable] 

attribute something to somebody/something phrasal verb نسبت دادن

1 to believe or say that a situation or event is caused by something:

The fall in the number of deaths from heart disease is generally attributed to improvements in diet.

2 if people in general attribute a particular statement, painting, piece of music etc. to someone, they believe that person said it, painted it etc:

a saying usually attributed to Confucius

3 to believe or say that someone or something has a particular quality:

One should not attribute human motives to animals.

76

trample=tromp (US) / ˈtræmp ə l / verb [intransitive always + adverb/preposition, transitive]

1 to step heavily on something, so that you crush it with your feet پایمال کردن، زیر پا لگد مال کردن

trample on/over/through etc.

There was a small fence to stop people trampling on the flowers.

trample somebody/something underfoot

The children were in danger of being trampled underfoot in the crowd.

trample somebody to death (= kill someone by stepping heavily on them)

Several people were nearly trampled to death in the rush to get out.

2 to behave in a way that shows that you do not care about someone’s rights or feelings

trample on/over somebody/something

Don’t let people trample all over you.

Their interests and rights had been trampled underfoot. 

77

plank / plæŋk / noun [countable]

1 a long narrow piece of wooden board, used especially for making structures to walk on: تخته چوب که زمین رو باهاش فرش میکنند

a long plank of wood

a bridge made of planks

2 one of the main features or principles of an argument etc. قسمتی از بحث یا چیزهای دیگه مثل سیاست 

plank of an argument/policy/campaign etc.

the main plank of their argument

a central plank of our policy

a five-plank campaign including raising the minimum wage

78

intricate / ˈɪntrɪkət, ˈɪntrɪkɪt / adjective

intricately adverb:

intricately woven fabric 

containing many small parts or details that all work or fit together 

intricate patterns

79

strikingly / ˈstraɪkɪŋli / adverb

1 in a way that is very easy to notice کاملاً

strikingly similar/different

The two experiments produced strikingly different results.

2 used to emphasize that someone or something is beautiful in a way that is easy to notice:

one of the most strikingly attractive regions in Britain 

80

fractal / ˈfrækt ə l / noun [countable] technical

a pattern, usually produced by a computer, that is made by repeating the same shape many times in smaller and smaller sizes فراکتال

81

geometric / ˌdʒiːəˈmetrɪk◂ / (also geometrical / -trɪk ə l /) adjective

geometrically / -kli / adverb 

1 having or using the shapes and lines in geometry, such as circles or squares, especially when these are arranged in regular patterns: هندسی

a geometric design

2 relating to geometry

82

Euclid / ˈjuːklɪd /

(about 300 BC) a Greek mathematician who developed a system of geometry (= the study of the angles, shapes, lines etc. and their relationships with each other) called Euclidean geometry اقلیدس

83

theorem / ˈθɪərəm $ ˈθiːə- / noun [countable] technical

a statement, especially in mathematics, that you can prove by showing that it has been correctly developed from facts قضیه

84

allude / əˈluːd / verb

allude to somebody/something phrasal verb

formal to mention something or someone indirectly:  اشاره کردن

Rick didn’t want to discuss his past, though he alluded darkly to ‘some bad things that happened.’ 

85

equilateral triangle / ˌiːkwəlæt ə rəl ˈtraɪæŋɡ ə l, ˌiːkwɪlæt ə rəl ˈtraɪæŋɡ ə l / noun [countable] technical

a triangle whose three sides are all the same length متساوی الاضلاع

86

node / nəʊd $ noʊd / noun [countable] technical

1 the place on the stem of a plant from which a leaf or branch grows

2 a place where lines in a network cross or join

3 a part of a computer network where messages can be received or sent

4 a lymph node 

87

ripen / ˈraɪpən / verb [intransitive and transitive]

to become ripe or to make something ripe: رسیده شدن

The apples were ripening on the trees. 

88

consistent S3 W3 AC / kənˈsɪst ə nt / adjective

consistently adverb:

consistently high performance 

1 always behaving in the same way or having the same attitudes, standards etc. – usually used to show approval استوار و ثابت قدم

OPP inconsistent:

She’s the team’s most consistent player.

consistent in

We need to be consistent in our approach.

2 continuing to happen or develop in the same way:

a consistent improvement in the country’s economy

3 a consistent argument or idea does not have any parts that do not match other parts OPP inconsistent:

The evidence is not consistent.

4 be consistent with something if a fact, idea etc. is consistent with another one, it seems to match it:

Her injuries are consistent with having fallen from the building.

The results are consistent with earlier research.

89

elude / ɪˈluːd / verb [transitive]

1 to escape from someone or something, especially by tricking them SYN avoid: اجتناب کردن، دوری کردن

He eluded his pursuers by escaping into a river.

2 if something that you want eludes you, you fail to find or achieve it:

She took the exam again, but again success eluded her.

3 if a fact or the answer to a problem eludes you, you cannot remember or solve it SYN escape:

The exact terminology eludes me for the moment. 

90

surge 1 / sɜːdʒ $ sɜːrdʒ / verb [intransitive]

1 [always + adverb/preposition] to suddenly move very quickly in a particular direction به سرعت به سمتی حرکت کردن

surge forward/through etc.

The taxi surged forward.

The crowd surged through the gates.

2 (also surge up) if a feeling surges or surges up, you begin to feel it very strongly: فوران کردن احساسات

She could feel anger surging inside her.

3 [usually + adverb/preposition] if a large amount of a liquid, electricity, chemical etc. surges, it moves very quickly and suddenly:

A wave surged up towards them.

Adrenalin surged through her veins.

4 to suddenly increase SYN shoot up: 

Oil prices surged. 

91

authenticity / ˌɔːθenˈtɪsəti, ˌɔːθenˈtɪsɪti, -θ ə n- $ ˌɒː- / noun [uncountable]

the quality of being real or true صحت 

authenticity of

Archaeological evidence may help to establish the authenticity of the statue. 

92

secluded / sɪˈkluːdəd, sɪˈkluːdɪd / adjective

very private and quiet منزوی

secluded garden/spot/beach etc.

We sunbathed on a small secluded beach.

He’s 80 years old now and lives a very secluded life. 

93

anecdotal / ˌænɪkˈdəʊtl◂ $ -ˈdoʊ- / adjective

consisting of short stories based on someone’s personal experience: حکایتی

His findings are based on anecdotal evidence rather than serious research. 

94

veracity / vəˈræsəti, vəˈræsɪti / noun [uncountable] formal

the fact of being true or correct SYN truth صحت و واقعیت

veracity of

Has anyone checked the veracity of these allegations? 

95

necessitate / nəˈsesəteɪt, nɪˈsesəteɪt / verb [transitive] formal

to make it necessary for you to do something: ایجاب کردن

Lack of money necessitated a change of plan.

necessitate doing something

This would necessitate interviewing all the staff. 

96

ally 2 / əˈlaɪ $ əˈlaɪ,ˈælaɪ / verb (past tense and past participle allied, present participle allying, third person singular allies) 

[transitive always +adverb/preposition]

to help and support other people or countries, especially in a war or disagreement متحد شدن

ally yourself to/with somebody

Some of the northern cities allied themselves with the emperor.

97

alliance / əˈlaɪəns / noun [countable]

1 an arrangement in which two or more countries, groups etc. agree to work together to try to change or achieve something

alliance with اتحاد بین

Britain’s military alliance with her NATO partners

alliance between

the possibility of a political alliance between the two parties

make/enter into/form/forge an alliance (= agree to work together)

The companies have formed an alliance to market the product.

2 a group of two or more countries, groups etc. who work together to achieve something:

independent organizations and alliances

3 in alliance (with somebody/something) if two groups, countries etc. are in alliance, they work together to achieve something or protect each another:

Relief workers in alliance with local charities are trying to help the victims.

4 formal a close relationship, especially a marriage, between people

98

a military alliance 

a political alliance 

a strategic alliance 

an electoral alliance 

shifting alliances

a strong/close alliance 

a loose alliance 

a military alliance NATO has been the most successful military alliance in history.

a political alliance They agreed not to make any political alliance with the East.

a strategic alliance (= arranged as part of a military, political, or business plan) Strategic alliances are being forged with major European companies.

an electoral alliance (= made between parties before an election) The weaker Liberal Democratic party was now considering an electoral alliance with Labour.

shifting alliances (= changing frequently) the shifting alliances in the Middle East

a strong/close alliance He forged a strong alliance between his state and the church.

a loose alliance (= not strong) A loose alliance of opposition groups formed in 1990. 

99

make/form an alliance 

go into/enter into an alliance with somebody

forge an alliance 

break (off) an alliance 

make/form an alliance In 1902, Japan made an alliance with Britain.

go into/enter into an alliance with somebody Spain then entered into an alliance with France.

forge an alliance (= develop a new or strong alliance) They won the election by forging an alliance with the Social Democrats.

break (off) an alliance (= end it) The Athenians broke off the alliance with Sparta and made alliances with Argos and Thessaly.