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Flashcards in 400Word_9 Deck (97):
1

collaborate / kəˈlæbəreɪt / verb [intransitive]

1 to work together with a person or group in order to achieve something, especially in science or art همکاری کردن

collaborator

collaborate on

The two nations are collaborating on several satellite projects.

collaborate with

During the late seventies, he collaborated with the legendary Muddy Waters.

collaborate to do something

Researchers are collaborating to develop the vaccine.

collaborate in (doing) something

Elephants collaborate in looking after their young.

Register

In everyday English, people usually say they work together on something rather than collaborate on something:

They are working together on some new songs.

2 to help a country that your country is fighting a war with, especially one that has taken control of your country → collaborator

collaborate with

Vigilantes began combing the city for anyone known to have collaborated with the enemy. 

2

depository / dɪˈpɒzət ə ri, dɪˈpɒzɪt ə ri $ dɪˈpɑːzətɔːri / noun (plural depositories) [countable]

depository adjective 

a place where something can be safely kept گاو صندوق، انبار

3

unprecedented AC / ʌnˈpresədentəd, ʌnˈpresɪdentəd / adjective

unprecedentedly adverb 

never having happened before, or never having happened so much: بی سابقه، بی نظیر

He took the unprecedented step of stating that the rumours were false.

Crime has increased on an unprecedented scale.

unprecedented in

an event that is unprecedented in recent history

4

unusual

rare 

exceptional / ɪkˈsepʃ ə nəl / 

out of the ordinary 

freak 

unprecedented / ʌnˈpresədentəd, ʌnˈpresɪdentəd / 

unheard of

unusual different from what usually happens:

We had snow in May, which is very unusual.

rare not happening very often, or existing only in small numbers:

Violent crimes are rare. | Hatton gathered many rare plants from all over the world.

exceptional / ɪkˈsepʃ ə nəl / very unusual and happening very rarely:

90-day visas can be extended only in exceptional circumstances. | The presence of a jury in a civil trial is now quite exceptional.

out of the ordinary unusual and surprising or special:

It was a small village where nothing out of the ordinary ever seemed to happen.

freak extremely unusual and unexpected - used about an accident, storm etc:

A freak wave wrecked most of the seafront. | Their car was crushed by a tree in a freak accident.

unprecedented / ʌnˈpresədentəd, ʌnˈpresɪdentəd / if something is unprecedented, it has never happened before - often used about successes and achievements:

An unprecedented number of students have received top grades. | This kind of deal is unprecedented.

unheard of if something is unheard of, it has never happened or been done before - used especially when something seems very surprising to people at that time:

In our small town, this kind of crime was almost unheard of. | unheard-of luxuries such as electric windows and air-conditioning 

5

pool 2 verb [transitive]

to combine your money, ideas, skills etc. with those of other people so that you can all use them: با هم یکی کردن

Investors agreed to pool their resources to develop the property.

The students worked together, pooling their knowledge. 

6

Dane / deɪn / noun [countable]

someone from Denmark 

7

warrior / ˈwɒriə $ ˈwɔːriər, ˈwɑː- / noun [countable]

a soldier or fighter who is brave and experienced – used about people in the past: جنگجو

a noble warrior 

8

B.C. American English / ˌbiː ˈsiː /

A.D. American English / ˌeɪ ˈdiː /

B.C. American English / ˌbiː ˈsiː /

(before Christ) used after a date to show that it was before the birth of Christ → AD:

The Great Pyramid dates from around 2600 BC. 

A.D. American English / ˌeɪ ˈdiː /

(Anno Domini) used to show that a date is a particular number of years after the birth of Christ SYN CE BC:

the first century AD

54 AD

9

mead / miːd / noun

1 [uncountable] an alcoholic drink made from honey:

a glass of mead

2 [countable] literary a meadow (علفزاری که گل هم داره):

the flowery mead 

10

meadow / ˈmedəʊ $ -doʊ / noun [countable]

a field with wild grass and flowers 

11

field noun [countable] 

meadow noun [countable] 

paddock noun [countable] 

pasture noun [uncountable and countable] 

field noun [countable] an area of land in the country, especially one where crops are grown or animals feed on grass:

a wheat field | Cows were grazing in the field.

meadow noun [countable] a field with wild grass and flowers:

alpine meadows

paddock noun [countable] a small field in which horses are kept:

Horses are much happier in a big paddock with several other horses.

pasture noun [uncountable and countable] land or a field that is covered with grass and is used for cattle, sheep etc. to feed on:

large areas of rough upland pasture | cow pastures 

12

spear 1 / spɪə $ spɪr / noun [countable]

1 a pole with a sharp pointed blade at one end, used as a weapon in the past نیزه

2 a thin pointed stem of a plant:

asparagus spears 

13

hilt / hɪlt / noun [countable]

1 the handle of a sword or knife, where the blade is attached دسته شمشیر یا چاقو

2 to the hilt completely کاملاً

support/defend/back somebody to the hilt

I’m backing the PM to the hilt on this. 

14

peat / piːt / noun [uncountable]

peaty adjective:

a rich, peaty soil 

a black substance formed from decaying plants under the surface of the ground in some areas, which can be burned as a fuel, or mixed with soil to help plants grow well کود گیاهی

15

bog 1 / bɒɡ $ bɑːɡ, bɒːɡ / noun [uncountable and countable]

an area of low wet muddy ground, sometimes containing bushes or grasses باتلاق

16

pagan 1 / ˈpeɪɡən / adjective

pagan religious beliefs and customs do not belong to any of the main religions of the world, and may come from a time before these religions: 

ancient pagan temples 

17

marvelous S2  / ˈmɑːv ə ləs $ ˈmɑːr- / adjective

marvelously adverb 

extremely good, enjoyable, impressive etc. SYN wonderful: شگفت انگیز، 

‘How was your holiday?’ ‘Marvelous!’

We had a marvelous time.

I can’t stand him, but my wife thinks he’s marvelous.

It’s marvelous what they can do these days.

18

fantastic/terrific spoken 

great spoken 

excellent 

wonderful 

marvelous 

amazing 

incredible 

brilliant informal 

be out of this world 

fantastic/terrific spoken extremely good, in a way that makes you feel excited and happy – used mainly in spoken English:

The view from the top was fantastic. | He did a fantastic job. | That’s a terrific idea! | ‘I passed!’ ‘That’s terrific!’

great spoken extremely good – used mainly in spoken English:

Thanks for a great afternoon. | ‘Did you have a good holiday?' ’It was great!'

excellent extremely good – used especially about the quality of something. Excellent is more formal than fantastic/terrific or great, and is used in both spoken and written English:

Our local theatre has put on some excellent productions. | It is an excellent film.

wonderful extremely good in a way that impresses you or makes you very pleased: She is really a wonderful person. | That’s wonderful news!

marvelous extremely good in a way that impresses you or makes you very pleased. Marvelous sounds a little old-fashioned, but is still fairly common:

We had a marvelous dinner at a little restaurant near the hotel. | Martino’s performance was marvelous.

amazing extremely good in a surprising and exciting way:

Standing there on top of Mount Fuji was an amazing experience.

incredible extremely good in a surprising and exciting way. Incredible is often used when something is so good that it almost seems unlikely:

What a goal! That was incredible! | It was an incredible moment - one that I will never forget.

brilliant informal extremely good:

‘How was your trip?’ ‘Absolutely brilliant!’ | What a brilliant idea!

be out of this world used when saying that something is so good that you cannot imagine anything better:

Their desserts are out of this world. 

19

dignity / ˈdɪɡnəti, ˈdɪɡnɪti / noun [uncountable]

1 the ability to behave in a calm controlled way even in a difficult situation کرامت، وقار، بزرگی

with dignity

The family faced their ordeal (مصیبت) with dignity.

an appearance of quiet dignity

2 your dignity your sense of your own value or importance

retain/lose your dignity

Old people need to retain their dignity and independence.

Arguing was beneath her dignity (= was something she thought she was too important to do).

3 the fact of being respected or deserving respect

with dignity

Patients should be allowed to die with dignity.

Prisoners should be treated with regard for human dignity.

4 a calm and serious quality

dignity of

the dignity of the occasion

5 stand on your dignity formal to demand to be treated with proper respect 

20

cowardice / ˈkaʊədəs, ˈkaʊədɪs $ -ər- / (also cowardliness / ˈkaʊədlinəs, ˈkaʊədlinɪs $ -ərd- /) noun [uncountable]

lack of courage بزدلی

OPP bravery:

cowardice in the face of danger 

21

chore / tʃɔː $ tʃɔːr / noun [countable]

1 a small job that you have to do regularly, especially work that you do to keep a house clean: کارهای روزمره منزل

everyday chores like shopping and housework

We share the domestic chores.

2 something you have to do that is very boring and unpleasant:

I find driving a real chore. کار کسل کننده

22

choir / kwaɪə $ kwaɪr / noun [countable]

cho‧ral / ˈkɔːrəl / adjective [only before noun]

1 a group of people who sing together for other people to listen to 

He joined a church choir at the age of eight. 

cho‧ral / ˈkɔːrəl / adjective [only before noun]

related to music that is sung by a large group of people together

23

coral 1 / ˈkɒrəl $ ˈkɔː-, ˈkɑː- / noun [uncountable]

coal S2 W2 / kəʊl $ koʊl / noun

charcoal / ˈtʃɑːkəʊl $ ˈtʃɑːrkoʊl / noun

coral 1 / ˈkɒrəl $ ˈkɔː-, ˈkɑː- / noun [uncountable] مرجان

coal S2 W2 / kəʊl $ koʊl / noun زغال سنگ

charcoal / ˈtʃɑːkəʊl $ ˈtʃɑːrkoʊl / noun ذغال

24

deprecate / ˈdeprəkeɪt, ˈdeprɪkeɪt / verb [transitive] formal

deprecation / ˌdeprəˈkeɪʃ ə n, ˌdeprɪˈkeɪʃ ə n / noun [uncountable] 

to strongly disapprove of or criticize something قبیح دانستن

25

perch 1 / pɜːtʃ $ pɜːrtʃ / noun [ countable ]

a branch or stick where a bird sits

26

perch 2 verb

1 be perched on/above etc something to be in a position on top of something or on the edge of something: قرار گرفتن

a house perched on a cliff above the town

2 perch (yourself) on something to sit on top of something or on the edge of something :

Bobby had perched himself on a tall wooden stool.

3 [ intransitive + on ] if a bird perches on something, it flies down and sits on it

27

sit

sit down

be seated formal

take a seat

sink into something 

lounge 

perch 

be slumped

squat

sit to be resting your weight on your bottom somewhere, or to move into this position:

He was sitting in front of the fire. | She sat on the bed and kicked off her shoes. | Who is the man sitting next to Karen?

sit down to sit on a chair, bed, floor etc. after you have been standing:

I sat down on the sofa. | Come in and sit down.

be seated formal to be sitting in a particular chair or place:

John was seated on my left. | There was a man seated behind the desk.

take a seat to sit – used especially when asking someone to sit down:

Please take a seat – she will be with you in a minute. | Would the audience please take their seats – the show will begin in five minutes.

sink into something to sit in a comfortable chair and let yourself fall back into it:

We switched on the TV and sank into our armchairs.

lounge to sit in a very comfortable relaxed way: لم دادن

They lounged around all day by the pool.

perch to sit on the edge of something: لبه بلندی نشستن

He perched on the arm of the sofa. | My sister was perched (= was sitting) on a high stool.

be slumped to be sitting while leaning against something, especially because you are injured, drunk, or asleep:

They found him slumped against the steering wheel.

squat to sit with your knees bent under you, your bottom just off the ground, balancing on your feet:

A little boy was squatting at the edge of the pool.

28

scaly / ˈskeɪli / adjective
 

1 a scaly animal or fish is covered with small flat pieces of hard skin پولک و فلس دار

2 scaly skin is dry and rough

29

cloak 1 / kləʊk $ kloʊk / noun

1 [countable] a warm piece of clothing like a coat without sleeves that hangs loosely from your shoulders عبا، ردء، خرقه

2 [singular] an organization, activity, or way of behaving that deliberately protects someone or keeps something secret

cloak of

the cloak of secrecy around the affair

cloak for

The political party is used as a cloak for terrorist activities.

under the cloak of something

prejudice hiding under the cloak of religion 

30

shriek 1 / ʃriːk / verb

1 [intransitive] to make a very high loud sound, especially because you are afraid, angry, excited, or in pain SYN scream: جیق زدن

They were dragged from their homes, shrieking and weeping.

He shrieked in agony.

shriek with

A group of students were shrieking with laughter.

2 [transitive] to say something in a high loud voice because you are excited, afraid, or angry SYN scream:

‘I’m pregnant,’ she shrieked.

shriek at

‘I’ll kill you,’ Anne shrieked at him. 

31

die 2 noun [countable]

1 a metal block used to press or cut something into a particular shape

2 a dice

3 the die is cast used to say that a decision has been taken and cannot now be changed 

32

weary 1 / ˈwɪəri $ ˈwɪr- / adjective

wearily adverb

weariness noun [uncountable] 

1 very tired or bored, especially because you have been doing something for a long time: خیلی خسته

She found Rachel in the kitchen, looking old and weary.

She sat down with a weary sigh.

weary of (doing) something

He was weary of the constant battle between them.

Register

In everyday English, people usually say tired rather than weary:

They were tired after their journey.

2 especially literary very tiring:

a long and weary march

33

tired 

exhausted 

worn out [not before noun] 

weary / ˈwɪəri $ ˈwɪr- / written 

fatigued formal 

drained [not before noun] 

bushed/beat [not before noun] informal 

pooped [not before noun] informal 

dead spoken 

tired feeling that you want to sleep or rest:

I was really tired the next day. | the tired faces of the children

exhausted extremely tired:

I was exhausted after the long trip home. | He sat down, exhausted. | She immediately fell into an exhausted sleep.

worn out [not before noun] very tired because you have been working hard:

With three small children to care for, she was always worn out.

weary / ˈwɪəri $ ˈwɪr- / written tired because you have been travelling, worrying, or doing something for a long time:

weary travellers | a weary sigh | He looks tired and weary after 20 years in office.

fatigued formal very tired:

They were too fatigued to continue with the climb. | Because of her illness, she often became fatigued.

drained [not before noun] very tired and feeling as if all your energy has gone:

Afterwards, he felt drained, both physically and mentally.

bushed/beat [not before noun] informal very tired:

I’m bushed. I think I’ll go to bed early. | I’m beat. I don’t think I’ll go for a run tonight.

pooped [not before noun] informal very tired.

By the time I got home I was absolutely pooped.

dead spoken extremely tired, so that you cannot do anything but sleep:

I was absolutely dead by the time I got home. 

34

wary / ˈweəri $ ˈweri / adjective

wariness noun [singular, uncountable]:

a wariness in her voice

warily adverb:

She eyed him warily.

someone who is wary is careful because they think something might be dangerous or harmful مواظب

be wary of (doing) something

I’m a bit wary of driving in this fog.

wary of

We must teach children to be wary of strangers.

Keep a wary eye on the weather before you set sail.

She had a wary expression on her face.

35

vary S3 W2 AC / ˈveəri $ ˈveri / verb (past tense and past participle varied, present participle varying, third person singular varies)

1 [intransitive] if several things of the same type vary, they are all different from each other SYN differ: متفاوت بودن

Test scores vary from school to school.

The heights of the plants vary from 8 cm to 20 cm.

vary in

flowers that vary in color and size

Medical treatment varies greatly from state to state.

Cooking times may vary slightly, depending on your oven.

Charges vary according to size.

She has tried different diets with varying degrees of success.

tests of varying levels of difficulty

2 [intransitive] if something varies, it changes depending on the situation: تغییر کردن

Quentin’s mood seems to vary according to the weather.

‘What do you wear when you go out?’ ‘Well, it varies.

3 [transitive] to change something to make it different:

My doctor said I should vary my diet more. تغییر دادن

36

vary considerably/greatly/widely 

vary enormously 

vary significantly 

vary slightly 

vary wildly 

considerably/greatly/widely The amount of food available varies considerably from season to season.

enormously Farm sizes vary enormously within Europe.

significantly The software seems similar, but performance can vary significantly.

slightly The cooking time may vary slightly depending on your oven.

wildly (= a lot) Prices varied wildly from store to store. 

37

varying degrees 

varying levels 

varying sizes 

varying amounts 

varying degrees She was involved in a number of car accidents of varying degrees of seriousness.

varying levels Children with varying levels of ability can still be taught together.

varying sizes a set of jars of varying sizes

varying amounts Tap water may contain varying amounts of rust, grit and silt. 

38

opt / ɒpt $ ɑːpt / verb [intransitive]

to choose one thing or do one thing instead of another انتخاب کردن

opt for

We finally opted for the wood finish.

opt to do something

Many young people are opting to go on to college.

opt in phrasal verb

to decide to join a group or system

opt in to

Employees have the choice to opt in to the scheme.

opt out phrasal verb

1 to avoid doing a duty

opt out of

You can’t just opt out of all responsibility for the child!

2 to decide not to be part of a group or system

opt out of

Britain wants to opt out of the new European regulations.

3 if a school or hospital in Britain opts out, it decides to control the money that it is given by the government, instead of being controlled by local government 

39

pep 2 noun [uncountable] informal

physical energy: انرژی

an enthusiastic player, full of pep

40

pep 1 / pep / verb (past tense and past participle pepped, present participle pepping)

pep somebody/something ↔ up phrasal verb informal

to make something or someone more active or interesting:

The team needs a few new players to pep it up. 

41

leap 1 / liːp / verb (past tense and past participle leapt / lept / especially British English, leaped especially American English)

1 jump پریدن

a) [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] to jump high into the air or to jump in order to land in a different place:

She leapt over the fence.

The smaller animals can easily leap from tree to tree.

b) [transitive] literary to jump over something:

Brenda leaped the gate and ran across the field.

2 move fast [intransitive always + adverb/preposition] to move very quickly and with a lot of energy: سریع دویدن

I leapt up the stairs three at a time.

He leapt out of bed.

She leapt to her feet (= stood up quickly) and started shouting.

3 increase [intransitive] to increase quickly and by a large amount leap to رشد ناگهانی کردن

Profits leapt to £376m.

He leapt 27 places to second spot.

4 leap at the chance/opportunity to accept an opportunity very eagerly:

I leapt at the chance of studying abroad.

6 heart [intransitive] literary if your heart leaps, you feel a sudden surprise, happiness, or excitement:

My heart leaped when I saw Paul at the airport. 

42

jump verb [intransitive and transitive] 

skip verb [intransitive] 

hop verb [intransitive] 

leap verb [intransitive and transitive] especially written

bounce verb [intransitive]

dive verb [intransitive] 

vault / vɔːlt $ vɒːlt / verb [intransitive and transitive] especially written 

jump verb [intransitive and transitive] to push yourself up into the air, over something etc., using your legs:

The cat jumped up onto the table. | He jumped over the stream. | His horse jumped the fence successfully.

skip verb [intransitive] to move forwards with little jumps between your steps, especially because you are feeling happy:

The little girl was skipping down the street.

hop verb [intransitive] to jump or move around on one leg:

He was hopping around because he’d injured his foot.

leap verb [intransitive and transitive] especially written to suddenly jump up high or a long way:

The deer leapt over the fence. | Tina leapt onto the boat as it was moving away. | Fish were leaping out of the water.

bounce verb [intransitive] to jump up and down several times, especially on something that has springs in it:

Children love bouncing on beds.

dive verb [intransitive] to jump into water with your head and arms first:

Zoë dived into the swimming pool.

vault / vɔːlt $ vɒːlt / verb [intransitive and transitive] especially written to jump over something in one movement, using your hands or a pole to help you:

He vaulted the ticket barrier and ran for the exit. | Ben tried to vault over the bar. 

43

leap out at somebody phrasal verb

if a word or phrase in a piece of writing leaps out at you, you notice it particularly, because it is interesting, important etc. SYN jump out at 

44

fame / feɪm / noun [uncountable]

the state of being known about by a lot of people because of your achievements: شهرت

He claims he is not really interested in fame.

of... fame (= used to show what someone is famous for)

Muhammad Ali, of boxing fame 

45

win/gain fame

achieve/find fame 

bring/win somebody/something fame 

rise to fame

shoot to fame 

seek fame

enjoy fame

win/gain fame He won fame when he appeared in the film ‘The Graduate’.

achieve/find fame Amy Johnson found fame as a pilot.

bring/win somebody/something fame Chomsky’s theories about language brought him fame.

rise to fame (= become famous) She rose to fame during the early Sixties.

shoot to fame (= become famous very suddenly) She shot to fame as a result of her victory in the Olympics.

seek fame (= try to become famous) He sought fame in the jazz clubs of New York.

enjoy fame (= be famous) The town briefly enjoyed fame as the location of a popular television series. 

46

international/worldwide fame 

national fame 

lasting fame 

brief fame 

instant fame 

great fame 

new-found fame 

international/worldwide fame Edinburgh achieved international fame as a center of medical education.

national fame Her oil paintings won her national fame.

lasting fame (= being famous for a long time) Diderot gained lasting fame as the editor of the French Encyclopedia.

brief fame (= being famous for a short time) Ed achieved brief fame as a pop singer in the late 1980s.

instant fame The success of her first novel brought her instant fame.

great fame His acting ability brought him great fame.

new-found fame Anna was finding it difficult to get used to her new-found fame. 

47

sb’s/sth’s rise to fame 

at the height of sb’s/sth’s fame 

sb’s/sth’s claim to fame 

fame and fortune 

sb’s/sth’s rise to fame Her rise to fame has been astonishingly rapid.

at the height of sb’s/sth’s fame (= when someone was most famous) At the height of his fame, he could earn $5,000 a day.

sb’s/sth’s claim to fame (= reason for being famous) One of his main claims to fame is having invented the electric light bulb.

fame and fortune (= being rich and famous) He came to London to seek fame and fortune. 

48

torment 1 / ˈtɔːment $ ˈtɔːr- / noun

1 [uncountable] severe mental or physical suffering عذاب

in torment

She lay awake all night in torment.

2 [countable] someone or something that makes you suffer a lot:

The journey must have been a torment for them. 

49

outcast / ˈaʊtkɑːst $ -kæst / noun [countable]

outcast adjective 

someone who is not accepted by the people they live among, or who has been forced out of their home SYN pariah: مطرود

Smokers often feel as though they are being treated as social outcasts.

50

torment 2 / tɔːˈment $ tɔːr- / verb [transitive]

tormentor noun [countable] 

1 to make someone suffer a lot, especially mentally: عذاب دادن

Seth was tormented by feelings of guilt.

2 to deliberately treat someone cruelly by annoying them or hurting them SYN torture:

The older boys would torment him whenever they had the chance.

51

weakling / ˈwiːk-lɪŋ / noun [countable]

someone who is not physically strong بی بنیه، کم جون

52

cot / kɒt $ kɑːt / noun [countable]

1 British English a small bed with high sides for a baby or young child SYN crib American English

2 American English a camp bed تخت خواب

53

conceal / kənˈsiːl / verb [transitive] formal

concealment noun [uncountable]:

deliberate concealment of his activities 

1 to hide something carefully: پنهان کردن

The shadows concealed her as she crept up to the house.

The path was concealed by long grass.

a concealed weapon

2 to hide your real feelings or the truth:

She tried to conceal the fact that she was pregnant.

conceal something from somebody

She was taking drugs and trying to conceal it from me.

54

hide 

conceal formal 

cover up 

disguise 

camouflage 

obscure literary 

mask 

hide to make something difficult to see or find, or to not show your true feelings:

He hid the gun in his pocket. | She tried to hide her anger. | The actress put up a hand to hide her face from the cameras.

conceal formal to hide something, especially by carefully putting it somewhere. Also used when talking about hiding your feelings, especially in negative sentences:

Several kilos of drugs were concealed in the back of the truck. | He could not conceal his feelings any longer. | The girl quickly concealed the photograph she had been gazing at.

cover up to put something over another thing that you do not want people to see, in order to hide it completely:

People cover up cracks with wallpaper or tiles. | I used some make-up to cover up the spots. | She was wearing a thin shawl to cover up the bruises on her arm.

disguise to make someone or something seem like a different person or thing, so that other people cannot recognize them: تغییر قیافه دادن

She managed to get into the camp by disguising herself as a soldier. | The men had disguised the vessel as fishing boat.

camouflage to hide something by covering it with materials that make it look like the things around it: استتار کردن

We camouflaged the plane by covering it with leaves. | The troops used charcoal to camouflage their faces. | Soldiers had camouflaged the trucks with branches and dirt.

obscure literary to make it difficult to see something clearly:

The view was obscured by mist. | His body was found, partially obscured by bushes, at the bottom of a shallow canyon.

mask to make something less noticeable, for example a taste, a smell, a sound, or a feeling: کمتر فهمیدن صدا، طمع، بو و احساسات

The lemon helps to mask the taste of the fish. | Helen had turned on the radio to mask the noise of the traffic. | He did little to mask his contempt. 

55

slum 1 / slʌm / noun

1 [countable] a house or an area of a city that is in very bad condition, where very poor people live: فقیر نشین

a slum area

slum housing

the slums of London 

56

area 

region 

zone 

district 

neighborhood / ˈneɪbəhʊd $ -ər- / 

suburb

quarter 

slum 

ghetto 

area a part of a town or country, or of the world:

They live in a very wealthy area. | coastal areas

region a large area of a country or the world:

the northwest region of Russia | desert regions

zone an area that is different from other areas around it in some way:

a war zone | a no-parking zone | We crossed two different time zones areas where there is a particular time compared to the rest of the world.

district one of the areas a city or town is officially divided into, or an area of a city where a particular group live or an activity happens:

the Chelsea district of Manhattan | the business /financial /theatre etc. district: the financial district of London

neighborhood / ˈneɪbəhʊd $ -ər- / an area of a town where people live:

a friendly neighborhood | There are lots of trees in our neighborhood.

suburb an area outside the center of a city, where people live:

a suburb of Boston

quarter an area of a town or city where people of a particular nationality live:

the French quarter of New Orleans

slum an area of a city that is in very bad condition, where many poor people live:

He grew up in the slums of East London.

ghetto an area of a city where poor people of a particular race or class live:

a black baby born in the ghetto 

57

wicked S3 / ˈwɪkəd, ˈwɪkɪd / adjective

wickedly adverb

wickedness noun [uncountable] 

1 behaving in a way that is morally wrong SYN evil: بدجنس، شررو

the wicked stepmother in ‘Hansel and Gretel’

2 informal behaving badly in a way that is amusing:

Carl had a wicked grin on his face as he crept up behind Ellen.

Tara hasn’t lost her wicked sense of humour.

3 spoken informal very good:

That’s a wicked bike!

58

horrible 

cruel 

wicked / ˈwɪkəd, ˈwɪkɪd / 

sadistic 

horrible especially spoken very unkind:

Why is Jack always so horrible to me?

cruel very unkind and deliberately making people feel unhappy or making them suffer physically:

Her father was very cruel to her. | a selfish, cruel woman

wicked / ˈwɪkəd, ˈwɪkɪd / extremely unkind and behaving in a very immoral way:

a wicked thing to do | the wicked stepmother in Cinderella

sadistic extremely unkind and enjoying making other people suffer:

Their father was a sadistic bully who beat them regularly. | He took a certain sadistic pleasure in his job. 

59

wreck 1 / rek / verb [transitive]

1 to completely spoil something so that it cannot continue in a successful way SYN ruin: خراب کردن

Injury threatened to wreck his sporting career.

It was drink that wrecked their marriage.

2 to damage something such as a building or vehicle so badly that it cannot be repaired:

The car was completely wrecked in the accident.

3 if a ship is wrecked, it is badly damaged and sinks SYN shipwreck:

The ship was wrecked off the coast of Africa. 

60

destroy 

devastate 

demolish 

flatten

wreck 

trash informal 

obliterate formal

reduce something to ruins/rubble/ashes 

ruin 

destroy to damage something so badly that it no longer exists or cannot be used or repaired:

The earthquake almost completely destroyed the city. | The twin towers were destroyed in a terrorist attack.

devastate to damage a large area very badly and destroy many things in it:

Allied bombings in 1943 devastated the city. | The country’s economy has been devastated by years of fighting.

demolish to completely destroy a building, either deliberately or by accident:

The original 15th century house was demolished in Victorian times. | The plane crashed into a suburb of Paris, demolishing several buildings.

flatten to destroy a building or town by knocking it down, bombing it etc., so that nothing is left standing:

The town center was flattened by a 500 lb bomb.

wreck to deliberately damage something very badly, especially a room or building:

The toilets had been wrecked by vandals. | They just wrecked the place.

trash informal to deliberately destroy a lot of the things in a room, house etc.:

Apparently, he trashed his hotel room while on drugs.

obliterate formal to destroy a place so completely that nothing remains:

The nuclear blast obliterated most of Hiroshima.

reduce something to ruins/rubble/ashes to destroy a building or town completely:

The town was reduced to rubble in the First World War.

ruin to spoil something completely, so that it cannot be used or enjoyed:

Fungus may ruin the crop. | The new houses will ruin the view. 

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wretched / ˈretʃəd, ˈretʃɪd / adjective

wretchedly adverb

wretchedness noun [uncountable] 

1 someone who is wretched is very unhappy or ill, and you feel sorry for them: تفلکی

the poor, wretched girl

2 if you feel wretched, you feel guilty and unhappy because of something bad that you have done: احساس گناه کردن

Guy felt wretched about it now.

3 [only before noun] making you feel annoyed or angry: کرم میریخت

Where is that wretched boy?

4 literary extremely bad or unpleasant SYN miserable: اسفناک

I was shocked to see their wretched living conditions.

Wretched conditions شرایط اسفناک

62

sinister / ˈsɪnəstə, ˈsɪnɪstə $ -ər / adjective

making you feel that something evil, dangerous, or illegal is happening or will happen شیطانی، 

there is something/nothing sinister about somebody /something

There was something sinister about Mr Scott’s death.

There is a sinister side to these events.

He was a handsome man, in a sinister sort of way.

a sinister atmosphere 

63

cemetery / ˈsemətri, ˈsemɪtri $ -teri / noun (plural cemeteries) [countable]

a piece of land, usually not belonging to a church, in which dead people are buried قبرستان

64

grave 1 / ɡreɪv / noun [countable]

1 the place in the ground where a dead body is buried قبر

tomb= مقبره

At the head of the grave there was a small wooden cross.

2 the grave literary death:

He took that secret to the grave.

3 somebody would turn in their grave used to say that someone who is dead would strongly disapprove of something happening now:

The way Bill plays that piece would have Mozart turning in his grave. 

65

dig a grave 

mark a grave 

bury somebody in a grave

dig a grave In the churchyard, a man was digging a grave.

mark a grave The stone marked the grave of their young daughter.

bury somebody in a grave (= put someone in a grave) She was buried in a grave next to her older sister. 

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a shallow grave 

a mass grave 

an unmarked grave

a family grave 

an open grave

a shallow grave (= a hole that is not very deep in the ground) They found the woman’s remains in a shallow grave in the woods.

a mass grave (= one that is filled with many people, especially people killed in a war or people who died of a disease at a similar time) Plague victims were buried in a mass grave.

an unmarked grave (= one that does not have anything to show where it is or who is in it) Until 1855, poor people here were buried in unmarked graves.

a family grave (= one where members of a family are buried together) Walter died in 1922 and was buried in the family grave in Finchley cemetery.

an open grave (= one that has not yet been covered in earth) He wept by her open grave. 

67

withhold / wɪðˈhəʊld, wɪθ- $ -ˈhoʊld / verb (past tense and past participle withheld / -ˈheld /) [transitive]

to refuse to give someone something: دریغ کردن

I withheld payment until they had completed the work.

Ian was accused of withholding vital information from the police. 

68

row 3 / rəʊ $ roʊ / verb [intransitive and transitive]

row noun [singular]:

Why don’t we go for a row?

rower noun [countable] 

to make a boat move across water using oars پارو زدن، البته معنی ردیف هم میده

row away/towards/across

She rowed across the lake.

Jenny used to row at college (= as a sport).

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 raw 2 noun 1 in the raw

a) seen in a way that does not hide cruelty and violence:

He went on the streets to experience life in the raw. زندگی واقعی

It was my first exposure to India in the raw.

b) informal not wearing any clothes SYN in the nude: لخت

sunbathing in the raw 

70

raw 1 W3 / rɔː $ rɒː / adjective

1 food not cooked:

raw meat

grated raw carrots

Cabbage can be eaten raw.

2 substances raw substances are in a natural state and not treated or prepared for use 

raw silk

In its raw state, cocoa is very bitter.

Raw sewage had been dumped in the river.

The cost of our raw materials has risen significantly.

3 information raw information is collected but not organized, examined, or developed:

software to convert raw data into usable information

His time here provided the raw material for his novel.

Warhol used everyday items as the raw ingredients of his art.

4 emotions raw feelings are strong and natural, but not fully controlled:

raw passion

Linda didn’t want to see Roy while her emotions were still raw.

It took raw courage to admit she was wrong.

5 body if a part of your body is raw, the skin there is red and painful:

The skin on my feet was rubbed raw.

6 inexperienced not experienced or not fully trained:

Most of our soldiers are raw recruits.

7 touch/hit a raw nerve to upset someone by something you say:

Seeing his face, Joanne realized she’d touched a raw nerve.

8 raw deal unfair treatment:

Customers are getting a raw deal and are rightly angry.

9 weather very cold:

She shivered in the raw morning air.

10 art music, art, language etc. that is raw is simple, direct, and powerful, but not fully developed:

Her voice has a raw poetic beauty.

His early sketches are raw and unpretentious.

11 raw talent someone with raw talent is naturally good at something, but has not developed their ability yet:

He has the raw talent to become a star.

12 raw edge the edge of a piece of material before it has been sewn:

Turn over the raw edges and stitch.

rawness noun [uncountable] 

71

oar / ɔː $ ɔːr / noun [countable]

1 a long pole with a wide flat blade at one end, used for rowing a boat پارو بلند که یه دستی میگیرند

paddle پارو کوتاه که دو دستی یگیرند

72

leftover 1 / ˈleftəʊvə $ -oʊvər / adjective [only before noun]

remaining after all the rest has been used, taken, or eaten: ته مونده

leftover vegetables

a few pieces of leftover carpet 

73

beau / bəʊ $ boʊ / noun (plural beaux / bəʊz $ boʊz / or beaus) [countable] old-fashioned

1 a woman’s close friend or lover

2 a fashionable well-dressed man 

74

boyfriend 

partner 

fiancé 

lover 

ex informal 

old flame informal 

man informal 

sweetheart old-fashioned 

beau old-fashioned 

toy boy informal humorous 

sugar daddy informal 

be going out with somebody

boyfriend a boy or man that you have a romantic relationship with, especially for a fairly long time: Josh was my first boyfriend.

partner the person you are married to, or the person you are living with and having a sexual relationship with: Sweden allows gay partners to receive many of the same benefits that married couples get. | Partners are also welcome.

fiancé the man whom a woman is going to marry: Her fiancé was killed in the war.

lover someone who you have a sexual relationship with, without being married to them: A few nights later, they became lovers.

ex informal a woman’s former husband or boyfriend: Her ex has caused a lot of trouble for her.

old flame informal someone who was your boyfriend in the past: In a box in the closet, I found love letters from one of her old flames.

man informal a woman’s husband or boyfriend: She’ll always stand by her man.

sweetheart old-fashioned the person that you love: They were childhood sweethearts.

beau old-fashioned a woman’s boyfriend or lover - a very old-fashioned use: Does she have a beau?

toy boy informal humorous a young man who is having a sexual relationship with an older woman: A woman with a toy boy gets a lot more disapproving looks than a man with a younger woman.

sugar daddy informal an older man who gives a younger woman presents and money in return for their company and often for sex: I can imagine her cashing checks from some mysterious sugar daddy.

be going out with somebody if you are going out with a boy or man, you have him as your boyfriend: She’s been going out with Jack for a couple of months.

→ girlfriend 

75

hanging / ˈhæŋɪŋ / noun

1 [uncountable and countable] the act of killing someone by putting a rope around their neck and dropping them, used as a punishment: اعدام

public hangings

people who believe that bringing back hanging will reduce the amount of crime

2 [countable] a large piece of cloth that is hung on a wall as a decoration:

a colourful wall hanging 

76

liner / ˈlaɪnə $ -ər / noun

1 [countable] a piece of material used inside something, especially in order to keep it clean: آسنر

a dustbin liner

nappy liners

2 [countable] a large ship for passengers: کشتی مسافربری

an ocean liner

→ cruise liner

3 [uncountable and countable] informal eyeliner خط چشم

77

passenger ship

cruise ship 

liner 

ferry 

passenger ship a ship that carries people rather than goods

cruise ship a large ship that people have holidays on

liner a large ship that sails long distances across the ocean: an ocean liner | a transatlantic liner

ferry a ship that makes short regular journeys between two places: The ferry operates daily between Hull and Zeebrugge. 

78

dragnet / ˈdræɡnet / noun [countable]

1 a system in which the police look for criminals, using very thorough methods دام، تور

In order to evade the police dragnet, Ernie grew a beard.

2 a net that is pulled along the bottom of a river or lake, to bring up things that may be there 

79

lights-out noun [uncountable]

the time at night when a group of people who are in a school, the army etc. must put the lights out and go to sleep 

lights-out time زمان خاوشی

80

defraud / dɪˈfrɔːd $ -ˈfrɒːd / verb [transitive]

to trick a person or organization in order to get money from them کلاه برداری کردن

defraud somebody of something

She defrauded her employers of thousands of pounds.

He faces charges of theft and conspiracy to defraud (= a secret plan to cheat someone, made by two or more people).

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cheat 

con informal 

swindle 

defraud 

cheat to deceive someone so that they do not get or keep something they have a right to:

He used his charm to cheat the old lady out of everything he could get. | He’s afraid they’ll cheat him after he hands over the money.

con informal to get money from someone by telling them lies:

They conned her into spending thousands of pounds on useless equipment. | He conned money out of the public by pretending to collect for charity.

swindle to get money from a person or organization by cheating them in a clever way:

The painting has been stolen and the art gallery has been swindled out of a large sum of money. | A City businessman who swindled investors out of millions of pounds was jailed for four years.

defraud to commit the crime of getting money from an organization by deceiving them:

He admitted attempting to defraud his former employer of $1 million. | Johnson is accused of conspiring to defraud the taxman of hundreds of thousands of pounds. 

82

limp 1 / lɪmp / adjective

limply adverb:

His arms were hanging limply.

limpness noun [uncountable] 

not firm or strong: شل

a limp handshake

His body suddenly went limp and he fell down on the floor.

83

limp 3 noun [countable]

the way someone walks when they are limping: لنگی

Young walked with a slight limp.

84

limp 2 verb [intransitive]

1 to walk slowly and with difficulty because one leg is hurt or injured: 

Moreno limped off the field with a foot injury.

2 [always + adverb/preposition] if a ship or aircraft limps somewhere, it goes there slowly, because it has been damaged

limp into

The damaged liner limped into New York.

limp along phrasal verb

if a company, project etc. limps along, it is not successful:

The team is limping along in fifth place. 

85

limp

stagger 

hobble

limp to walk with difficulty because one leg hurts, so that you put most of your weight on the other leg:

Jake was limping because of the injury to his knee.

stagger to walk or move unsteadily, almost falling over, especially because you are drunk or have been injured:

They finally staggered back to the hotel at 4 o'clock in the morning. | He hit her and she staggered and fell.

hobble to walk with difficulty in a slow and unsteady way because your legs or feet hurt or have been injured:

My new shoes were so painful I could only hobble along. | She hobbled out to the car on crutches. 

86

consent 1 W3 AC / kənˈsent / noun [uncountable]

1 permission to do something: رضایت

He took the car without the owner’s consent.

Her parents gave their consent to the marriage.

A patient can refuse consent for a particular treatment at any time.

Most owners are happy to have their names used for publicity if this is done with their prior consent.

Informed consent was obtained from all participants before the study began.

→ age of consent

2 agreement about something 

The chairman was elected by common consent (= with most people agreeing). توافق اکثریت

divorce by mutual consent (= by agreement between both the people involved) رضایت طرفین

87

give (somebody) your consent 

have sb’s consent 

get sb’s consent (also obtain sb’s consent formal) 

something requires sb’s consent 

grant consent formal 

refuse (your) consent 

withhold (your) consent 

give (somebody) your consent The child’s parents have to give their consent to the operation.

have sb’s consent He claimed to have the consent of the car’s owner.

get sb’s consent (also obtain sb’s consent formal) Your solicitor will need to obtain your signed consent.

something requires sb’s consent Your consent is required before we can apply for a medical report.

grant consent formal (= give it formally) The local council was prepared to grant consent to the project.

refuse (your) consent When the firm applied for consent to build on the site, it was refused.

withhold (your) consent (= not give it) A patient has the right to withhold consent to treatment. 

88

written consent

verbal consent

parental consent

sb’s prior consent 

informed consent

written consent If you are under 18, you need your parents’ written consent to get married.

verbal consent (= spoken consent) He gave his verbal consent to have the interview taped.

parental consent (= from someone’s parents) Students may not be absent from school without parental consent.

sb’s prior consent (= consent before you do something) Do not take photographs of people without obtaining their prior consent.

informed consent (= based on full information about what will happen) The men took part in this study after giving informed consent. 

89

express consent

tacit consent

the age of consent 

express consent (= consent that is given in a verbal or written way, and not consent that you assume someone gives) Your medical records will only be released with your express consent.

tacit consent (= one that is not given verbally or in writing, but that you feel someone has given) If you continue to live in a particular state when it is possible to leave, this implies tacit consent to that state’s political system.

the age of consent (= the age at which someone can legally marry or have sex) She was fifteen, under the age of consent, when she became pregnant. 

90

commence AC / kəˈmens / verb [intransitive and transitive] formal

to begin or to start something: شروع شدن، شروع کردن

Work will commence on the new building immediately.

Your first evaluation will be six months after you commence employment.

commence with

The course commences with a one week introduction to Art Theory.

commence doing something

The planes commenced bombing at midnight.

Register

In everyday English, people usually say start rather than commence:

The concert was just about to start.

91

commencement AC / kəˈmensmənt / noun formal

1 [uncountable] the beginning of something شروع

commencement of

the commencement of building work

2 [uncountable and countable] American English a ceremony at which university, college, or high school students receive their diplomas SYN graduation فارغ التحصیلی

92

beginning 

start 

commencement formal 

origin

the onset of something

dawn literary 

birth 

beginning the first part of something such as a story, event, or period of time:

The beginning of the movie is very violent. | Let’s go back to the beginning.

start the beginning of something, or the way something begins:

Tomorrow marks the start of the presidential election campaign. | It was not a good start to the day. | The runners lined up for the start of the race.

commencement formal the beginning of something – used especially in official contexts: شروع- چیزای اداری و رسمی

the commencement of the academic year | the commencement of the contract

origin the point from which something starts to exist:منشا

He wrote a book about the origins of the universe. | The tradition has its origins in medieval times.

the onset of something the time when something bad begins, such as illness, old age, or cold weather: شروع چیزهای منفی

the onset of winter | An active lifestyle can delay the onset of many diseases common to aging.

dawn literary the beginning of an important period of time in history: شروع- موارد تاریخی

People have worshipped gods since the dawn of civilization.

birth the beginning of something important that will change many people’s lives: شروع -چیزایی که رو جامعه اثر داره

the birth of democracy in South Africa | the birth of the environmental movement 

93

commend / kəˈmend / verb [transitive] formal

1 to praise or approve of someone or something publicly ستودن

commend somebody for something

Inspector Marshall was commended for his professional attitude.

The paper was highly commended in the UK Press Awards.

2 to tell someone that something is good or that it deserves attention SYN recommend: پیشنهاد کردن

Colleagues, I commend this report to you.

McKellen’s performance had much to commend it (= was very good).

3 commend itself (to somebody) formal if something commends itself to you, you approve of it:

The plan did not commend itself to the Allies. 

94

praise

congratulate

compliment

flatter 

rave about something (also enthuse about something formal) enthuse

applaud formal 

commend formal 

hail somebody/something as something especially written 

praise to say that you admire and approve of someone or something, especially publicly:

The film was praised by the critics when it first came out. | The report praises staff in both schools. | It’s important to praise children.

congratulate to tell someone that you think it is good that they have achieved something:

I congratulated him on his success. | The government should be congratulated for what they have achieved.

compliment to say to someone that you like how they look, or you like something they have done:

She complimented me on my new hairstyle. | He complimented my cooking.

flatter to praise someone in order to please them or get something from them, even though you do not mean it:

He had persuaded her to buy it by flattering her and being charming. | You’re just flattering me!

rave about something (also enthuse about something formal) to talk about something you enjoy or admire in an excited way, and say that it is very good. Rave is rather informal, whereas enthuse is much more formal and is used mainly in written English:

Everyone is raving about the movie. | She enthused about the joys of motherhood.

applaud formal to publicly praise a decision, action, idea etc.:

Business leaders applauded the decision. | A spokeperson applauded the way the festival had been run.

commend formal to praise someone or something, especially officially:

After the battle, Andrew Jackson commended him for ‘his courage and fidelity’. | The officers should be commended for their prompt action.

hail somebody/something as something especially written to describe someone or something in a way that shows you have a very good opinion of them, especially in newspapers, on television reports etc.:

The book was hailed as a masterpiece. | Journalists and music writers hailed the band as ‘the next big thing’. | He is being hailed as the new James Dean. 

95

commendable / kəˈmendəb ə l / adjective formal

commendably adverb 

deserving praise: ستودنی

Your enthusiasm is highly commendable.

Baldwin answered with commendable honesty.

96

denounce / dɪˈnaʊns / verb [transitive]

1 to express strong disapproval of someone or something, especially in public محکوم کردن

Amnesty International denounced the failure by the authorities to take action.

denounce somebody/something as something

He denounced the election as a farce.

2 to give information to the police or another authority about someone’s illegal political activities لو دادن کسی به پلیس

denounce somebody to somebody

She denounced him to the police. 

97

denunciation / dɪˌnʌnsiˈeɪʃ ə n / noun [countable]

a public statement in which you criticize someone or something شکایت