Flashcards in BARRON13: Treatment of Psychological Disorders Deck (40):
TYPES of THERAPY? (2)
- psychoanalytic, humanistic, behavioral, and cognitive psychogists share a belief in the power of: PSYCHOTHERAPY (largely consists of TALKING to a psychologist)
- psychologists who subscribe to a BIOMEDICAL model: SOMATIC TREATMENTS (e.g. treatment with drugs)
TECHNIQUES Freud developed to delve into the unconscious minds of his patients...(3)
- FREE ASSOCIATION – to say whatever comes to mind w/out thinking (go past the ego's defenses...)
- DREAM ANALYSIS
In dream analysis, what the patient REPORTS is called the .. .. of the dream. What is really of interest to the analyst is the .. ..
- MANIFEST CONTENT
- LATENT CONTENT
ASPECTS of psychoanalysis: things they believe in...(3) (vocab)
- RESISTANCE: patients object to the therapist's interpretations (the stronger the disagreement, the closer the analyst is coming to the source of the problem...)
- TRANSFERENCE: patients begin to develop strong feelings toward therapists: may think they are in love with therapists, may view them as parental figures, may seethe with hatred towards them
- SYMPTOM SUBSTITUTION: when, after a person is successfully treated for one psychological disorder, the person begins to experience a new psychological problem --> this is because the person's symptoms are outward manifestations of deeper problems that can only be cured thru analysis
INSIGHT THERAPIES highlight...
- the importance of patients/clients GAINING AN UNDERSTANDING of their problems
Different forms of TREATMENT of psychological disorders thru the ages... (6)
- early form of "treatment:" trephining: drilling holes in the skull in order to let bad spirits escape
- ancient greece and rome: hippocrates and galen from rome believed that psychological illnesses were influenced by BIOLOGICAL FACTORS and could be treated
- middle ages: possessed by devil
- enlightenment: reformers such as phillippe pinel and dorothea dix against systems that treats mentally ill like criminals --> advocates separate and kinder institutions
- 1950s: deinstitutionalization (which ultimately wasn't successful because the mentally disabled couldn't take care of themselves)
- recent trends: PREVENTATIVE EFFORTS (treating psychological problems before they become severe) (reduces govt cost and suffering of client)
PREVENTATIVE EFFORTS: primary, secondary, tertiary?
- PRIMARY: efforts to reduce the incidence of societal problems e.g. joblessness, homelessness
- SECONDARY: working w. people at risk of developing specific problems e.g. counseling ppl who have been in an area where there has been a trauma e.g. natural disaster, terrorist attack..
- TERTIARY: efforts aimed at keeping who already have mental disorders from becoming more severe: e.g. working with earthquake survivors who are already suffering from an anxiety disorder
- holds that people have no influence over what happens to them and that their choices are PREDETERMINED by FORCES OUTSIDE OF THEIR CONTROL.
One of the best known HUMANISTIC therapists was .. .. an he advocated...
- CARL ROGERS
- client/person-centered therapy --> provide the client with UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD – blank acceptance and support of the person regardless of what the person says or does
- humanistic therapy is NON-DIRECTIVE; ACTIVE LISTENING
Humanistic therapies are in general, NON-DIRECTIVE. What does this mean?
- therapists would not tell their clients WHAT TO DO, but rather, would seek to help the clients CHOOSE A COURSE OF ACTION for themselves; often engaged in ACTIVE LISTENING - mirroring back and clarifying the feelings of the patient.
Another type of humanistic therapy, excluding Rogerian therapy, is .. .. developed by .. .. . These therapists encourage the patient to....
- GESTALT THERAPY
- FRITZ PERLS
- get in touch with their WHOLE SELVES; want their client to integrate all their actions, feelings and thoughts into a harmonious whole. they stress the importance of the PRESENT...
Types of HUMANISTIC THERAPIES?
- ROGERIAN THERPAY
- GESTALT THERAPY
- EXISTENTIAL THERAPY
- focus on helping clients achieve a subjectively meaningful perception of their lives. --> view client's distress as being caused by the client's loss of his 'life's purpose.' therefore, these therapists seek to support clients and help them FORMULATE A VISION of their lives as WORTHWHILE.
- process thru which a person learns by OBSERVING and then IMITATING THE BEHAVIOR of another.
Who developed COUNTERCONDITIONING? What is it?
- developed by MARY COVER JONES: unpleasant conditioned response is replaced with a pleasant one.
One behaviorist method of treatment involving counterconditioning that has had considerable success with helping people get over anxiety disorders is called .. .., developed by .. ..; it involves...
- SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION
- JOSEPH WOLPE
- teaching the client to replace feelings of anxiety with relaxation. relaxation techniques, then develops an ANXIETY HIERARCHY, in vivo or covert desensitization
IN VIVO DESENSITIZATION vs. COVERT DESENSITIZATION?
- in vivo: client confronts the actual feared object/situation
- covert: client IMAGINES the fear-inducing stimuli
Another method of treating anxiety disorder that uses classical conditioning techniques (vs. systematic desensitization) is....
- FLOODING: having the client address the most frightening scenario first --> produces tremendous anxiety; the idea is that if the clients face their fears and do not back down, they will son realize that their fears are irrational and their fear will be EXTINGUISHED.
- pairing a habit a person wishes to break with an unpleasant stimulus
How can OPERANT CONDITIONING be used as a method of treatment?
- use REINFORCEMENT and PUNISHMENT to shape a person's behavior --> e.g. TOKEN ECONOMY
Humanistic therapy key words? (4)
- HUMAN GOODNESS
- FREE WILL (capable of controlling their own destinies)
- MOTIVATION GOALS
Who created COGNITIVE THERAPY? What is it used to treat?
- AARON BECK
- mostly depression
--> involves trying to get clients to engage in pursuits that will bring them SUCCESS -- will alleviate depression, challenge their irrationally negative beliefs.
What is CBT?
- cognitive-behavioral therapy;
RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY? Developed by who?
--> a COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL approach; developed by ALBERT ELLIS; look to expose and confront dysfunctional behavior; encourages clients to engage in the behaviors they fear (e.g. social phobias), thus demonstrating that the cataclysmic outcome they expect does not actually occur.
- developed rational emotive behavioral therapy (rebt)
Types of GROUP THERAPY?
- FAMILY THERAPY
- GROUP THERAPY; therapists meets with people experiencing the same problems;
- SELF-HELP GROUPS; group therapy that does not involve a therapist e.g. alcoholics anonymous
ADVANTAGES of GROUP THERAPY and in specific, family therapy? (4)
- LESS EXPENSIVE
- offers INSIGHT and FEEDBACK of PEERS in addition to therapist's feedback
- clients problems do not occur in a vaccuum, family therapy is helpful in revealing the PATTERNS OF INTERACTION b/w the family members
- help alter the behavior of the WHOLE FAMILY rather than just one member
Examples of ORGANIC CAUSES of PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS? (3)
- IMBALANCES IN NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES
- STRUCTURAL ABNORMALITIES in the BRAIN
- GENETIC PREDISPOSITION
Other names for "DRUG STABILIZERS." (2)
How do we usually treat SCHIZOPHRENIA? What is an unfortunate side-effect?
- generally treated with ANTI-PSYCHOTIC drugs such as THORAZINE, or HALDOL;
- these drugs generally function by blocking RECEPTOR SITES for DOPAMINE
- side-effect of antipsychotic medication: TARDIVE DYSKINESIA: parkinsonion-like, chronic muscle tremors
(3) most common drugs used to treat unipolar depression? What do they tend to do?
- TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS
- MONOAMINE OXIDASE (MOA) inhibitors
- SEROTONIN-REUPTAKE-INHIBITOR DRUGS (most notably PROZAC)
What does PROZAC do?
- it is used to treat unipolar depression; inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin.
What is LITHIUM used for?
- lithium, a metal, is often used to treat the MANIC PHASE of BIPOLAR DISORDER.
What drugs are typically used to treat anxiety disorders? What do they do?
- two main types of anti-anxiety drugs are: BARBITUATES (e.g. MILTOWN); and BENZODIAZEPINES (e.g. XANAX, VALIUM)
- essentially, these drugs act by depressing the activity of the CNS, thus making people feel more relaxed.
Types of ECT? Side-effects? What is the theory to how it works? (3)
- there are two types of ECT: bilateral ect (both hemispheres of the brain) and unilateral ECT (only one hemisphere); it is used, most often, for severe cases of depression when all else has failed.
- side effect: bilateral ECT tends to have more severe side effects, most notably LOSS OF MEMORY. --> electric shocks cause patients to experience brief seizure(given a muscle relaxant to minimize effects of seizure); may lose consciousness
- how it works is not completely understood...one theory suggests that the benefits are the result in a change in the BRAIN'S BLOOD FLOW PATTERNS.
- medical doctors that are permitted to prescribe medication in most US states. --> not surprisingly, often favor a BIOMEDICAL APPROACH and are often less extensively trained in psychotherapy
- these psychologist earn doctoral degrees (PhDs) that requre 4+ years of study. part of their training inovlves an internship during which they are overseen by a more experienced professional. Clinical psychologists uaully deal w/ people who are suffering from problems more severe than everyday difficulties with work and family.
- typically have some kind of graduate degree in psychology. Their training also includes an intership overseen by a more experienced professional. (e.g. of counseling therapists: school psychologists; marriage and family therapists; generally help ppl whose problems that are less severe than those that bring ppl to clinical psychologists
- ppl specifically trained in freudian methods. they may/may not hold medical degrees