the clumping of cells as a result of interaction with specific antibodies called agglutinins. Agglutinins are used in blood typing and in identifying or estimating the strength of immunoglobulins or immune serums
a plasma protein. Various of these plasma proteins are found in practically all animal tissues and many plant tissues. In blood, it helps maintain blood volume and blood pressure
a substance that can produce a hypersensitive reaction in the body
a hypersensitive reaction to normally harmless antigens, most of which are environmental
an exaggerated, life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered antigen.
an abnormal condition of the blood characterized by red blood cells of variable and abnormal size
substances produced by the body in response to bacteria, viruses, or other foreign substances. Each class of antibody is named for its action.
a substance, usually a protein, that causes the formation of an antibody and reacts specifically with that antibody
an abnormal intraperitoneal (within the peritoneal cavity) accumulation of a fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes.
a granulocytic white blood cell characterized by cytoplasmic granules that stain blue when exposed to a basic dye. They represent 1% or less of the total white blood cell count.
the orange-yellow pigment f bile formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells after termination of their normal life span.
the process of transforming a liquid into a solid, especially of the blood
any cell of the body; a red or white blood cell
a process in development in which unspecialized cells or tissues are systemically modified and altered to achieve specific and characteristic physical forms, physiologic functions, and chemical properties.
an abnormal condition of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, or prenatal Rh incompatibility.
the abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissue
the movement of charged suspended particles though a liquid medium in response to changes in an electric field. Charged particles of a given substance migrate in a predictable direction and at a characteristic speed.
an organic substance that initiates and accelerates a chemical reaction
a granulocytic, bilobed leukocyte somewhat larger than a neutrophil characterized by large numbers of coarse, refractile, cytoplasmic granules that stain with the acid dye eosin.
an abnormal increase in the number or red blood cells
an immature red blood cell
a mature red blood cell
the process of red blood cell production
a hormone synthesized mainly in the kidneys and released into the bloodstream in response to anoxia (lack of oxygen). The hormone acts to stimulate and regulate the production of erythrocytes and is thus able to increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
a stringy, insoluble protein that is the substance of a blood clot.
a plasma protein converted into fibrin by thrombin in the presence of calcium ions
a group of four globulin protein molecules that become bound by the iron in heme molecules to form hemoglobin.
a plasma protein made in the liver. It helps in the synthesis of antibodies.
a type of leukocyte characterized by the presence of cytoplasmic granules.
a medical specialist in the field of hematology
the scientific study of blood and blood-forming tissues.
the pigmented, iron-containing, nonprotein portion of the hemoglobin molecule. Heme binds with and carries oxygen in the red blood cells releasing it to tissues that give off excess amounts of carbon dioxide.
a complex protein-iron compound in the blood that carries oxygen o the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from the cells to the lungs.
the breakdown of red blood cells and the release of hemoglobin that occurs normally at the end of the life span of a red cell.
a loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time, either externally or internally. May be arterial, venous, or capillary.
the termination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means or by the complex coagulation process of the body, consisting of vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, and thrombin and fibrin synthesis.
a naturally occurring anticlotting factor present in the body.
an increased level of albumin in the blood.
greater than normal amounts of the bile pigment, bilirubin, in the blood.
an excessive level of blood fats, usually caused by a lipoprotein lipase deficiency or a defect in the conversion of low-density lipoproteins to high-density lipoproteins; also called hyperlipidemia
an excessive level of blood fats, usually caused by a lipoprotein lipase deficiency or a defect in the conversion of low-density lipoproteins to high-density lipoproteins; also called hyperlipemia
an electrically charged particle
a white blood cell, one of the formed elements of the circulating blood system.
an abnormal decrease in number of white blood cells to fewer than 5,000 cells per cubic millimeter.
an extremely large bone marrow cell
a large mononuclear leukocyte
of or pertaining to the bone marrow or the spinal cord.
a polymorphonuclear (multilobed nucleus) granular leukocyte that stains easily with neutral dyes.
a marked reduction in the number of the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
a craving to eat unusual substances (non-food substances), including but not limited to things such as clay, dirt, starch, chalk, glue, ice and hair. This appetite disorder occurs with some nutritional deficiency states such as iron deficiency anemia. It may also occur in pregnancy
the watery, straw-colored, fluid portion of the lumph and the blood in which the leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets are suspended.
a clotting cell; a thrombocyte
a plasma protein precursor of thrombin. It is synthesized in the liver if adequate vitamin K is present.
an immature erythrocyte characterized by a meshlike pattern of threads and particles at the former site of the nucleus
systemic infection in which pathogens are present in the circulating bloodstream, having spread from an infection in any part of the body
a change in serologic tests from negative to positive as antibodies develop in reaction to an infection or vaccine.
the branch of laboratory medicine tat studies the blood serum for evidence of infection by evaluating antigen-antibody reactions.
the clear, thin, and sticky fluid portion of the blood that remains after coagulation. It contains no blood cells, platelets, or fibrinogen
an abnormal enlargement of the spleen
a formative cell; a cell whose daughter cells may give rise to other cell types.
an enzyme formed from prothrombin, calcum, and thromboplastin in plasma during the clotting process. It causes fibrin, which is essential in the formation of a clot.
a clotting cell; a platelet
an abnormal hematologic condition in which the number of platelets is reduced.
a complex substance that initiaties the clotting process by converting prothrombin into thrombin in the presence of calcium ion.
a condition in which there is a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood levels below the normal range, resulting in a deficiency of oxygen being delivered to the cells
it is characterized by pancytopenia - an inadequacy of the formed blood elements (RBCs, WBCs, and platelets); also called bone marrow depression
it is characterized by the extreme reduction in circulating RBCs due to their destruction.
anemia, iron deficiency
it is characterized by deficiency of hemoglobin level due to a lack of iron in the body. There is a greater demand on the stored iron than can be supplied by the body.
results from a deficiency of mature RBCs and the formation and circulation of megaloblasts (large, nucleated, immature, shape formation) and anisocytosis (RBC size variation.
anemia, sickle cell
a chronic, hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the RBCs become shaped like a crescent in the presence of ow oxygen concentration.
an abnormally elevated number of granulocytes in the circulating blood as a reaction to any variety of inflammation or infection.
a rare iron metabolism disease characterized by iron deposits throughout the body, usually as a complication of the hemolytic anemias.
involves different hereditary inadequacies of coagulation factors resulting in prolonged bleeding times.
an excessive uncontrolled increase of immature WBCs in the blood eventually leading to infection, anemia and thrombocytopenia (decreased number of platelets)
a malignant plasma cell neoplasm, it causes an increase in the number of both mature and immature plasma cells, which often entirely replace the bone marrow
is an abnormal increase in the number of RBCs, granulocytes, and thrombocytes, leading to an increase in blood volume and viscosity (thickness)
a collection of blood beneath the skin in the form of pinpoint hemmorrhages appearing as red-purple skin discolorations.
is a hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the alpha or beta hemoglobin chains are defective and the production of hemoglobin is deficient, creating hypochromic microcytic RBCs.
direct antiglobulin test
is used to discover the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies present in the blood of an Rh- woman. The production of these antibodies is associated with an Rh incompatibility between a pregnant Rh negative woman and her Rh positive fetus.
measurement of time required for the bleeding to stop
an administration of blood or a blood component to an individual to replace blood lost through surgery, trauma or disease.
bone marrow biopsy
the microscopic exam of bone marrow tissue, which fully evaluates hematopoiesis by revealing the number, shape and size of the RBCs and WBCs and platelet precursors.
bone marrow transplant
after receiving an intravenous infusion of aggressive chemotherapy or total-body irradiation to destroy all malignant cells and to inactivate the immune system, a donor’s bone marrow cells are infused intravenously into the recipient.
complete blood cell count (CBC)
a series of tests performed on peripheral blood, which inexpensively screens for problems in the hematologic system as well as in several other organ systems.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
is a test performed on the blood, which measure the rate at which red blood cells settle out in a tube of unclotted blood. It is determined by measuring the settling distance of RBCs in normal saline over one hour.
an assessment of RBC percentage in the total blood volume
concentration measurement of the hemoglobin in the peripheral blood. As a vehicle for transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide, these levels provide information about the body’s ability to supply tissues with oxygen.
measures the lipids in the blood
partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
a blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and system of clot formation within the body.
the count of platelets per cubic millimeter of blood
prothrombin time (PT)
a blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and extrinsic system of clot formation.
red blood cell count (RBC)
the measurement of the circulating number of RBCs in 1 cubic millimeter of peripheral blood.
red blood cell morphology
an examination of the RBC, on a stained blood smear that enables the examiner to identify the for and shape of the RBCs.
a measurement of the number of circulation reticulocytes, immature erythrocytes, in a blood specimen.
an aggregation of RBCs viewed through the microscope that may be an artifact or may occur with persons with multiple myeloma as a result of abnormal proteins.
a diagnostic analysis for pernicious anema
white blood cell (WBC) count
the measurement of the circulating number of WBCs in 1 cubic millimeter of peripheral blood.
white blood cell differential
a measurement of the percentage of each specific type of circulating WBCs present in 1 cubic millimeter of peripheral blood drawn for the WBC count
blood groups: A, AB, B, and O
antihemophilic factor (blood coagulation factor VIII)
acute lyphatic leukemia
acute myelogeous leukemia
bone marrow transplanation
complete blood (cell) count
chronoic lymphocytic leukemia
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
granulocyte-machrphage colony-stimulating factor
hemoglobin (also Hgb)
hemoglobin (also Hbg)
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, wIgM
immunoglobulin A, D, E, G, and M, respectively
mean cell hemoglobin
mean cell hemoglobin concentration
polymorphonuclear neutrophil (leukocytes)
partial thromboplastin time
red blood cell (erythrocyte)
white blood cell (leukocyte)
immunity that is a result of the body developing the ability to defend itself against a specific agent, as a result of having had the disease or from having received an immunization against a disease.
masses of lymphatic tissue located near the opening of the nasal cavity into the pharynx; also called the pharyngeal tonsils
the accumulation of fluid within the tissue spaces
an abnormal condition characterized by an excessive reaction to a particular stimulus
immune reaction (immune response)
a defense function of the body that produces antibodies to destroy invading antigens and malignancies.
the state of being resistant to or protected from a disease. the individual is said to be “immune”
the process of creating immunity to a specific disease.
the health specialist whose training and experience is concentrated in immunology.
the study of the reaction of tissues of the immune system of the body to antigenic simulation
a special treatment of allergic responses that administers increasingly large doses of the offending allergens to gradually develop immunity.
a reaction to treatment that occurs at the site it was administered.
interstitial fluid picked up by the lymphatic capillaries and eventually returned to the blood. Once the interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic vessels, it is known as lymph
any disorder of the lymph nodes or lymph vessels, characterized by localized or generalized enlargement
small, agranulocytic leukocytes originating from fetal stem cells and developing in the bone marrow.
any phagocytic cell involved in the defense against infection and in the disposal of the products of the breakdown of cells. Macrophages are found in the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lungs, brain, and spinal cord.
immunity with which we are born; also called genetic immunity.
the process of a cell engulfing and destroying bacteria.
the body’s ability to counteract the effects of pathogens and other harmful agents.
a state of having a lack of resistance to pathogens and other harmful agents.
cells important to the immune response. they mature in the lhymus. upon maturation, the T cells enter the blood and circulate throughout the body, providing defense against disease by attacking foreign and/or abnormal cells.
masses of lymphatic tissue located in a protective ring, just under the mucous membrane, surrounding the mouth and back of the throat.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
involves clinical conditions that destroy the body’s immune system in the last or final phase of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which primarily damages helper T cell lymphocytes with CD4 receptors
a large species-specific herpes-type virus with a wide variety of disease effects. It causes serious illness in persons with AIDS, in newborns, and in individuals who are being treated with immunosuppressive drugs (as in individuals who have received an organ transplant). The virus usually results in retinal or gastrointestinal infection.
tissue damage resulting from exaggerated immune response.
a syndrome involving a deficiency of one or more type of blood cells and an enlarge spleen.
a locally destructive malignant neoplasm of the blood vessels associated with AIDS, typically forming lesions on the skin, visceral organs, or mucous membranes. These lesions appear initially as tiny red to purple macules and evolve into sizable nodules or plaques.
a lymphoid tissue neoplam that is typically malignant beginning with a painless enlarged lymph node(s) and progressing to anemia, weakness, fever, and weight loss.
usually called by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), mononucleosis typically is benign, self-limiting acute infection of the B lymphocytes.
an autoimmune disease in which antibodies block or destroy some acetycholine receptor sites.
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
caused by a common worldwide parasite, pneumocystis carinii, for which most people have immunity if they are not severely immunocompromised.
a systemic inflammatory disease resulting in the formation of multiple small, rounded lesions (grandulomas) in the lungs (comprising 90%), lymph nodes, eyes, liver and other organs.
systemic lupis erythematosus
an inflammatory connective tissue diesease, chronic in nature, in which immune complexes are formed from the reaction of SLE autoantibodies and their corresponding antigens. These immune complexes are deposited in the connective tissues of lymphatic vessels, blood vessels, and other tissues.
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
a blood test used for screening for an antibody to the AIDS virus
the western blot test detects the presence of the antibodies to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, used to confirm validity of ELISA tests.
CT (CAT) scan
a collection of X-ray images taken from various angles following injection of a contrast medium
an X-ray assessment of the lymphatic system following injection of a contrast medium into the lymph vessels in the hand or foot.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
human immunodeficiency virus
herpes simplex virus
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
systemic lupus erythematosus