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Flashcards in Ingumentary System Deck (178)
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1
Q

abrasion

A

a scraping or rubbing away of skin or mucous membrane as a result of friction to the area

2
Q

abscess

A

a localized collection of pus in any part of the body

3
Q

albino

A

an individual with a marked deficiency of pigment in the eyes, hair and skin

4
Q

alopecia

A

partial or complete loss of hair

5
Q

amputation

A

surgical removal of a part of the body or a limb, or a part of a limb

6
Q

basal layer

A

the deepest of the five layers of the epidermis

7
Q

blackhead

A

an open comedo, caused by accumulation of keratin and sebum with the opening of a hair follicle

8
Q

blister

A

a small thin-walled skin leasion containing clear fluid; a vesicle

9
Q

boil

A

a localized pus-producing infection originating deep in a hair follicle; a furnucle

10
Q

bruise

A

a bluish-black discoloration of an area of skin or mucous membrane caused by an escape of blood into the tissues as a result of an injury to the area

11
Q

bulla

A

a large blister

12
Q

carbuncle

A

a circumscribed inflammation of the skin and deeper tissues that contains pus, which eventually discharges to the skin surface

13
Q

cellulitus

A

a diffuse acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, characterized by localized heat, deep redness, pain and swelling

14
Q

cerumen

A

ear wax

15
Q

ceruminous gland

A

a modified sweat gland that lubricates the skin of the ear canal with a yellowish-brown waxy substance called cerumen (ear wax)

16
Q

cicatrix

A

scar; the pale, firm tissue that forms in the healing of a wound

17
Q

circumscribed

A

confined to a limited space or well-defined area (as if a circle were drawn around it)

18
Q

collagen

A

the protein substance that forms the glistening inelastic fibers of connective tissue such as tendons, ligaments, and fascia

19
Q

comedo

A

the typical lesion of acne vulgaris, caused by an accumulation of keratin and sebum within the opeing of a hair follicle (closed: whitehead or open: blackhead)

20
Q

contusion

A

an injury to a part of the body without a break in the skin

21
Q

corium

A

dermis; the layer of the skin just under the epidermis

22
Q

cryosurgery

A

a noninvasive treatment that uses subfreezing temperature to freeze and destroy tissue. Coolants such as liquid nitrogen are used in the metal probe

23
Q

curettage

A

the process of scraping material from the wall of a cavity or other surface fro the purpose of removing abnormal tissue or unwanted material

24
Q

cutaneous membrane

A

skin

25
Q

cuticle

A

a fold of skin that covers the root of the fingernail or toenail

26
Q

cyanosis

A

a condition of a blueish discoloration of the skin

27
Q

cyst

A

a closed sac or pouch in or within the skin that contains fluid, semi-fluid or solid material

28
Q

debridement

A

removal of debris, foreign objects, and damaged or necrotic tissue from a wound in order to prevent infection and to promote healing

29
Q

dermatitis

A

inflammation of the skin

30
Q

dermatologist

A

a physician who specializes in the treatment of diseases and disorders of the skin

31
Q

dermatology

A

the study of the skin

32
Q

dermis

A

corium; the layer of skin just under the epidermis

33
Q

diaphoresis

A

the secretion of sweat

34
Q

ecchymosis

A

a bluish-black discoloration of an area of the skin or mucous membrane caused by an escape of blood into the tissues as a result of injury to the area; also known as a bruise

35
Q

electrodesiccation

A

a technique that uses an electrical spark to burn and destroy tissue; used primarily for the removal of surface lesions

36
Q

epidermis

A

the outermost layer of the skin

37
Q

epidermoid cyst

A

a cyst filled with a cheesy material compound of sebum and epithelial debris that has formed in the duct of a sebaceous gland; also known as a sebasceous cyst.

38
Q

epithelium

A

the tissue that covers the internal and external surfaces of the body

39
Q

erythema

A

redness of the skin due to capillary dialation

40
Q

erythremia

A

an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells; polycythemia vera

41
Q

erythroderma

A

redness of the skin due to capillary dialation

42
Q

excoriation

A

an injury to the surface of the skin caused by trauma such as scratching or abrasions

43
Q

exfoliation

A

peeling or sloughing off of tissue cells; as in peeling of the skin after a severe sunburn

44
Q

fissure

A

a crack-like sore or groove in the skin or mucous membrane

45
Q

fistula

A

an abnormal passageway between two tubular organs (e.g. rectum and vagina) or from an organ to the body surface

46
Q

furuncle

A

a localized pus-producing infection originating deep in a hair follicle; a boil

47
Q

gangrene

A

death of tissue, most often involving the extremities; is usually the result of ischemia (loss of blood supply to an area), bacterial invasion, and subsequent putrefaction (decaying) of the tissue

48
Q

hair follicle

A

the tiny tube within the dermis that contains the root of the hair shaft

49
Q

hair root

A

the portion of a strand of hair that is embedded in the hair follicle

50
Q

hair shaft

A

the visible part of the hair

51
Q

hemangioma

A

a benign (nonmalignant) tumor that consists of a mass of blood vessels and has a reddish-purple color

52
Q

heparin

A

a natural anticoagulant substance produced by the body tissues

53
Q

hirsutism

A

excessive body hair in an adult male distribution pattern, occurring in women

54
Q

histamine

A

a substance (found in all cells) that is released in allergic inflammatory reactions

55
Q

histocyte

A

macrophage; a large phagocytic cell (cell that ingests microorganisms, other cells, and foreign particles) occurring in the walls of blood vessels and loose connective tissue.

56
Q

hives

A

circumbscribed, slightly elevated lesions of the skin that are paler in the center than its surrounding edges

57
Q

hydrocele

A

a collection of fluid located in the area of the scrotal sac in the male

58
Q

ichthyosis

A

an inherited dermatological condition in which the skin is dry hyperkeratotic (hardened) and fissured - resembling fish scales

59
Q

integument

A

the skin

60
Q

integumentary system

A

the body system consisting of the skin, hair, nails, sweat glands and sebaceous glands

61
Q

keratin

A

a hard fibrous protein found in the epidermis, hair, nails, enamel of the teeth and the horns of animals

62
Q

keratolytic

A

an agent used to break down or loosen the horny (hardened) layer of the skin

63
Q

laceration

A

a tear in the skin

64
Q

lanugo

A

soft, very fine hair that covers the body of the developing getus; this hairy coating is almost completely gone by birth

65
Q

lesion

A

any visible damage to the tissues of the skin, such as a wound, sore, rash or boil

66
Q

lipocyte

A

a fat cell

67
Q

lunula

A

crescent-shaped pale area at the base of the fingernail or toenail

68
Q

macrophage

A

a large phagocytic cell (cell that ingests microorganisms, other cells, and foreign particles) occurring in the walls of blood vessels and loose connective tissue.

69
Q

macule

A

a small, flat discoloration of the skin that is neither raised nor depressed

70
Q

mast cell

A

a cell (found within the connective tissue) that contains heparin and histamine; these substances are released from the cell in response to injury and infection

71
Q

melanin

A

a black or dark pigment (produced by melanocytes within the epidermis) that contributes color to the skin and helps to filter ultra-violet light

72
Q

melanocytes

A

cells that produce melanin

73
Q

nail body

A

the visible part of the nail

74
Q

nodule

A

a small, circumscribed swelling protruding above the skin

75
Q

oil gland

A

one of the many small glands located in the dermis; its secretions provide oil to the hair and surrounding skin; sebaceous gland

76
Q

onycholysis

A

separation of a fingernail from its bed, beginning at the free margin

77
Q

onychomycosis

A

any fungal infection of the nail

78
Q

onychophagia

A

the habit of biting the nails

79
Q

pachyderma

A

abnormal thickening of the skin

80
Q

papule

A

a small, solid, circumscribed elevation of the skin

81
Q

paronychia

A

inflammation of the skin surrounding the fingernail; also called runaround

82
Q

pediculosis

A

infestation with lice

83
Q

perspiration

A

the clear, watery fluid produced by the sweat glands

84
Q

petechia

A

small, pinpoint hemorrhages of the skin

85
Q

pimple

A

a papule or pustule of the skin

86
Q

polyp

A

a small, stalk-like growth that protrudes upward or outward from the mucous membrane surface, resembling a mushroom stalk.

87
Q

pores

A

openings of the skin through which substances such as water, salts, and some fatty substances are excreted.

88
Q

pressure ulcer

A

an inflammation, sore, or ulcer in the skin over a bony prominence of the body, resulting from loss of blood supply and oxygen to the area due to prolonged pressure on the body part (aka decubitis ulcer)

89
Q

pruritus

A

itching

90
Q

purpura

A

a group of bleeding disorders characterized by bleeding into the skin and mucous membranes; small, pinpoint hemorrhages are known as petechia and larger hemorrhagic areas are known as ecchymoses or bruises

91
Q

pustule

A

a small elevation of the skin filled with pus; a small abscess

92
Q

scales

A

thin flakes of hardened epithelium shed from the epidermis

93
Q

sebaceous cyst

A

a cyst filled with a cheesy material consisting of sebum and epithelial debris that has formed in the duct of a sebaceous gland; also known as an epidermoid cyst

94
Q

sebaceous gland

A

an oil gland located in the dermis; it’s secretions provide oil to the hair and surrounding skin

95
Q

seborrhea

A

excessive secretion of the sebum, resulting in excessive oiliness or dry scales

96
Q

skin tags

A

a small brownish or flesh-colored outgrowth of skin occurring frequently on the neck; also known as a cutaneous papilloma

97
Q

squamous epithelial cells

A

flat scale-like cells arranged in layers (strata)

98
Q

squamous epithelium

A

the single layer of flattened platelike cells that cover internal and external body surfaces

99
Q

stratified

A

layered; arranged in layers

100
Q

stratum

A

a uniformly thick sheet or layer of cells

101
Q

stratum basale

A

the layer of skin where new cells are continually being reproduced, pushing older cells toward the outermost surface of the skin

102
Q

stratum corenum

A

the outermost later of the epidermis (consisting of dead cells that have converted to keratin), which continually sloughs off or flakes away; known as the keratinized cell layer

103
Q

stretch marks

A

linear tears in the dermis that result from overstretching from rapid growth. They begin as pinkish-blue streaks with jagged edges and may be accompanied by itching. As they heal and lose their color they remain as silvery-white scar lines, also known as stria

104
Q

subcutaneous tissue

A

the fatty layer of tissue located beneath the dermis

105
Q

subungual hematoma

A

a collection of blood beneath a nail bed, usually the result of trauma (injury)

106
Q

sudoriferous gland

A

sweat gland

107
Q

sweat

A

a clear, watery fluid produced by the sweat glands (also known as perspiration)

108
Q

sweat gland

A

one of the tiny structures within the dermis that produces sweat, which carries whiaste products to the surface of the skin for excretion, also known as the sudoriferous gland

109
Q

telangietcasia

A

the permanent dilation of groups of superficial capillaries and venules. These dilated vessels may be visible through the skin as tiny red lines.

110
Q

ulcer

A

a circumscribed, open sore or lesion of the skin that is accompanies by inflammation

111
Q

urticaria

A

a reaction of the skin in which there is an appearance of smooth slightly elevated patches (wheals) that are redder or paler than the surrounding skin and often accompanied by sever itching (pruritus).

112
Q

vesicle

A

a small thin-walled skin lesion containing clear fluid; a blister

113
Q

vitiligo

A

a skin disorder characterized by nonpigmented white patches of skin of varying sizes that are surrounded by skin with normal pigmentation

114
Q

wheal

A

a circumscribed, slightly elevated lesion of the skin that is paler in the center than its surrounding edges; hives

115
Q

whitehead

A

closed comedo caused by accumulation of keratin and sebum within the opening of a hair follicle; the content within is not easily expressed.

116
Q

xanthoderma

A

any yellow coloration of the skin

117
Q

xeroderma

A

a chronic skin condition characterized by roughness and dryness

118
Q

callus

A

a common (usually painless) thickening of the epidermis at sites of external pressure or friction, such as weight-bearing areas of the feet and a palmar surface of the hands. This localized hyperplastic area of up to 1” in size is also known as a callosity

119
Q

carcinoma, basal cell

A

a malignant epithelial cell tumor that begins as a slighly elevated nodule with a depression or ulceration in the center that becomes more obvious as the tumor grows. as the depression enlarges, the tissue breaks down, crusts, and bleeds

120
Q

carcinoma, squamous cell

A

a malignancy of the squamous (or scale like) cells of the epithelial tissue, which is a much faster growing cancer than basal cell carcinoma and which has a greater potential for metastasis if not treated.

121
Q

eczema

A

an acute or chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles , pustules, scales, crusts or scabs and accompanied by intense itching

122
Q

exanthematous viral diseases

A

a skin eruption or rash accompanied by inflammation, having specific diagnostic features of an infectious viral disease

123
Q

herpes zoster

A

shingles; an acute viral infection characterized by painful vesicular eruptions on the skin following along the nerve pathways of underlying spinal or cranial nerves

124
Q

hyperkeratosis

A

an overgrowth of the horny layer of the epidermis

125
Q

impetigo

A

contagious superficial skin infection characterized by serous vesicles and pustules filled with millions of staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria, usually forming on the face

126
Q

kaposi’s sarcoma

A

vascular malignant lesions that begin as soft-purple-brown nodules or plaques on the face and oral cavity but can occur anywhere on the body and gradually spread throughout the skin

127
Q

keloid

A

an enlarged, irregularly shaped and elevated scar that forms due to the presence of large amounts of collagen during the formation of a scar

128
Q

leukopakia

A

white, hard, thickened patches firmly attached to the mucous membrane in areas such as the mouth, vulva, or penis

129
Q

malignant melanoma

A

malignant skin tumor originating from melanocytes in preexisting nervi, freckles, or skin with pigment; darkly pigmented cancerous tumor

130
Q

nevos

A

a visual accumulation of melanocytes, creating a flat or raised rounded macule or papule with definite borders

131
Q

onychocryptosis

A

ingrown nail. The nail pierces the lateral fold of the skin and grows into the dermis, causing swelling and pain

132
Q

onychomycosis

A

a fungal infection of the nails

133
Q

pediculosis

A

a highly contagious parasitic infestation caused by blood-sucking lice.

134
Q

pemphigus

A

a rare incurable disorder manifested by blisters in the mouth and on the skin which spread to involve large areas of the body, including the chest, face, umbilicus, back and groin

135
Q

pilonidal cyst

A

a closed sac located in the sacrococcygeal area of the back. sometimes noted at birth as a dimple

136
Q

psoriasis

A

a common, non-infectious chronic disorder of the skin manifested by silvery-white scales covering round, raised, reddened plaques producing itching

137
Q

rosacea

A

chronic inflammatory skin disease that mainly affects the skin of the middle third of the face. The individual has persistent redness over the areas of the face, nose and cheeks

138
Q

scabies

A

a highly contagious parasitic infestation caused by the “human itch mite” resulting in a rash, pruritis, and slightly raised thread-like lines

139
Q

scleroderma

A

a gradual thicking of the dermis and swelling of the hands and feet to a state which the skin is anchored to the underlying tissue

140
Q

systemic lupis erythethatosus

A

a chronic, multisystem inflammatory disease characterized by lesions of the nervous system and skin, renal problems, and vasculitis. a red rash known as the “butterfly rash” is often seen o nthe nose and face

141
Q

tinea

A

more commonly known as ringworm, a chronic fungal infection of the skin that is characterized by scaling, itching, and sometimes painful lesions. The lesions are named according to the body part affected.

142
Q

tinea capitis

A

ringworm of the scalp

143
Q

tinea corporis

A

ringworm of the body is characterized by round patches with elevated red borders of pustules, papules, or vesicles that affect the non-hairy skin of the body. Lesion looks like a circle and is raised

144
Q

tinea cruris

A

ringworm of the groin (aka jock itch)

145
Q

tinea pedis

A

ringworm of the foot (aka athlete’s foot)

146
Q

wart (verruca)

A

a benign, circumscribed elevated skin lesion that results from hypertrophy of the epidermis; caused by the human papilloma virus

147
Q

plantar warts

A

warts occur either singly or in clusters on the soles of the foot. they occur primarily at points of pressure

148
Q

verruca vulgaris

A

common wart; occurs on the face, elbow, fingers or hands

149
Q

condyloma acuminata

A

venereal warts

transmitted via sexual contact and are found on the female genitalia, the penis or the rectum

150
Q

seborrheic warts

A

benign circumscribed, slightly raised lesion that occur on the face, neck, chest, or upper back and are often accompanied by itching.

151
Q

allergy testing

A

various procedures used to identify specific allergens in an individual by exposing the person to a very small quantity of the allergen

152
Q

cautery

A

heat or caustic substances that burn and scar the skin

153
Q

dermabrasion

A

removal of epidermis and a portion of the dermis with sandpaper or brushes to eliminate superficial scars or unwanted tatoos.

154
Q

dermatoplasty

A

skin transplantation to a body surface damaged by injury or disease

155
Q

electrosurgery

A

the removal or destruction of tissue with an electrical current

156
Q

escharotomy

A

an incision made into the necrotic tissue resulting from a severe burn

157
Q

fulguration

A

electrodesiccation; a technique using an electrical spark to burn or destroy tissue

158
Q

liposuction

A

aspiration of fat through a suction cannula or curette to alter the body contours

159
Q

skin biopsy

A

the removal of a small piece of tissue from a skin lesion for the purpose of examining it under a microscope to confirm or establish a diagnosis

160
Q

skin graft

A

a process of placing tissue on the recipient site, taken from a donor site to provide the protective mechanisms of skin to an area unable to regenerate skin (as in third-degree burns).

161
Q

wood’s lamp

A

an ultraviolet light used to examine the scalp and skin for the purpose of observing fungal spores

162
Q

Bx, bx

A

biopsy

163
Q

decub.

A

decubitus (ulcer); pressure sore

164
Q

derm.

A

dermatology

165
Q

DLE

A

discoid lupus erythematosus

166
Q

EAHF

A

eczema, asthma and hayfever

167
Q

FANA

A

fluorescent antinuclear antibody

168
Q

FS

A

frozen section

169
Q

ID

A

intradermal

170
Q

I&D

A

incision and drainage

171
Q

LE

A

(systemic) lupus erythematosus

172
Q

PPD

A

purified protein derivative

173
Q

PSS

A

progressive systemic scleroderma

174
Q

subq.

A

subcutaneous

175
Q

TENS

A

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

176
Q

ung.

A

ointment

177
Q

UV

A

ultraviolet (light)

178
Q

XP, XDP

A

xeroderma pigmentosum