Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (125):
1

antiseptic

a substance that tends to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms.

2

arteriole

the smallest branch of an artery

3

aseptic technique

any health care procedure in which precautions are taken to prevent contamination of a person, object, or area by microorganisms

4

asymptomatic

without symptoms.

5

azotemia

the presence of excessive amounts of waste products of metabolism (nitrogenous compounds) in the blood caused by failure of the kidneys to remove urea from the blood. A characteristic of uremia

6

Bowman's capsule

the cup-shaped end of a renal tubule containing a glomerulus; also called glomerular capsule

7

calculus

an abnormal stone formed in the body tissues by an accumulation of mineral salts; usually formed in the gallbladder and kidney; also called renal calculus

8

calyx

the cup-shaped division of the renal pelvis through which urine passes from the renal tubules

9

catheter

a hollow, flexible tube that can be inserted into a body cavity or vessel for the purpose of instilling or withdrawing fluid.

10

cortex

the outer layer of a body organ or structure.

11

cystometer

an instrument that measures bladder capacity in relation to changing pressure.

12

cystoscope

an instrument used to view the interior of the bladder. It consists of an outer sheath with a lighting system, a scope for viewing, and a passage for catheters and devices used in surgical procedures; may also be referred to as a "cysto"

13

dialysate

solution that contains water and electrolytes that passes through the artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and wastes from the blood; also called a "bath".

14

dialysis

the process of removing waste products from the blood when the kidneys are unable to do so. Hemodialysis involves passing the blood through an artificial kidney for filtering out impurities. Peritoneal dialysis involves introducing fluid into the abdomen through a catheter. Through the process of osmosis, this fluid draws waste products out of the capillaries into the abdominal cavity. It is then removed from the abdomen via a catheter.

15

dwell time

length of time the dialysis solution stays in the peritoneal cavity during peritoneal dialysis

16

fossa

a hollow or depression, especially on the surface of the end of a bone. In kidney transplantation,the donor kidney is surgically placed in the iliac fossa of the recipient.

17

glomerular filtrate

Substances that filter out of the blood through the thin walls of the glomeruli (e.g., water, sugar, salts, and nitrogenous waste products such as urea, creatinine, and uric acid.

18

glomerulus

a ball-shaped collection of very tiny coiled and intertwined capillaries, located in the cortex of the kidney.

19

hilum

the depression, or pit, of an organ where the vessels and nerves enter.

20

hydrostatic pressure

the pressure exerted by a liquid

21

hydroureter

the distension of the ureter with urine due to blockage from an obstruction

22

meatus

an opening or tunnel through any part of the body, as in the urinary meatus, which is the external opening of the urethra.

23

medulla

the most internal part of a structure or organ

24

micturition

the act of eliminating urine from the bladder; also called voiding or urination.

25

nephrolith

a kidney stone; also called renal calculus

26

nephrolithiasis

a condition of kidney stones; also known as renal calculi

27

palpable

distinguishable by touch

28

peritoneum

a specific serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera; the inner lining of the abdominal cavity.

29

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneium (the membrane lining the abdominal cavity)

30

pyelitis

inflammation of the renal pelvis

31

radiopaque

not permitting the passage of X-rays or other radiant energy. These areas appear white on an exposed X-ray film.

32

renal artery

one of a pair of large arteries, branching from the abdominal aorta, that supplies blood to the kidneys, adrenal glands, and ureters.

33

renal calculus

a stone formation in the kidney (plural: renal calculi); also called a nephrolith.

34

renal pelvis

the central collecting part of the kidney that narrows into the large upper end of the ureter. It receives urine through the calyces and drains it into the ureters.

35

renal tubule

a long, twisted tube that leads away from the glomerulus of the kidney to the collecting tubules. As the glomerular filtrate passes through the renal tubules, the water, sugar, and salts are reabsorbed into the bloodstream through the network of capillaries that surround them.

36

renal vein

one of two vessels that carries blood away from the kidney

37

residual urine

urine that remains in the bladder after urination

38

solute

a substance dissolved in a solution, as in the waste products filtered out of the kidney into the urine.

39

specific gravity

the weight of a substance compared with an equal volume of water, which is considered to be standard. Water is considered to have a specific gravity of 1.000 (one). Therefore, a substance with a specific gravity of 2.000 would be twice as dense as water.

40

toxic

poisonous

41

turbid

cloudy

42

uremia

the presence of excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste products int he blood; also called azotemia

43

ureter

one of a pair of tubes that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.

44

urethra

a small tubular structure that drains urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.

45

urethritis

inflammation of the urethra. It is characterized by dysuria, is usually the result of an infection of the bladder or kidneys.

46

urinary incontinence

inability to control urination; the inability to retain urine in the bladder

47

urinary retention

an abnormal involuntary accumulation of urine in the bladder; the inability to empty the bladder

48

urination

the act of eliminating urine from the body; also called micturition or voiding.

49

urine

the fluid released by the kidneys, transported by the ureters, retained in the bladder, eliminated through the urethra. Normal urine is clear, straw colored, and slightly acid

50

vesicocele

herniation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina; also called cystocele.

51

voiding

the act of eliminating urine from the body; also called micturition or urination.

52

albuminuria

The presence in the urine of abnormally large quantities of protein, usually albumin. (Same thing as proteinuria

53

anuria

the cessation (stopping) of urine production or a urinary output of less than 100 mL per day.

54

bacteriuria

the presence of bacteria in the urine.

55

dysuria

painful urination

56

enuresis

a condition of urinary incontinence, especially at night in bed; bedwetting

57

fatigue

a state of exhaustion or loss of strength or endurance such as may follow strenuous physical activity.

58

frequency

the number of repetitions of any phenomenon within a fixed period of time such as the number of heartbeats per minute; in the case of urinary frequency, urination at short intervals (frequently) without increase in the daily volume of urinary output, due to reduce bladder capacity.

59

glycosuria

abnormal presence of sugar, especially glucose, in the urine.

60

hematuria

abnormal presence of blood in the urine

61

ketonuria

presence of excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine.

62

lethargy

the state or quality of being indifferent, apathetic (without emotion), or sluggish

63

malaise

a vague feeling of bodily weakness or discomfort, often marking the onset of disease or infection

64

nocturia

urination, especially excessive, at night; also called nycturia

65

oliguria

secretion of a diminished amount of urine in relation to the fluid intake; scanty urine output

66

polydipsia

excessive thirst

67

polyuria

excretion of abnormally large amounts of urine

68

pyuria

the presence of an excessive number of white blood cells in the urine, usually a sign of an infection of the urinary tract; pus in the urine

69

urgency

a feeling of the need to void urine immediately

70

cystitis

inflammation of the urinary bladder

71

glomerulonephritis (acute)

an inflammation of the glomerulus of the kidneys

72

hydronephrosis

distension of the pelvis and calyces of the kidney caused by urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in a ureter

73

nephrotic syndrome

a group of clinical symptoms occurring when damage to the glomerulus of the kidney is present and large quantities of protein are lost through the glomerular membrane into the urine, resulting in severe proteinuria (presence of large amounts of protein in the urine); also called nephrosis.

74

polycystic kidney disease

a hereditary disorder of the kidneys in which grapelike, fluid-filled sacs or cysts replace normal kidney tissue.

75

pyelonephritis (acute)

a bacterial infection of the renal pelvis of the kidney

76

renal cell carcinoma

a malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in adulthood

77

renal failure, chronic

progressively slow development of kidney failure occurring over a period of years. The late stages of this disease are known as end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

78

vesicoureteral reflux

an abnormal backflow (reflux) of urine from the bladder to the ureter.

79

Wilm's tumor

a malignant tumor of the kidney occurring predominately in childhood.

80

peritoneal dialysis

a mechanical filtering process used to cleanse the blood of waste products, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when the kidneys fail to function properly. Instead of using the hemodialysis machine as a filter, the peritoneal membrane (also called the peritoneum) is used as the filter.

81

hemodialysis

the process of removing excess fluids and toxins from the blood by continually shunting the patients' blood from the body into a dialysis machine for filtering and then returning the clean blood to the patients' bloodstream

82

kidney transplantation

involves the surgical implantation of a healthy human donor kidney into the body of a patient with irreversible renal failure. Kidney function is restored with a successful transplant, and the patient no longer depends on dialysis.

83

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

a blood test performed to determine the amount of urea and nitrogen (waste products normally excreted by the kidney) present in the blood.

84

catheterization

the introduction of a catheter (flexible hollow tube) into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or to remove a fluid.

85

creatinine clearance test

a diagnostic test for kidney function that measures the filtration rate of creatinine, a waste product (of muscle metabolism) normally removed by the kidney

86

cystometrography

an examination performed to evaluate bladder tone; measuring bladder pressure during filling and voiding.

87

cystoscopy

the process of viewing the interior of the bladder, using a cystoscope

88

extracorporeal lithotripsy

also known as extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. This is a noninvasive mechanical procedure for using sound waves to break up renal calculi so that they can pass through the ureters.

89

intravenous pyelogram (IVP)

also known as intravenous pyelography or excretory urogram. This radiographic procedure provides visualization of the entire urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra

90

KUB (kidneys, ureters, bladder)

an X-ray of the lower abdomen that defines the size, shape, an location of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. A contrast medium is not used with this X-ray.

91

renal angiography

X-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the renal blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium

92

renal scan

a procedure in which a radioactive isotope (tracer) is injected intravenously, and the radioactivity over each kidney is measured as the tracer passes through the kidney.

93

retrograde pyelogram (RP)

a radiographic procedure in which small-caliber catheters are passed through a cystoscope into the ureters to visualize the ureters and the renal pelvis

94

ultrasonography

also called ultrasound. This procedure in which sound waves are transmitted into the body structures as a small transducer is passed over the patient's skin

95

urinalysis

a physical, chemical, or microscopic examination of urine

96

urine culture

a procedure used to cultivate the growth of bacteria present in a urine specimen for proper microscopic identification of the specific pathogen (disease-producing microorganism)

97

24-hour urine specimen

a collection of all of the urine excreted by the individual over a 24-hour period. The urine is collected in one large container. This urine specimen is also called composite urine specimen.

98

voiding cystourethrography

X-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during voiding process, after the bladder has been filled with a contrast material.

99

catheterized specimen

using aseptic techniques, a very small straight catheter is inserted into the bladder via the urethra to withdraw a urine specimen. The urine flows through the catheter into a sterile specimen container.

100

clean-catch specimen

this collection is used to avoid contamination of the urine specimen from the microorganisms normally present on the external genitalia.

101

first-voided specimen

the patient is instructed to collect the first-voided specimen of the morning and to refrigerate it until it can be taken to the medical office or laboratory.

102

random specimen

a urine specimen that is collected at any time.

103

residual urine specimen

a residual urine specimen is obtained by catheterization after the patient empties the bladder by voiding. The amount of urine remaining in the bladder after voiding is noted as the residual amount.

104

ADH

antiiuretic hormone

105

AGN

acute glomerular nephritis

106

ARF

acute renal failure

107

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

108

CAPD

continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

109

CCPD

continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis

110

CRF

chronic renal failure

111

C & S

culture and sensitivity

112

Cysto

cystoscopy

113

EPO

erythropoietin

114

ESRD

end-stage renal disease

115

ESWL

extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

116

GFR

glomerular filtration rate

117

HD

hemodialysis

118

IVP

intravenous pyelogram

119

KUB

kidneys, ureters, bladder

120

pH

abbreviation for the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution; pH means potential hydrogen

121

RP

retrograde pyelogram

122

sp.gr.

specific gravity

123

UA

urinalysis

124

UTI

urinary tract infection

125

VCUG

voiding cystourethogram