a substance that tends to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms.
the smallest branch of an artery
any health care procedure in which precautions are taken to prevent contamination of a person, object, or area by microorganisms
the presence of excessive amounts of waste products of metabolism (nitrogenous compounds) in the blood caused by failure of the kidneys to remove urea from the blood. A characteristic of uremia
the cup-shaped end of a renal tubule containing a glomerulus; also called glomerular capsule
an abnormal stone formed in the body tissues by an accumulation of mineral salts; usually formed in the gallbladder and kidney; also called renal calculus
the cup-shaped division of the renal pelvis through which urine passes from the renal tubules
a hollow, flexible tube that can be inserted into a body cavity or vessel for the purpose of instilling or withdrawing fluid.
the outer layer of a body organ or structure.
an instrument that measures bladder capacity in relation to changing pressure.
an instrument used to view the interior of the bladder. It consists of an outer sheath with a lighting system, a scope for viewing, and a passage for catheters and devices used in surgical procedures; may also be referred to as a “cysto”
solution that contains water and electrolytes that passes through the artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and wastes from the blood; also called a “bath”.
the process of removing waste products from the blood when the kidneys are unable to do so. Hemodialysis involves passing the blood through an artificial kidney for filtering out impurities. Peritoneal dialysis involves introducing fluid into the abdomen through a catheter. Through the process of osmosis, this fluid draws waste products out of the capillaries into the abdominal cavity. It is then removed from the abdomen via a catheter.
length of time the dialysis solution stays in the peritoneal cavity during peritoneal dialysis
a hollow or depression, especially on the surface of the end of a bone. In kidney transplantation,the donor kidney is surgically placed in the iliac fossa of the recipient.
Substances that filter out of the blood through the thin walls of the glomeruli (e.g., water, sugar, salts, and nitrogenous waste products such as urea, creatinine, and uric acid.
a ball-shaped collection of very tiny coiled and intertwined capillaries, located in the cortex of the kidney.
the depression, or pit, of an organ where the vessels and nerves enter.
the pressure exerted by a liquid
the distension of the ureter with urine due to blockage from an obstruction
an opening or tunnel through any part of the body, as in the urinary meatus, which is the external opening of the urethra.
the most internal part of a structure or organ
the act of eliminating urine from the bladder; also called voiding or urination.
a kidney stone; also called renal calculus
a condition of kidney stones; also known as renal calculi
distinguishable by touch
a specific serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera; the inner lining of the abdominal cavity.
inflammation of the peritoneium (the membrane lining the abdominal cavity)
inflammation of the renal pelvis
not permitting the passage of X-rays or other radiant energy. These areas appear white on an exposed X-ray film.
one of a pair of large arteries, branching from the abdominal aorta, that supplies blood to the kidneys, adrenal glands, and ureters.
a stone formation in the kidney (plural: renal calculi); also called a nephrolith.
the central collecting part of the kidney that narrows into the large upper end of the ureter. It receives urine through the calyces and drains it into the ureters.
a long, twisted tube that leads away from the glomerulus of the kidney to the collecting tubules. As the glomerular filtrate passes through the renal tubules, the water, sugar, and salts are reabsorbed into the bloodstream through the network of capillaries that surround them.
one of two vessels that carries blood away from the kidney
urine that remains in the bladder after urination
a substance dissolved in a solution, as in the waste products filtered out of the kidney into the urine.
the weight of a substance compared with an equal volume of water, which is considered to be standard. Water is considered to have a specific gravity of 1.000 (one). Therefore, a substance with a specific gravity of 2.000 would be twice as dense as water.
the presence of excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste products int he blood; also called azotemia
one of a pair of tubes that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.
a small tubular structure that drains urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
inflammation of the urethra. It is characterized by dysuria, is usually the result of an infection of the bladder or kidneys.
inability to control urination; the inability to retain urine in the bladder
an abnormal involuntary accumulation of urine in the bladder; the inability to empty the bladder
the act of eliminating urine from the body; also called micturition or voiding.
the fluid released by the kidneys, transported by the ureters, retained in the bladder, eliminated through the urethra. Normal urine is clear, straw colored, and slightly acid
herniation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina; also called cystocele.
the act of eliminating urine from the body; also called micturition or urination.
The presence in the urine of abnormally large quantities of protein, usually albumin. (Same thing as proteinuria
the cessation (stopping) of urine production or a urinary output of less than 100 mL per day.
the presence of bacteria in the urine.
a condition of urinary incontinence, especially at night in bed; bedwetting
a state of exhaustion or loss of strength or endurance such as may follow strenuous physical activity.
the number of repetitions of any phenomenon within a fixed period of time such as the number of heartbeats per minute; in the case of urinary frequency, urination at short intervals (frequently) without increase in the daily volume of urinary output, due to reduce bladder capacity.
abnormal presence of sugar, especially glucose, in the urine.
abnormal presence of blood in the urine
presence of excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine.
the state or quality of being indifferent, apathetic (without emotion), or sluggish
a vague feeling of bodily weakness or discomfort, often marking the onset of disease or infection
urination, especially excessive, at night; also called nycturia
secretion of a diminished amount of urine in relation to the fluid intake; scanty urine output
excretion of abnormally large amounts of urine
the presence of an excessive number of white blood cells in the urine, usually a sign of an infection of the urinary tract; pus in the urine
a feeling of the need to void urine immediately
inflammation of the urinary bladder
an inflammation of the glomerulus of the kidneys
distension of the pelvis and calyces of the kidney caused by urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in a ureter
a group of clinical symptoms occurring when damage to the glomerulus of the kidney is present and large quantities of protein are lost through the glomerular membrane into the urine, resulting in severe proteinuria (presence of large amounts of protein in the urine); also called nephrosis.
polycystic kidney disease
a hereditary disorder of the kidneys in which grapelike, fluid-filled sacs or cysts replace normal kidney tissue.
a bacterial infection of the renal pelvis of the kidney
renal cell carcinoma
a malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in adulthood
renal failure, chronic
progressively slow development of kidney failure occurring over a period of years. The late stages of this disease are known as end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
an abnormal backflow (reflux) of urine from the bladder to the ureter.
a malignant tumor of the kidney occurring predominately in childhood.
a mechanical filtering process used to cleanse the blood of waste products, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when the kidneys fail to function properly. Instead of using the hemodialysis machine as a filter, the peritoneal membrane (also called the peritoneum) is used as the filter.
the process of removing excess fluids and toxins from the blood by continually shunting the patients’ blood from the body into a dialysis machine for filtering and then returning the clean blood to the patients’ bloodstream
involves the surgical implantation of a healthy human donor kidney into the body of a patient with irreversible renal failure. Kidney function is restored with a successful transplant, and the patient no longer depends on dialysis.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
a blood test performed to determine the amount of urea and nitrogen (waste products normally excreted by the kidney) present in the blood.
the introduction of a catheter (flexible hollow tube) into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or to remove a fluid.
creatinine clearance test
a diagnostic test for kidney function that measures the filtration rate of creatinine, a waste product (of muscle metabolism) normally removed by the kidney
an examination performed to evaluate bladder tone; measuring bladder pressure during filling and voiding.
the process of viewing the interior of the bladder, using a cystoscope
also known as extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. This is a noninvasive mechanical procedure for using sound waves to break up renal calculi so that they can pass through the ureters.
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
also known as intravenous pyelography or excretory urogram. This radiographic procedure provides visualization of the entire urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
KUB (kidneys, ureters, bladder)
an X-ray of the lower abdomen that defines the size, shape, an location of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. A contrast medium is not used with this X-ray.
X-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the renal blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium
a procedure in which a radioactive isotope (tracer) is injected intravenously, and the radioactivity over each kidney is measured as the tracer passes through the kidney.
retrograde pyelogram (RP)
a radiographic procedure in which small-caliber catheters are passed through a cystoscope into the ureters to visualize the ureters and the renal pelvis
also called ultrasound. This procedure in which sound waves are transmitted into the body structures as a small transducer is passed over the patient’s skin
a physical, chemical, or microscopic examination of urine
a procedure used to cultivate the growth of bacteria present in a urine specimen for proper microscopic identification of the specific pathogen (disease-producing microorganism)
24-hour urine specimen
a collection of all of the urine excreted by the individual over a 24-hour period. The urine is collected in one large container. This urine specimen is also called composite urine specimen.
X-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during voiding process, after the bladder has been filled with a contrast material.
using aseptic techniques, a very small straight catheter is inserted into the bladder via the urethra to withdraw a urine specimen. The urine flows through the catheter into a sterile specimen container.
this collection is used to avoid contamination of the urine specimen from the microorganisms normally present on the external genitalia.
the patient is instructed to collect the first-voided specimen of the morning and to refrigerate it until it can be taken to the medical office or laboratory.
a urine specimen that is collected at any time.
residual urine specimen
a residual urine specimen is obtained by catheterization after the patient empties the bladder by voiding. The amount of urine remaining in the bladder after voiding is noted as the residual amount.
acute glomerular nephritis
acute renal failure
blood urea nitrogen
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis
chronic renal failure
C & S
culture and sensitivity
end-stage renal disease
extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
glomerular filtration rate
kidneys, ureters, bladder
abbreviation for the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution; pH means potential hydrogen
urinary tract infection