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Medical Terminology > Child Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Child Health Deck (70):
1

cephalocaudal

growth and development proceeds from head to toe (cephalocaudal). In the infant, muscular control follows the spine downward.

2

proximodistal

growth and development proceeds from the center outward or from the midline to the periphery (proximodistal).

3

general to specific

activities move from being generalized toward being more focused (general to specific)

4

simple to complex

language, for example, develops from simple to complex

5

growth spurts

occur throughout childhood, alternating with periods of slow growth

6

active acquired immunity

a form of long-term acquired immunity that protects the body against a new infection as the result of antibodies that develop naturally after an initial infection or artificially after a vaccination.

7

apical pulse

the heart rate as heard with a stethoscope placed on the chest wall adjacent to the cardiac apex (top of the heart).

8

apnea

an absence of spontaneous respiration

9

autism

a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by the individual being extremely withdrawn and absorbed with fantasy. The individual suffers from impaired communication/social interaction skills, and activities and interest are very limited. It was first classified as a type of schizophrenia

10

axillary temperature

the body temperature as recorded by a thermometer placed in the armpit. The reading is generally 0.5 to 1.0 degree less than the oral temperature.

11

congenital

present at birth

12

crackles

a common abnormal respiratory sound hear on auscultation of the chest during inspiration, characterized by discontinuous bubbling noises

13

cyanosis

bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by an excess of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or structural defect in the hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.

14

deciduous teeth

baby teeth; the first set of teeth, also known as primary teeth

15

dentition

the eruption of teeth. This occurs in a sequential pattern, with 20 primary teeth erupting between the ages of 6 to 30 months.

16

development

an increase in function and complexity that results through learning, maturation, and growth.

17

febrile

pertaining to or characterized by an elevated body temperature, such as a febrile reaction to an infectious agent.

18

friction rub

a dry, grating sound heard with a stehoscope during auscultation

19

growth

an increase in the whole or any of its parts physically

20

grunting

abnormal, short, audible, deep, hoarse sounds in exhalation that often accompany severe chest pain

21

head circumference

the measurement around the greatest circumference of the head of an infant. This measurement is plotted according to normal growth and development patterns for the infant's head. Increased lags or surges in the increase of the head circumference may indicate serious problems.

22

hydrocephalus

a pathological condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid, usually under increased pressure, within the cranial vault and subsequent dilatation of the ventricles; also called hydrocephaly.

23

immunity

the quality of being insusceptible to or unaffected by a particular disease or condition

24

immunization

a process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced or augmented.

25

infant

a child who is in the earliest stage of extrauterine life, a time extending from the first month after birth to approximately 12 months of age, when the baby is able to assume an erect posture. Some extend the period to 24 months of age.

26

length (recumbent)

the measurement of the distance from the crown of the infant's head to the infant's hell while the infant is lying on the back with legs extended.

27

lumbar puncture

the introduction of a hollow needle and stylet into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar portion of the spinal canal to obtain specimens of cerebrospinal fluid.

28

microcephalus

a congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal smallness of the head in relation to the rest of the body and by underdevelopment of the brain, resulting in some degree of mental retardation.

29

neonatologist

a medical doctor who specializes in neonatology

30

neonatology

the medical specialty concerned with the diseases and abnormalities of the newborn infant

31

nomogram

a graphic representation, by any of various systems, of a numeric relationship

32

omphalitis

an inflammation of the umbilical sump, marked by redness, swelling, and purulent exudate in severe cases

33

omphalocele

congenital herniation of intra-abdominal viscera through a defect in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus.

34

omphalorrhea

drainage from the umbilicus (navel)

35

oral temperature

the mean body temperature of a normal person as recorded by a clinical thermometer placed in the mouth.

36

passive acquired immunity

a form of acquired immunity resulting from antibodies that are transmitted naturally through the placenta to a fetus, through the colostrum to an infant, or artificially by injection of antiserum for treatment or as a prophylaxis (protection against disease).

37

pediatrician

a physician who specializes in pediatrics.

38

pediatric nurse practitioner

a registered nurse with advanced study and clinical practice in pediatric nursing

39

pediatrics

pertaining to preventive and primary health care and treatment of children and the study of childhood diseases.

40

primary teeth

baby teeth; the first set of teeth, also known as deciduous teeth

41

prodromal

pertaining to early signs or symptoms that mark the onset of a disease

42

pyrexia

fever

43

rectal temperature

temperature as measured in the rectum

44

recumbent

lying down

45

retractions

the displacement of tissues to expose a part or structure of the body; retractions may be seen around the ribs in a child or infant with respiratory distress.

46

stature

natural height of a person in an upright position

47

stridor

an abnormal, high-pitched, musical sound caused by an obstruction in the trachea or larynx.

48

toxoid

a toxin that has been treated with chemicals or with heat to decrease its toxic effect but that retains its ability to cause the production of antibodies.

49

tympanic temperature

the body temperature measured electronically at the tympanic membrane

50

vaccine

a suspension of attenuated or killed microorganisms administered intradermally, intramuscularly, orally, or subcutaneously to induce active immunity to infectious disease.

51

vertex

the top of the head; crown

52

well-child visit

routine health visit in which health professionals assess the current health status of the child, the progression of growth and development, and the need for immunizations

53

wheezing

a breath sound, characterized by a high-pitched musical quality heard on both inspiration and expiration. wheezes may be associated with asthma and chronic bronchitis as well as with other illnesses.

54

AAP

American Academy of Pediatrics

55

ASQ

Ages & Stages Questionnaire

56

BCG

bacille Calmette-Guerin [vaccine]

57

DPT

diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus [vaccine]

58

DS

Down Syndrome

59

EA

esophageal atresia

60

HDN

hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis)

61

HIB

Haemophilus influenzae type B [vaccine]

62

HMD

hyaline membrane disease

63

MMR

measles-mumps-rubella [vaccine]

64

PKU

phenylketonuria

65

PNP

pediatric nurse practitioner

66

RDS

respiratory distress syndrome

67

SBS

shaken baby syndrome

68

SIDS

sudden infant death syndrome

69

Tb

tuberculosis

70

Td

tetanus and diphtheria toxoid