Flashcards in Child Health Deck (70):
growth and development proceeds from head to toe (cephalocaudal). In the infant, muscular control follows the spine downward.
growth and development proceeds from the center outward or from the midline to the periphery (proximodistal).
general to specific
activities move from being generalized toward being more focused (general to specific)
simple to complex
language, for example, develops from simple to complex
occur throughout childhood, alternating with periods of slow growth
active acquired immunity
a form of long-term acquired immunity that protects the body against a new infection as the result of antibodies that develop naturally after an initial infection or artificially after a vaccination.
the heart rate as heard with a stethoscope placed on the chest wall adjacent to the cardiac apex (top of the heart).
an absence of spontaneous respiration
a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by the individual being extremely withdrawn and absorbed with fantasy. The individual suffers from impaired communication/social interaction skills, and activities and interest are very limited. It was first classified as a type of schizophrenia
the body temperature as recorded by a thermometer placed in the armpit. The reading is generally 0.5 to 1.0 degree less than the oral temperature.
present at birth
a common abnormal respiratory sound hear on auscultation of the chest during inspiration, characterized by discontinuous bubbling noises
bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by an excess of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or structural defect in the hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.
baby teeth; the first set of teeth, also known as primary teeth
the eruption of teeth. This occurs in a sequential pattern, with 20 primary teeth erupting between the ages of 6 to 30 months.
an increase in function and complexity that results through learning, maturation, and growth.
pertaining to or characterized by an elevated body temperature, such as a febrile reaction to an infectious agent.
a dry, grating sound heard with a stehoscope during auscultation
an increase in the whole or any of its parts physically
abnormal, short, audible, deep, hoarse sounds in exhalation that often accompany severe chest pain
the measurement around the greatest circumference of the head of an infant. This measurement is plotted according to normal growth and development patterns for the infant's head. Increased lags or surges in the increase of the head circumference may indicate serious problems.
a pathological condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid, usually under increased pressure, within the cranial vault and subsequent dilatation of the ventricles; also called hydrocephaly.
the quality of being insusceptible to or unaffected by a particular disease or condition
a process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced or augmented.
a child who is in the earliest stage of extrauterine life, a time extending from the first month after birth to approximately 12 months of age, when the baby is able to assume an erect posture. Some extend the period to 24 months of age.
the measurement of the distance from the crown of the infant's head to the infant's hell while the infant is lying on the back with legs extended.
the introduction of a hollow needle and stylet into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar portion of the spinal canal to obtain specimens of cerebrospinal fluid.
a congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal smallness of the head in relation to the rest of the body and by underdevelopment of the brain, resulting in some degree of mental retardation.
a medical doctor who specializes in neonatology
the medical specialty concerned with the diseases and abnormalities of the newborn infant
a graphic representation, by any of various systems, of a numeric relationship
an inflammation of the umbilical sump, marked by redness, swelling, and purulent exudate in severe cases
congenital herniation of intra-abdominal viscera through a defect in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus.
drainage from the umbilicus (navel)
the mean body temperature of a normal person as recorded by a clinical thermometer placed in the mouth.
passive acquired immunity
a form of acquired immunity resulting from antibodies that are transmitted naturally through the placenta to a fetus, through the colostrum to an infant, or artificially by injection of antiserum for treatment or as a prophylaxis (protection against disease).
a physician who specializes in pediatrics.
pediatric nurse practitioner
a registered nurse with advanced study and clinical practice in pediatric nursing
pertaining to preventive and primary health care and treatment of children and the study of childhood diseases.
baby teeth; the first set of teeth, also known as deciduous teeth
pertaining to early signs or symptoms that mark the onset of a disease
temperature as measured in the rectum
the displacement of tissues to expose a part or structure of the body; retractions may be seen around the ribs in a child or infant with respiratory distress.
natural height of a person in an upright position
an abnormal, high-pitched, musical sound caused by an obstruction in the trachea or larynx.
a toxin that has been treated with chemicals or with heat to decrease its toxic effect but that retains its ability to cause the production of antibodies.
the body temperature measured electronically at the tympanic membrane
a suspension of attenuated or killed microorganisms administered intradermally, intramuscularly, orally, or subcutaneously to induce active immunity to infectious disease.
the top of the head; crown
routine health visit in which health professionals assess the current health status of the child, the progression of growth and development, and the need for immunizations
a breath sound, characterized by a high-pitched musical quality heard on both inspiration and expiration. wheezes may be associated with asthma and chronic bronchitis as well as with other illnesses.
American Academy of Pediatrics
Ages & Stages Questionnaire
bacille Calmette-Guerin [vaccine]
diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus [vaccine]
hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis)
Haemophilus influenzae type B [vaccine]
hyaline membrane disease
pediatric nurse practitioner
respiratory distress syndrome
shaken baby syndrome
sudden infant death syndrome