Oncology (Cancer Medicine) Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Oncology (Cancer Medicine) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oncology (Cancer Medicine) Deck (95):
1

adjuvant

a substance, especially a drug, added to a prescription to assist in the action of the main ingredient.

2

adjuvant therapy

treatment of a disease with a substance, especially a drug, that enhances the main ingredient. For example, chemotherapy may be used as adjuvant therapy to radiation

3

anaplasia

a change in the structure and orientation of cells characterized by a loss of specialization and reversion to a more primitive form

4

antimetabolite

a class of antineoplastic drugs to treat cancer. These drugs are most effective against rapidly growing tumors.

5

antineoplastic

of or pertaining to a substance, procedure, or measure that prevents the proliferation of malignant cells.

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benign

noncancerous and therefore not an immediate threat, even though treatment eventually may be required for health or cosmetic reasons; not life threatening.

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cancer

a neoplasm characterized by the uncontrolled growth of anaplastic cells that tend to invade surrounding tissue and to metastasize to distant body sites

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carcinogen

a substance or agent that causes the development or increases the incidence of cancer.

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carcinoma

a malignant neoplasm

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carcinoma in situ (CIS)

a premalignant neoplasm that has not invaded the basement membrane but shows cytologic characteristic of cancer

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chemotherapy

the use of chemical agents to destroy cancer cells on a selective basis

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cytotoxic

pertaining to being destructive to cells

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dedifferentiation

a change in the structure and orientation of cells characterized by a loss of specialization and reversion to a more primitive form

14

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

a large nucleic acid molecule found principally in the chromosomes of the nucleus of a cell that is the carrier of genetic information

15

differentiation

a process in development in which unspecialized cells or tissues are systemically modified and altered to achieve specific and characteristic physical forms, physiologic functions, and chemical properties.

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encapsulated

enclosed in fibrous or membranous sheaths

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fractionation

in radiology, the division of the total dose of radiation into small doses administered at intervals in an effort to minimize tissue damage.

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hyperplasia

an increase in the number of cells of a body part ("excessive formation").

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infiltrative

possessing the ability to invade or penetrate adjacent tissue

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invasive

characterized by a tendency to spread, infiltrate, and intrude.

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ionizing radiation

high-energy X-rays that can kill cells or retard their growth

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linear accelerator

an apparatus for accelerating charged subatomic particles used in radiotherapy, physics research , and the production of radionuclides.

23

lumpectomy

surgical removal of only tumor and the immediate adjacent breast tissue; a method of treatment for breast cancer when detected in the early stage of the disease.

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malignant

tending to become worse and cause death

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metastasis

the process by which tumor cells spread to distant parts of the body.

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mitosis

a type of cell division that results in the formation of two genetically identical daughter cells

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mixed-tissue tumor

a growth of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.

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modality

a method of application (i.e., a treatment method)

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morbidity

an illness or abnormal condition or quality.

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mutation

a change or transformation in a gene

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neoplasm

any abnormal growth of new tissue, benign or malignant

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oncogene

a gene in a virus that can cause a cell to become malignant

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oncogenesis

the formation of a tumor

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oncologist

the physician who specializes in the study and treatment of neoplastic diseases, particularly cancer

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oncology

the medical specialty concerned with the study of malignancy.

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papillary

of or pertaining to a papilla (nipplelike projection)

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papilloma

a benign epithelial neoplasm characterized by a branching or lobular tumor

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pedunculated

pertaining to a structure with a stalk

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protocol

a written plan or description of the steps to be taken in a particular situation, such as conducting research.

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radiation

the emission of energy, rays, or waves.

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radiocurable tumor

pertaining to the susceptibility of tumor cells to destruction by ionizing radiation

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radioresistant tumor

a tumor that resist the effects of radiation

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radioresponsive tumor

a tumor that reacts favorably to radiation

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radiosensitive tumor

a tumor capable of being changed by or reacting to radioactive emissions such as X-rays, alpha particles, or gamma rays

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radiotherapy

the treatment of disease by using X-rays or gamma rays

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relapse

to exhibit again the symptoms of a disease from which a patient appears to have recovered

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remission

the partial or complete disappearance of the symptoms of a chronic or malignant disease

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ribonucleic acid (RNA)

a nucleic acid found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells that transmits genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm

49

arcoma

a malignant neoplasm of the connective and supportive tissues of the body, usually first presenting as a painless swelling

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scirrhous

pertaining to a carcinoma with a hard structure

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sessile

attached by a base rather than by a stalk or a peduncle.

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staging

the determination of distinct phases or periods in the course of a disease.

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stem cell

a formative cell; a cell whose daughter cells may give rise to other cell types.

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tumor

a new growth of tissue characterized by progressive, uncontrolled proliferation (growth) of cells. The tumor may be localized or invasive, benign or malignant

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verrucous

rough; warty

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basal cell carcinoma

a malignant epithelial cell tumor that begins as a slightly elevated nodule with a depression or ulceration in the center that becomes more obvious as the tumor grows. As the depression enlarges, the tissue breaks down, crusts and bleeds.

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breast cancer (carcinoma of the breast)

a malignant tumor of the breast tissue. The most common type, ductal carcinoma, originates in the mammary ducts.

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bronchogenic carcinoma

a malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi; lung cancer.

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cervical carcinoma

a malignant tumor of the cervix.

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colorectal cancer

the presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine

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endometrial carcinoma

malignant tumor of the inner lining of the uterus; also known as adenocarcinoma of the uterus.

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lymphoma

a lymphoid tissue neoplasm that is typically malignant, beginning with a painless enlarged lymph node(s) and progressing to anemia, weakness, fever, and weight loss.

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Kaposi's sarcoma

rare malignant lesions that begin as soft, purple-brown nodules or plaques on the feet and gradually spread throughout the skin

64

malignant melanoma

malignant skin tumor originating from melanocytes in preexising nevi(moles), freckles, or skin with pigment; darkly pigmented cancerous tumor.

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neuroblastoma

a highly malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system.

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oral leukoplakia

a precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth

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ovarian carcinoma

a malignant tumor of the ovaries, most commonly occurring in women in their 50's.

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pancreatic cancer

a life-threatening primary malignant neoplasm typically found in the heard of the pancreas.

69

prostatic cancer (carcinoma of the prostate)

malignant growth within the prostate gland, creating pressure on the upper part of the urethra. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men.

70

renal cell carcinoma

a malignant tumor of the kidney, occurring in adulthood

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squamous cell carcinoma

a malignancy of the squamous cells of the epithelial tissue, which is a much faster growing cancer than basal cell carcinoma and has a greater potential for metastasis if not treated.

72

testicular cancer (carcinoma of the testes)

a malignant tumor of the testicle that appears as a painless lump in the testicle

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thyroid cancer (caner of the thyroid gland)

malignant tumor of the thyroid gland that leads to dysfunction of the gland and thus inadequate or excessive secretion of the thyroid hormone

74

tumors, intracranial

may occur in any structural region of the brain and may be malignant or benign. They are classified as primary or secondary and are name according to the tissue from which they originate.

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tumors, metastatic intracranial

tumors occurring as a result of metastasis from a primary site such as a lung or breast.

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tumors, primary intracranial

tumors that arise from gliomas (malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue) or from the meninges are known as primary intracranial tumors

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Wilms' tumor

a malignant tumor of the kidney occurring predominately in childhood

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chemotherapy

the use of cytotoxic drugs and chemicals to achieve a cure, decrease tumor size, provide relief of pain, or slow metastasis

79

immunotherapy

agents that are capable of changing the relationship between a tumor and the host are known as biological response modifiers (BRMs). These agents are used to strengthen the individual's immune responses

80

Mohs surger

is an advanced treatment procedure for skin cancer. The cancerous tumor is remove din stages, the tissue is examined for evidence of cancer, and additional tissue is removed until negative boundaries are confirmed. This process allows the surgeon to excise the tumor, remove layers of tissue, and examine the fresh tissue immediately. Only tissue containing cancer is removed and the healthy tissue is kept intact.

81

radiation therapy

the use of ionizing radiation to interrupt cellular growth. The goal of radiation therapy is to reach maximum tumor control with minimum normal tissue damage.

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surgery

in more that 90% of all cancers, this is used for diagnosing and staging. In more that 60% of all cancers, it is the primary treatment. When feasible, the primary tumor is excised in its entirety

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Bx

biopsy

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bx

biopsy

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Ca

cancer

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CEA

carcinoembryonic antigen

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DES

diethylstilbestrol

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DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

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mets

metastasis

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NHL

non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

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Pap smear

a simple smear method of examining stained exfoliative cells; the Papanicolaou test

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PSA

prostate-specific antigen

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RNA

ribonucleic acid

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RTx

radiation therapy

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TNM

tumor, nodes, and metastasis (a system for staging malignant neoplastic disease)