Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (227):
1

absence seizure

a small seizure in which there is a sudden or temporary loss of consciousness lasting only a few seconds

2

acetylcholine

a chemical substance in the body tissues that facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses from one nerve to another. It has a stimulant effect on some parts of the body and a depressant effect on other parts of the body; also known as a neurotransmitter.

3

afferent nerves

transmitters of nerve impulses toward the CNS; also known as sensory nerves

4

agnosia

loss of mental ability to understand sensory stimuli (such as sound, sight, touch) even though the sensory organs themselves are functioning properly

5

agraphia

the inability to convert one's thoughts into writing

6

alexia

the inability to understand written words

7

analgesia

without sensitivity to pain

8

anesthesia

without feeling or sensation

9

aneurysm

a localized dilatation in the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation of the artery; usually caused by hypertension or artherosclerosis

10

aphasia

inability to communicate through speech, writing or signs because of an injury or disease in certain areas of the brain.

11

apraxia

inability to perform coordinated movements or use objects properly; not associated with sensory or motor impairment or paralysis

12

arachnoid membrane

the weblike middle layer of the three membranous layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

13

astrocyte

a star-shaped neuroglial cell found in the the CNS

14

astrocytoma

a tumor of the brain or spinal cord composed of astrocytes

15

ataxia

without muscular coordination

16

aura

the sensation an individual experiences prior to the onset of migraine headache or an epileptic seizure. It may be a sensation of light or warmth and may precede the attack by hours or only a few seconds

17

autonomic nervous system

the part f the nervous system that regulates the involuntary vital functions of the body, such as the activities involving the heart muscle, smooth muscles, and the glands. Has two divisions: the SNS and the PNS.

18

axon

the part of the nerve cell that transports nerve impulses away from the nerve cell body

19

blood-brain barrier

a protective characteristic of the capillary walls o the brain that prevents the passage of harmful substances from the bloodstream into the brain tissue of CSF.

20

bradykinesia

Abnormally slow movement

21

brain stem

the stemlike portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemisphere with the spinal cord. It contains the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata.

22

Brudzinski's sign

a positive sign of meningitis, in which there is an involuntary flexion of the arm, hip and knee when the patient's neck is passively flexed

23

burr hole

a hole drilled into the skull using a form of drill

24

cauda equina

the lower end of the spinal cord and the roots of the spinal nerves that occupy the spinal canal below the level of the first lumbar vertebra; so named because it resembles a horse's tail

25

causalgia

a sensation of an acute burning pain along the path of a peripheral nerve, sometimes accompanied by erythema of the skin; due to injury to peripheral nerve fibers.

26

cell body

the part of the cell that contains the nucleus and the cytoplasm

27

central nervous system

one of the two main divisions of the nervous system, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord.

28

cephalagia

pain in the head; headache

29

cerebellum

the part of the brain responsible for coordinating voluntary muscular movement; located behind the brain stem.

30

cerebral concussion

a brief interruption of brain function, usually with a loss of consciousness lasting for a few seconds. This transient loss of consciousness is usually caused by blunt trauma (a blow to the head)

31

cerebral contusion

small scattered venous hemorrhages in the brain; better described as a "bruise" of the brain tissue occurring when the brain strikes the inner skull

32

cerebral cortex

the thin outer layer of nerve tissue, known as gray matter, that covers the surface of the cerebrum

33

cerebrospinal fluid

the fluid flowing through the brain and around the spinal cord that protects them from physical blow or impact.

34

cerebrum

the largest and uppermost part of the brain. It controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions and voluntary movements.

35

Cheyne-Stokes respirations

an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by periods of apnea followed by deep rapid breathing

36

coma

a deep sleep in which the individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to external stimuli.

37

comatose

pertains to being in a coma

38

contracture

a permanent shortening of a muscle causing a joint to remain in an abnormally flexed position, with resultant physical deformity.

39

convolution

one of the many elevated folds of the surface of the cerebrum; also call gyrus.

40

craniotomy

a surgical incision into the cranium or skull

41

deficit

any deficiency or variation of the normal, as in weakness deficit resulting from a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

42

dementia

a progressive irreversible mental disorder in which the person has deteriorating memory, judgment and ability to think

43

demyelination

destruction or removal of the myelin sheath that covers a nerve or nerve fiber.

44

dendrite

a projection that extends from the nerve cell body. It receives impulses and conducts them on the cell body.

45

diencephalon

the part of the brain located between the cerebrum and the midbrain. Its main structures consist of the thalamus, hypothalamus

46

diplopia

double vision; also called ambiopia

47

dura mater

the outermost of the three membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord

48

dyslexia

a condition characterized by an impairment of the ability to read. Letters and words are often reversed when reading.

49

dysphasia

difficult speech

50

efferent nerves

transmitters of nerve impulses away from the CNS; also known as motor nerves

51

embolism

an abnormal condition in which a blood clot (embolus) becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood within the vessel.

52

epidural space

the space immediately outside the dura mater that contains a supporting cushion of fat and other connective tissues.

53

epilepsy

a neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of sudden brief attacks of seizures. The seizure may vary from mild and unnoticeable to full-scale convulsive seizures.

54

fissure

a deep groove on the surface of an organ

55

fontanelle or fontanel

a space covered by tough membrane between the bones of an infant's cranium, called a "soft spot".

56

gait

the style of walking

57

ganglion

a knotlike mass of nerve tissue found outside the brain or spinal cord (plural: ganglia)

58

gray matter

the part of the nervous system consisting of axons that are not convered with myelin sheath, giving a gray appearance.

59

gyrus

one of the many elevated folds of the surface of the cerebrum (plural: gyri).

60

hemiparesis

slight or partial paralysis of one half of the body

61

hemiplegia

paralysis of one half of the boy

62

herpes zoster

an acute infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox, characterized by painful vesicular lesions along the path of a spinal nerve; also called shingles

63

hyperesthesia

excessive sensitivity to sensory stimuli, such as pain or touch

64

hyperkinesis

excessive muscular movement and physical activity; hyperactivity.

65

hypothalamus

a part of the brain located below the thalamus that controls many functions, such as body temperature, sleep and appetite.

66

interneurons

connecting neurons that conduct impulses from afferent nerves to or toward motor nerves

67

kernig's sign

a diagnostic sign for meningitis marked by the person's inability to extend the leg completely when the thigh is flexed upon the abdomen and the person is sitting or lying down.

68

kinesiology

the study of muscle movement

69

lethargy

a state of being sluggish

70

longitudinal fissure

a deep groove in the middle of the cerebrum that divides the cerebrum into the right and left hemisphere.

71

medulla oblongata

one of the three parts of the brain stem. It is the most essential part f the brain in that it contains the cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers in the brain.

72

meninges

the three layers of protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.

73

microglia

small neuroglial cells found in the interstitial tissue of the nervous system that engulf cellular debris, waste products, and pathogens withing the nerve tissue.

74

midbrain

the uppermost part of the brain stem.

75

motor nerves

Transmitters of nerve impulses away from the CNS; also known as efferent nerves

76

myelin sheath

a protective sheath that covers the axons of many nerves in the body. It acts as an electrical insulator and helps to speed the conduction of nerve impulses.

77

narcolepsy

a rare syndrome of uncontrolled, sudden attacks of sleep.

78

nerve

a cordlike bundle of nerve fibers that transmit impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body. It is macroscopic.

79

nerve block

the injection of a local anesthetic along the course of a nerve or nerves to eliminate sensation to the area supplied by the nerve(s); also called conduction anesthesia.

80

neuralgia

Severe, sharp, spasmlike pain that extends along the course of one or more nerves.

81

neuritis

Inflammation of a nerve

82

neuroglia

the supporting tissue of the nervous system

83

neurologist

a physician who specializes in treating the diseases and disorders of the nervous system.

84

neurology

the study of the nervous system and its disorders

85

neuron

a nerve cell

86

neurosurgeon

a physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system.

87

neurosurgery

any surgery involving the nervous system (i.e., of the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves).

88

neurotransmitter

a chemical substance within the body that activates or inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses at synapses.

89

nuchal rigidity

rigidity of the neck. The neck is resistant to flexion. This condition is seen with patients with meningitis

90

occlusion

blockage

91

oligodendrocyte

a type of neurogial cell found in the interstitial tissue of the nervous system. Its dendrite projections coil around the axons of many neurons to form the myelin sheath.

92

palliative

soothing

93

paraplegia

paralysis of the lower extremities and trunk, usually due to spinal cord injuries

94

parasympathetic nerves

nerves of the ANS that regulate essential involuntary body functions such as slowing the heart rate, increasing peristalsis of the intestines, increasing glandular secretions, and relaxing sphincters.

95

parasympathomimetic

copying or producing the same effects as those o the parasympathetic nerves; "to mimic" the parasympathetic nerves

96

paresthesia

a sensation of numbness or tingling

97

peripheral nervous system

the part of the nervous system outside the CNS, consisting of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.

98

phagocytosis

the process by which certain cells engulf and destroy microorganisms and cellular debris.

99

pia mater

the innermost of the three membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord

100

pineal body

a small cone-shaped structure (located in the diencephalon of the brain) thought to be involved in regulating the body's biological clock and that produces melatonin; also called the pineal gland

101

pineal gland

a small cone-shaped structure (located in the diencephalon of the brain) thought to be involved in regulating the body's biological clock and that produces melatonin; also called the pineal body

102

plexus

a network of interwoven nerves

103

pons

the part of the brain located between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. t acts as a bridge to connect the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum to the upper portions of the brain.

104

quadriplegia

paralysis of all four exremities and the trunk of the body; caused by injury to the spinal cord at the level of the cervical vertebrae

105

radiculotomy

the surgical resection of a spinal nerve root (a procedure performed to relieve pain); also called a rhizotomy

106

receptor

a sensory nerve ending (i.e., a nerve ending that receives impulses and responds to various types of stimulation).

107

rhizotomy

the surgical resection of a spinal nerve root (a procedure performed to relieve pain); also called a radiculotomy

108

sciatica

inflammation of the sciatic nerve; characterized by pain along the course of the nerve, radiating through the thigh and down the back of the leg

109

sensory

pertaining to sensation

110

sensory nerves

transmitters of nerve impulses toward the CNS; also known as afferent nerves

111

shingles

an acute infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox, characterized by painful vesicular lesions along the path of a spinal nerve; also called herpes zoster

112

shunt

a tube or passage that diverts or redirects body fluid from one cavity or vessel to another; may be a congenital defect or artificially constructed for the purpose of redirecting fluid

113

somatic nervous system

the part of the PNS that provides voluntary control over skeletal muscle contractions

114

stimulus

any agent or factor capable of initiating a nerve impulse

115

stupor

a state of lethargy. the person is unresponsive and seems unaware of his/her surroundings

116

subarachnoid space

the space located just under the arachnoid membrane that contains cerebrospinal fluid

117

subdural space

the space located just beneath the dura mater that contains serous fluid.

118

sulcus

a depression or shallow groove on the surface of an organ

119

sympathetic nerves

nerves of the ANS that regulate essential involuntary body functions such as increasing the heart rate, constricting blood vessels, and raising the blood pressure.

120

sympathomimetic

copying or producing the same effects as those of the sympathetic nerves; "to mimic" the sympathetic nerves

121

synapse

the space between the end of one nerve and the beginning of another, through which nerve impulses are transmitted.

122

syncope

fainting

123

thalamus

the part of the brain located between the cerebral hemispheres and the midbrain. The thalamus receives all sensory stimuli, except those of smell and relays them to the cerebral cortex

124

thrombosis

an abnormal condition in which a clot develops in a blood vessel

125

tonic-clonic seizure

a seizure characterized by the presence of muscle contraction or tension followed by relaxation, creating a "jerking" movement of the body.

126

ventricle

a small hollow within the brain that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid

127

whiplash

an injury to the cervical vertebrae and their supporting structures due to a sudden back-and-forth jerking movement of the head and neck.

128

white matter

the part of the nervous system consisting of axons covered with myelin sheath, giving a white appearance.

129

Alzheimer's disease

deterioration of a person's intellectual functioning. It is progressive and extremely debilitating. It begins with minor memory loss and progresses to complete loss of mental, emotional, and physical functioning, frequently occurring in persons over 65 years of age.

130

amyotrophic leteral sclerosis

a severe weakening and wasting of the involved muscle groups, usually beginning with the hands and progressing to the shoulders, upper arms, and legs. It is caused by decreased nerve innervation to the muscle groups

131

.anencephaly

is an absence of the brain and spinal cord at birth, a congenital disorder

132

Bell's palsy

a temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face following trauma to the face, an unknown infection, or a tumor pressing on the facial nerve rendering it paralyzed.

133

brain abscess

is a localized accumulation of pus located anywhere in the brain tissue due to an infectious process - either a primary local infection or an infection secondary to another infectious process in the body (such as bacterial endocarditis, sinusitis, otitis or dental abscess.

134

carpal tunnel syndrome

a pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel due to inflammation and swelling to the tendons, causing intermittent or continuous pain that is greatest at night.

135

cerebral concussion

a brief interruption of brain function, usually with a loss of consciousness lasting for a few seconds.

136

cerebral contusion

a small, scattered venous hemorrhage in the brain (or better described as a "bruise" of the brain tissue) occurring when the brain strikes the inner skull.

137

cerebral palsy

a collective term used to describe congenital (at birth) brain damage that is permanent, but not progressive. It is characterized by the child's lack of control of voluntary muscles.

138

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

involves death of a specific portion of brain tissue, resulting from a decrease in blood flow (ischemia) to that area of the brain; also called stroke

139

degenerative disk

the deterioration of the intervertebral disk, usually due to constant motion and wear on the disk.

140

encephalitis

the inflammation of the brain or spinal cord tissue largely caused by a virus that enters the CNS when the person experiences a viral disease such as measles or mumps or through the bite of a mosquito or tick

141

epilepsy

a syndrome of recurring episodes of excessive irregular electrical activity of brain resulting in involuntary muscle movements called seizures.

142

grand mal seizure

an epileptic seizure characterized by sudden loss of consciousness and by generalized involuntary muscular contraction, vacillating between rigid body extension and an alternating contracting and relaxing of the muscles

143

petit mal seizure

a small seizure in which there is a sudden temporary loss of consciousness lasting only a few seconds; also known as an absence seizure

144

Guillain-Barre syndrome

acute polyneuritis ("inflammation of many nerves") of the PNS in which the myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response, and sudden muscle weakness, which usually follows a viral gastrointestinal or respiratory infection

145

headache

involves pain (varying in intensity from mild to severe) anywhere within the cranial cavity. It may be chronic or acute and may occur as a result of a disease process or e totally benign.

146

migraine headache

a recurring, pulsating, vascular headache usually developing on one side of the head. It is characterized by a slow onset that my be preceded by an aura, during which a sensory disturbance occurs such as confusion or some visual interference (e.g., flashing lights).

147

cluster headache

occurs typically two to three hours after falling asleep; described as extreme pain around one eye that wakens the person from sleep.

148

tension headache

occurs from long, endured contraction of the skeletal muscles around the face, scalp, upper back, and neck.

149

hematoma, epidural

a collection of blood located above the dura mater and just below the skull

150

hematoma, subdural

a collection of blood below the dura mater and above the arachnoid layer of the meninges.

151

herniated disk

a rupture or herniation of the disk center (nucleus pulposus) through the disk wall into the spinal canal, causing pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.

152

Huntington's chorea

an inherited neurological disease characterized by rapid, jerky, involuntary movements and increasing dementia due to the effects of the basal ganglia on the neurons.

153

hydrocephalus

an abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that causes the ventricle of the brain to dilate, resulting in an increased head circumference in the infant with open fontanel(s); a congenital disorder.

154

metastatic intracranial tumors (secondary)

occur as a result of metastasis from a primary site such as the lung or breast. they occur more frequently than primary neoplasms.

155

meningitis (acute bacterial)

a serious bacterial infection of the meninges - the covering of the brain and spinal cord - that can have residual debilitating effects or even a fatal outcome if not diagnosed and treated promptly with appropriate antibiotic therapy

156

multiple sclerosis

a degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS attacking the myelin sheath in the spinal cord and brain leaving it sclerosed (hardened) or scarred and interrupting the flow of nerve impulses.

157

myasthenia gravis

a chronic progressive neuromuscular disorder causing severe skeletal mfuscle weakness (without atrophy) and fatigue, which occurs at different levels of severity.

158

neuroblastoma

a highly malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system

159

Parkinson's disease

a degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system characterized by a gradual onset of symptoms such as a stooped posture with the body flexed forward; a bowed head; a shuffling gait; pill-rolling gestures; an expressionless, masklike facial appearance; muffled speech; and swallowing difficulty.

160

peripheral neuritis

a general term indicating inflammation of one or more peripheral nerves, the effects being dependent on the particular nerve involved.

161

poliomeylitis

an infectious viral disease entering through the upper respiratory tract and affecting the ability of spinal cord and brain motor neurons to receive stimulation. Muscles affected become paralyzed without the motor nerve stimulation (i.e., respiratory paralysis requires ventilatory support.)

162

pospolio syndrome

progressive weakness occurring at least 30 years after the initial poliomyelitis attack.

163

Reye's syndrome

an acute brain encephalopathy along with fatty infiltration of the internal organs that may follow acute viral infections; occurs in children between 5 and 11, often with a fatal result. There are confirmed studies linking the onset of to aspirin administration during a viral illness

164

shingles

an acute viral infection seen mainly in adults who have had chicken pox, characterized by inflammation of the underlying spinal or cranial nerve pathway (producing painful vesicular eruptions on the skin along these nerve pathways).

165

skull fracture (depressed)

a broken segment of the skull bone thrust into the brain as a result of a direct force, usually a blunt object

166

Spina bifida cystica

a congenital defect of the CNS in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed normally and a cyst protrudes through the opening in the back, usually at the level of the fifth lumbar or first sacral vertebrae.

167

meningocele

a cystlike sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protruding through the bony defect in the vertebrae containing meninges and CSF

168

meningomyelocele

a cystlike sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protruding through the bony defect in the vertebrae that contains meninges, CSF and spinal cord segments

169

spina bifida occulta

a congenital defect of the CNS in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed. A dimpling over the area may occur.

170

spinal cord injuries

severe injuries to the spinal cord, such as vertebral dislocation or vertebral fractures, resulting in impairment of spinal cord function below the level of the injury.

171

paraplegia

(paralysis of the lower extremities) is caused by severe injury to the spinal cord in the thoracic or lumbar region, resulting in loss of sensory and motor control below the level of injury.

172

quadriplegia

follows severe trauma to the spinal cord between the fifth and seventh cervical vertebrae, generally resulting in loss of motor and sensory function below the level of injury.

173

Tay-Sachs disease

a congenital disorder caused by altered lipid metabolism, resulting from enzyme deficiency.

174

trigeminal neuralgia

short periods of severe unilateral pain, which radiates along the fifth cranial nerve

175

Babinski's reflex

can be tested by stroking the sole of the foot beginning at midheel and moving upward and lateral t the toes. A positive occurs when there is dorsiflexion of the great toe and fanning of the other toes.

176

brain scan

a brain scan is a nuclear counter scanning of cranial content two hours after an intravenous injection of radioisotopes

177

cerebral angiography

visualization of the cerebral vascular system via X-ray after the injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel (carotid, femoral or brachial)

178

cerebrospinal fluid analysis

CSF obtained from a lumbar puncture is analyzed for the presence of bacteria, blood, or malignant cells as well as for the amount of protein and glucose present

179

CT of the brain

analysis of a three-dimensional view of brain tissue obtained as X-ray beams pass through successive horizontal layers of the brain

180

chordotomy

a neurosurgical procedure for pain control accomplished through a laminectomy, in which there is surgical interference of pathways within the spinal cord that control pain.

181

cisternal puncture

involves insertion of a short, beveled spinal needle into the cisterna magna (a shallow reservoir of CSF between the medulla and the cerebellum) to drain CSF or to obtain a CSF specimen.

182

craniotomy

a surgical procedure that makes an opening into the skull

183

echoencephalography

Ultrasound used to analyze the intracranial structures of the brain

184

electroencephalography (EEG)

measurement of electrical activity produced by the brain and recorded through electrodes place don the scalp

185

electromyography

is the process of recording the electrical activity of muscle by inserting a small needle into the muscle and delivering a small current that stimulates the muscle

186

laminectomy

the surgical removal of the bony arches from one or more of the vertebrae to relive pressure on the spinal cord

187

lumbar puncture

involves the insertion of a hollow needle and stylet into the subarachnoid space, generally between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae below the level of the spinal cord under strict aseptic technique

188

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

a noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue and bony structures without the use of radiation

189

myelography

the introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral canal through X-ray examination.

190

neurectomy

a neurosurgical procedure to relieve pain in a localized or small area by incision of cranial or peripheral nerves.

191

pneumoencephalography

used to visualize radiographically one of the ventricles or fluid-occupying spaces in the CNS.

192

polysomnogram

a sleep study or sleep test that evaluates physical factors affecting sleep. Physical activity and level of sleep are monitored by a technician while the patient sleeps.

193

positron emission tomography (PET)

scan produces computerized radiographic images of various body structures when radioactive substances are inhaled or injected.

194

Romberg test

used to evaluate cerebellar function and balance

195

stereotaxic neurosurgery

performed on a precise location of an area within the brain that controls specific function(s) and may involve destruction of brain tissue with various agents such as heat, cold, and sclerosing or corrosive fluids.

196

sympathectomy

a surgical procedure used to interrupt a portion of the sympathetic nerve pathway for the purpose of relieving chronic pain

197

tractotomy

involves a craniotomy, through which the anterolateral pathway in the brain stem is surgically divided in an attempt to relieve pain.

198

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

a form of cutaneous stimulation for pain relief that supplies electrical impulses to the nerve endings of a nerve close to the pain site.

199

ACTH

adrenocorticotrophic hormone

200

ALS

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

201

ANS

autonomic nervous system

202

CAT

computerized axial tomography

203

CNS

central nervous system

204

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

205

CT

computed tomography

206

CVA

cerebrovascular accident; stroke

207

EEG

electroencephalogram

208

EMG

electromyography

209

EST

electric shock therapy

210

ICP

intracranial pressure

211

LOC

level of consciousness

212

LP

lumbar puncture

213

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

214

MS

multiple sclerosis

215

MSLT

multiple sleep latency test

216

NCS

nerve conduction study

217

NPH

normal-pressure hydrocehalus

218

NREM

non-rapid eye movement (stage of sleep)

219

PEG

pneumoencephalogram

220

PET

positron emission tomography

221

PNS

peripheral nervous system

222

PSG

polysomnogram

223

REM

rapid eye movement (stage of sleep)

224

RT

reading test

225

SNS

somatic nervous system

226

TENS

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

227

TIA

transient ischemic attack