Muscles and Joints Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Muscles and Joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscles and Joints Deck (96):
1

arthralgia

pain in the joints; symptom present in many joint diseases.

2

atrophy

wasting away; literally "without development"

3

cardiac muscle

specialized type of muscle that forms the wall of the heart. A type of involuntary muscle.

4

contract/contraction

a reduction in size, especially of muscle fibers

5

contracture

an abnormal (usually permanent) bending of a joint into a fixed position; usually caused by atrophy and shortening of muscle fibers

6

fascia

thin sheets of fibrous connective tissue that penetrate and cover the entire muscle, holding the fibers together

7

insertion

the point of attachment of a muscle to a bone it moves

8

involuntary muscles

muscles that act without conscious control. they are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and hormones

9

muscle fiber

the name given to the individual muscle cell

10

origin

the point of attachment of a muscle to a bone that is less movable (ie. the more fixed end of attachment)

11

pelvic girdle weakness

weakness of the muscles of the pelvic girdle (the muscles that extend the hip and the knee). in muscular dystrophy, the pelvic girdle weakness causes the child to use one or both hands to assist in rising form a sitting position by "walking the hands up the lower extremities until he or she is an in upright position.

12

pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy

a form of muscular dystrophy that is characterized by progressive weakness and muscle fiber degeneration without evidence of nerve involvement or degeneration of nerve tissue; also known as Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

13

skeletal muscle

muscles that attach to the bones of the skeleton; also known as striated muscle. skeletal muscles act voluntarily.

14

smooth muscle

muscles found in the walls of hollow organs and tubes such as the stomach, intestines, respiratory passageways, and blood vessels; also known as visceral muscles. Smooth muscles act involuntarily.

15

striated muscle

muscles that have a striped appearance when viewed under a microscope. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are examples

16

tendon

a strong fibrous band of tissue that extends from a muscle, attaching it to the bone by becoming continuous with the periosteum of the bone.

17

torso

the main part of the body, to which the head and the extremities are attached. also called trunk.

18

trunk

the main part of the body, to which the head and extremities are attached, also called torso.

19

visceral muscle

muscles of the internal organs, also called smooth muscle

20

voluntary muscle

muscles (such as skeletal muscles) that operate under conscious control. Those that are responsible for movement of the face, eyes, tongue, and pharynx are under voluntary control.

21

muscular dystrophy

a group of genetically transmitted disorders characterized by progressive symmetrical wasting of skeletal muscles; there is no evidence of nerve involvement or degeneration of nerve tissue. The onset is early in life.

22

polymyositis

a chronic, progressive disease affecting the skeletal (striated) muscles. It is characterized by muscle weakness of hips and arms and degeneration (atrophy).

23

rotator cuff tear

a tear in the muscles that form a "cuff" over the upper end of the arm (head and humerus).

24

strains

an injury to the body of the muscle or attachment of the tendon, resulting from overstretching, over extension, or misuse (i.e., a "muscle pull").

25

muscle biopsy

the extraction of a specimen of muscle tissue, through either a biopsy needle or an incisional biopsy, for the purposes of examining under a microscope.

26

electromyography

is the process of recording the strength of the contraction of a muscle when it is stimulated by an electric current.

27

IM

intramuscular

28

MD

muscular dystrophy

29

DTR

deep tendon reflexes

30

EMG

electromyography

31

fibrous joint

the surfaces of the bones fit closely together and are held together by fibrous connective tissue. This is an immovable joint.

32

cartilaginous joint

the bones are connected by cartilage, as in the symphysis (joint between the pubic bones of the pelvis). This type of joint allows limited movement.

33

synovial joint

the bones have a space between them called the joint cavity. the joint cavity is lined with a synovial membrane, which secretes a thick lubricating fluid called the synovial fluid. The bones of the joing are held together by ligaments. The surfaces of the connecting bone are protected by a thin layer of cartilage called the articular cartilage. This joint allows free movement.

34

hinge joint

allows movement in one direction - a back and forth type motion.

35

ball-and-socket joint

allows movement in many directions around a central point. A ball shaped head that fits into the concave depression of another bone allows the bone with the ball-shaped head to move in many directions.

36

flexion

is a bending motion. it decreases the angle between to bones.

37

extension

is a straightening motion. It increases the angle between two bones.

38

abduction

the movement of a bone away from the midline of the body

39

adduction

the movement of a bone toward the midline of the body.

40

rotation

the movement that involves the turning of a bone on its own axis.

41

supination

the act of turning the palm up or forward

42

pronation

the act of turning the palm down or backward

43

dorsiflexion

the foot narrows the angle between the leg and the top of the foot

44

plantar flexion

the foot increases the angle between the leg and the top of the foot.

45

circumduction

the movement of an extremity around in a circular motion. this motion can be performed with ball-and-socket joints

46

articular cartilage

thin layer of cartilage protecting and covering the connecting surfaces of the bones

47

articulation

the point at which two bones comes together; a joint

48

bunion

abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe

49

bunionectomy

surgical removal of a bunion; removing the bony overgrowth and the bursa

50

bursa

a small sac that contains synovial fluid for lubricating the area around the joint where friction is most likely to occur.

51

closed manipulation

the manual forcing of a joint back into its original position without making an incision; also called closed reduction.

52

closed reduction

the manual forcing of a joint back into its original position without making an incision; also called closed manipulation.

53

crepitation

clicking or cracking sounds heard upon joint movement

54

ganglionectomy

surgical removal of a ganglion

55

joint cavity

the space between two connecting bones

56

kyphosis

humpback

57

ligaments

connective tissue bands that join bone to bone, offering support to the joint

58

malaise

a vague feeling of weakness

59

needle aspiration

the insertion of a needle into a cavity for the purpose of withdrawing fluid

60

photosensitivity

increased reaction of the skin to exposure to sunlight

61

sciatica

inflammation of the sciatic nerve, marked by pain and tenderness along the path of the nerve through the thigh and leg

62

subluxation

an incomplete dislocation

63

suture

an immovable joint

64

synovial fluid

a thick lubricating fluid located in synovial joints

65

synovial membrane

the lining of the synovial joint cavity

66

viscous

sticky; gelatinous

67

adhesive capsulitis

a shoulder condition characterized by stiffness of the shoulder, limited shoulder movement, and pain; also known as "frozen shoulder". The condition may be idiopathic (cause unknown) or due to an underlying cause such as trauma, osteoarthritis, or system diseases. Divided into three stage: the painful stage, the adhesive stave and the recovery stage.

68

arthritis

inflammation of the joint

69

ankylosing spondylitis

a type of arthritis that affects the vertebral column and causes deformities of the spine

70

dislocation

the displacement of a bone from its normal location within a joint, causing a loss of function of the joint.

71

ganglion

a cystic tumor developing on a tendon;

72

gout

a form of acute arthritis that is characterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal joint on the great toe.

73

herniated disk

the rupture of the central portion, or nucleus, of the disk through the disk wall and into the spinal canal. Also called a slipped disk or a ruptured disk.

74

Lyme disease

an acute, recurrent, inflammatory infection transmitted through the bite of an infected deer tick.

75

osteoarthritis

degenerative joint disease. It is the most common form of arthritis and results from wear and tear on the joints, especially weight-bearing joints such as the hips and knees.

76

rheumatoid arthritis

is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disease that affects multiple joints of the body, mainly the small peripheral joints such as in the hands and feet.

77

sprains

an injury involving the ligaments that surround and support a joint, caused by wrenching and twisting motion.

78

strains

injury to the body of a muscle or attachment of a tendon

79

systemic lupus erythematosus

chronic inflammatory connective-tissue disease affecting the skin, joints, nervous system, kidneys, lungs, and other organs The most striking symptom of the disease is the "butterfly rash" that appears on both cheeks, joined by a narrow band of rash across the nose.

80

arthrocentesis

surgical puncture of a joint with a need for the purpose of withdrawing fluid for analysis

81

arthrogram

an X-ray of a joint after injection of a contrast medium

82

arthrography

the process of X-raying the inside of a joint after a contrast medium has been injected into the joint.

83

arthroplasty

the surgical reconstruction (repair) of a joint

84

arthroscopy

the visualization f the interior of a joint by using an endoscope.

85

rheumatoid factor

a blood test that measures the presence of unusual antibodies that develop in a number of connective tissue diseases

86

erythrocyte sed rate

a blood test that measures the rate at which erythrocytes (red blood cells) settle to the bottom of a test tube filled with unclotted blood.

87

DIP

distal interphalangeal (joint)

88

ESR (sed rate)

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

89

HNP

herniated nucleus pulposus

90

MCP

metacarpalphalangeal (joint)

91

MTP

metatarsophalangeal (joint)

92

OA

osteoarthritis

93

PIP

promimal interphalangeal (joint)

94

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

95

RF

rheumatoid factor

96

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus