pain in the joints; symptom present in many joint diseases.
wasting away; literally “without development”
specialized type of muscle that forms the wall of the heart. A type of involuntary muscle.
a reduction in size, especially of muscle fibers
an abnormal (usually permanent) bending of a joint into a fixed position; usually caused by atrophy and shortening of muscle fibers
thin sheets of fibrous connective tissue that penetrate and cover the entire muscle, holding the fibers together
the point of attachment of a muscle to a bone it moves
muscles that act without conscious control. they are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and hormones
the name given to the individual muscle cell
the point of attachment of a muscle to a bone that is less movable (ie. the more fixed end of attachment)
pelvic girdle weakness
weakness of the muscles of the pelvic girdle (the muscles that extend the hip and the knee). in muscular dystrophy, the pelvic girdle weakness causes the child to use one or both hands to assist in rising form a sitting position by “walking the hands up the lower extremities until he or she is an in upright position.
pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy
a form of muscular dystrophy that is characterized by progressive weakness and muscle fiber degeneration without evidence of nerve involvement or degeneration of nerve tissue; also known as Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy
muscles that attach to the bones of the skeleton; also known as striated muscle. skeletal muscles act voluntarily.
muscles found in the walls of hollow organs and tubes such as the stomach, intestines, respiratory passageways, and blood vessels; also known as visceral muscles. Smooth muscles act involuntarily.
muscles that have a striped appearance when viewed under a microscope. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are examples
a strong fibrous band of tissue that extends from a muscle, attaching it to the bone by becoming continuous with the periosteum of the bone.
the main part of the body, to which the head and the extremities are attached. also called trunk.
the main part of the body, to which the head and extremities are attached, also called torso.
muscles of the internal organs, also called smooth muscle
muscles (such as skeletal muscles) that operate under conscious control. Those that are responsible for movement of the face, eyes, tongue, and pharynx are under voluntary control.
a group of genetically transmitted disorders characterized by progressive symmetrical wasting of skeletal muscles; there is no evidence of nerve involvement or degeneration of nerve tissue. The onset is early in life.
a chronic, progressive disease affecting the skeletal (striated) muscles. It is characterized by muscle weakness of hips and arms and degeneration (atrophy).
rotator cuff tear
a tear in the muscles that form a “cuff” over the upper end of the arm (head and humerus).
an injury to the body of the muscle or attachment of the tendon, resulting from overstretching, over extension, or misuse (i.e., a “muscle pull”).
the extraction of a specimen of muscle tissue, through either a biopsy needle or an incisional biopsy, for the purposes of examining under a microscope.
is the process of recording the strength of the contraction of a muscle when it is stimulated by an electric current.
deep tendon reflexes
the surfaces of the bones fit closely together and are held together by fibrous connective tissue. This is an immovable joint.
the bones are connected by cartilage, as in the symphysis (joint between the pubic bones of the pelvis). This type of joint allows limited movement.
the bones have a space between them called the joint cavity. the joint cavity is lined with a synovial membrane, which secretes a thick lubricating fluid called the synovial fluid. The bones of the joing are held together by ligaments. The surfaces of the connecting bone are protected by a thin layer of cartilage called the articular cartilage. This joint allows free movement.
allows movement in one direction - a back and forth type motion.
allows movement in many directions around a central point. A ball shaped head that fits into the concave depression of another bone allows the bone with the ball-shaped head to move in many directions.
is a bending motion. it decreases the angle between to bones.
is a straightening motion. It increases the angle between two bones.
the movement of a bone away from the midline of the body
the movement of a bone toward the midline of the body.
the movement that involves the turning of a bone on its own axis.
the act of turning the palm up or forward
the act of turning the palm down or backward
the foot narrows the angle between the leg and the top of the foot
the foot increases the angle between the leg and the top of the foot.
the movement of an extremity around in a circular motion. this motion can be performed with ball-and-socket joints
thin layer of cartilage protecting and covering the connecting surfaces of the bones
the point at which two bones comes together; a joint
abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe
surgical removal of a bunion; removing the bony overgrowth and the bursa
a small sac that contains synovial fluid for lubricating the area around the joint where friction is most likely to occur.
the manual forcing of a joint back into its original position without making an incision; also called closed reduction.
the manual forcing of a joint back into its original position without making an incision; also called closed manipulation.
clicking or cracking sounds heard upon joint movement
surgical removal of a ganglion
the space between two connecting bones
connective tissue bands that join bone to bone, offering support to the joint
a vague feeling of weakness
the insertion of a needle into a cavity for the purpose of withdrawing fluid
increased reaction of the skin to exposure to sunlight
inflammation of the sciatic nerve, marked by pain and tenderness along the path of the nerve through the thigh and leg
an incomplete dislocation
an immovable joint
a thick lubricating fluid located in synovial joints
the lining of the synovial joint cavity
a shoulder condition characterized by stiffness of the shoulder, limited shoulder movement, and pain; also known as “frozen shoulder”. The condition may be idiopathic (cause unknown) or due to an underlying cause such as trauma, osteoarthritis, or system diseases. Divided into three stage: the painful stage, the adhesive stave and the recovery stage.
inflammation of the joint
a type of arthritis that affects the vertebral column and causes deformities of the spine
the displacement of a bone from its normal location within a joint, causing a loss of function of the joint.
a cystic tumor developing on a tendon;
a form of acute arthritis that is characterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal joint on the great toe.
the rupture of the central portion, or nucleus, of the disk through the disk wall and into the spinal canal. Also called a slipped disk or a ruptured disk.
an acute, recurrent, inflammatory infection transmitted through the bite of an infected deer tick.
degenerative joint disease. It is the most common form of arthritis and results from wear and tear on the joints, especially weight-bearing joints such as the hips and knees.
is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disease that affects multiple joints of the body, mainly the small peripheral joints such as in the hands and feet.
an injury involving the ligaments that surround and support a joint, caused by wrenching and twisting motion.
injury to the body of a muscle or attachment of a tendon
systemic lupus erythematosus
chronic inflammatory connective-tissue disease affecting the skin, joints, nervous system, kidneys, lungs, and other organs The most striking symptom of the disease is the “butterfly rash” that appears on both cheeks, joined by a narrow band of rash across the nose.
surgical puncture of a joint with a need for the purpose of withdrawing fluid for analysis
an X-ray of a joint after injection of a contrast medium
the process of X-raying the inside of a joint after a contrast medium has been injected into the joint.
the surgical reconstruction (repair) of a joint
the visualization f the interior of a joint by using an endoscope.
a blood test that measures the presence of unusual antibodies that develop in a number of connective tissue diseases
erythrocyte sed rate
a blood test that measures the rate at which erythrocytes (red blood cells) settle to the bottom of a test tube filled with unclotted blood.
distal interphalangeal (joint)
ESR (sed rate)
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
herniated nucleus pulposus
promimal interphalangeal (joint)
systemic lupus erythematosus