Tissues or structures in the body that are next to or near another. As in the uterus, this consists of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and ligaments of the uterus
The darker pigmented, circular area surrounding the nipple of each breast; also known as the areola mammae or the areola papillaris. (plural: areolae)
two small, mucus-secreting glands located on the posterior and lateral aspects of the entrance to the vagina
the part of the uterus that protrudes into the cavity of the vagina; the neck of the uterus.
the cessation of mensturation; also called menopause
the vaginal erectile tissue (structure) corresponding to the male penis
the sexual union of two people of the opposite sex in which the penis is introduced into the vagina; also known as sexual intercourse or copulation.
a yellowish mass that forms within the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation, containing high levels of progesterone and some estrogen. It functions as a temporary endocrine gland for the purpose of secreting estrogen and large amounts of progesterone, which will sustain pregnancy (should it occur) until the placenta forms. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will degenerate approximately three days prior to the beginning of menstruation.
a pouch located between the uterus and rectum within the peritoneal cavity. This pouch is formed by one of the ligaments that serves as support to the uterus. Because it is the lowest part of the abdominal cavity, blood, pus, and other drainage collect here.
a term used in gynecology to represent a form of contraception
the inner lining of the uterus
one of the female hormones that promotes the development of the female secondary sex characteristics.
one of a pair of tubes opening at one end into the uterus and at the other end into the peritoneal cavity, over the ovary.
the union of a male sperm and a female ovum
the fringelike end of the fallopian tube
a tense band of mucous membranes at the posterior rim of the vaginal opening: the poiny at which the labia minora connect.
the dome-shapped cnetra, upper portion of the uterus between the points of insertin of the fallopian tubes.
a mature sperm or ovum
a gamete-producing gland such as an ovary or a testis
a mature, fully developed ovarian cyst containing the ripe ovum
a physician who specializes in the medical specialty that deals with the diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system
the branch of medicine that deals with the study of diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system
a thin layer of elastic, connective tissue membrane that forms a border around the outer opening of the vagina and may partially cover the vaginal opening.
two folds of skin containing fatty tissue and covered with hair that lie on either side of the vaginal opening, extending from the mons pubis to the perineum. The outer surface is covered by pubic hair; the inner surface is smooth and moist.
two folds of hairless skin located within the folds of the labia majora. it extends from the clitoris downward toward the perineum.
surgical removal of only the tumor and immediate adjacent breast tissue; a method of treatment for breast cancer when detected in the early stage of the disease.
the female breasts
surgical removal of the breast as a treatment method for breast cancer; can be simple (breast only), modified radical (breast plus lymph nodes in axilla), or radical (breast, lymph nodes, and chest muscles on affected side).
inflammation of the breast
an opening or tunnel through any part of the body
onset of menstruation; the first menstrual period
the permanent cessation (stopping) of menstrual cycles
menstrual flow; menstruation
another name for menstruation or menstrual flow.
the periodic shedding of the lining of the nonpregnant uterus through a bloody discharge that passes through the vagina to the outside of the body. it occurs at monthly intervals and lasts for 3 to 5 days.
the muscular layer of the uterine wall.
the entrance or outlet of any body cavity
one of a pair of female gonads responsible for producing mature ova (eggs) and releasing them at monthly intervals (ovulation); also responsible for producing the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone
the release of the mature ovum from the ovary, occurring approximately 14 days prior to the beginning of menses.
the female reproductive cell; female sex cell or egg
the area between the vaginal orifice and the anus that consist of muscular and fibrous tissue and serves as support fro the pelvic structures.
the period of intrauterine development of the fetus from conception through birth. the average pregnancy lasts approximately 40 weeks; also known as the gestational period
a group of symptoms that include irritability, fluid retention, tenderness of the breasts, and a general feeling of depression occurring shortly before the onset of menstruation; also called PMS.
one of the female hormones secreted by the corpus luteum and the placenta. It is primarily responsible for the changes that occur in the endometrium in anticipation of a fertilized ovum and for development of the maternal placenta after implantation of a fertilized ovum.
the period of life at which the ability to reproduce begins; that is, in the female, it is the period when the female reproductive organs are fully developed.
a mature male germ cell; spermatozoon.
the paired male gonads that produce sperm. They are suspended in the scrotal sac in the adult male.
the hollow, pear-shaped organ of the female reproductive system that houses the fertilized, implanted ovum as it develops throughout the pregnancy; also the source of the monthly menstrual flow from the nonpregnant uterus.
the muscular tube that connects the uterus with the vulva. It is approximately 3 inches long and rests between the bladder (anteriorly) and the rectum (posteriorly).
the external genitalia that consists of the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibule, urinary meatus, vaginal orifice, Bartholin’s glands, and the perineum; also known as the pudendum
absence of menstrual flow
painful menstrual flow
abnormally long or very heavy menstrual periods
uterine bleeding at times other than the menstrual period
abnormally light or infrequent menstruation
to abstain from having vaginal intercourse.
birth control pills, contain synthetic forms of the estrogen and progesterone hormones and are taken by mouth.
a form of contraception administered intramuscularly, approximately once every 12 weeks.
a small, plastic T-shaped object with strings attached to the leg of the T. It is inserted into the uterus, through the vagina, and remains in place in the uterus
birth control patch
a thin, flexible square patch that continuously delivers hormones through the skin and into the bloodstream for a full seven days to prevent pregnancy. The birth control patch contains hormones similar to those in birth control pills but must be changed every seven days.
a flexible contraceptive ring (placed into the vagina) that slowly releases a low dose of hormones that prevent pregnancy
methods of birth control that place physical barriers between the cervix and the sperm so that the sperm cannot pass the cervix and enter the uterus, and thus, the fallopian tubes.
surgically cutting and tying the fallopian tubes to prevent passage of ova or sperm through the tubes, consequently preventing pregnancy; female sterilization
an alternative to tubal ligation that provides bilateral occlusion of the fallopian tubes by inserting a soft, flexible micro-insert into each fallopian tube.
also known as male sterilization, a vasectomy is surgically cutting and tying the vas deferns to prevent the passage of sperm, consequently preventing pregnancy.
carcinoma of the breast
a malignant (cancerous) tumor of the breast tissue. The most common type (ductal carcinoma) originates in the mammary ducts. This tumor has the ability to invade surrounding tissue if not detected early enough. Once the cancer cells penetrate the duct, they will metastasize (spread) through the surrounding breast tissue, eventually reaching the axillary lymph nodes. Through the lymph vessels, the cancer cells can spread to distant parts of the body.
a malignant tumor of the cervix. Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the female reproductive tract. Symptoms include an abnormal Pap smear and bleeding between menstrual periods, after sexual intercourse, or after menopause.
an acute or chronic inflammation of the uterine cervix
herniation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina.
malignant tumor of the inner lining of the uterus; also known as adenocarcinoma of the uterus
the presence and growth of endometrial tissue in areas outside the endometrium (lining of the uterus)
fibrocystic breast disease
the presence of single or multiple fluid-filled cysts that are palpable in the breasts.
a benign, fibrous tumor of the uterus
a benign, smooth-muscle tumor of the uterus. Uterine leiomyomas are often mislabeled as fibroid tumors, when in fact they are not.
a malignant tumor of the ovaries, most commonly occurring in the women in their 50s. It is rarely detected in the early stage and is usually far advanced when diagnosed.
benign, globular sacs (cysts) that form on or near the ovaries. These cysts may be fluid filled or may contain semisolid material.
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
infection of the fallopian tubes; also known as salpingitis
stress incontinence, urinary
the inability to hold urine when the bladder is stressed by sneezing, coughing, laughing, or lifting
inflammation of the vagina and the vulva
an invasive procedure in which a needle is inserted into an area of the body, such as the breast, to withdraw a tissue or fluid sample for microscopic examination and diagnosis
a procedure in which the woman examines her breasts and surrounding tissue for evidence of any changes that could indicate the possibility of malignancy.
visual examination of the vagina and cervix with a colposcope
surgical removal of a cone-shaped segment of the cervix for diagnosis or treatment; also known as conization
the destruction of tissue by rapid freezing with substances such as liquid nitrogen
the surgical puncture through the posterior wall of the vagina into the cul-de-sac to withdrawal intraperitoneal fluid for examination.
dilatation and curettage
dilation or widening of the cervical canal with a dilator, followed by scraping of the uterine lining with a curet; also termed D&C
an invasive test for obtaining a sample of endometrial tissue (with a small curet) for examination
X-ray of the uterus and the fallopian tubes by injecting a contrast material into these structures.
the process of viewing the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope (a thin-walled flexible tube with a telescopic lens and light).
loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)
a procedure used to remove abnormal cells from the surface of the cervix using a tin wire loop that acts like a scalpel. A painless electrical current passes through the loop as it cuts away a thin layer of surface cells from the cervix
the processing of examining with X-ray the soft tissue of the breast to detect various benign and/or malignant growths before they can be felt.
Papanicolaou (Pap) Smear
a diagnostic test for cervical cancer; that is, a microscopic examination of (Pap test) cells scraped from within the cervix (endocervix), from around the cervix (extocervic), and from the posterior part of the vagina (near the cervix) to test for cervical cancer; also called Pap test.
liquid-based Pap (LBP)
a process of collecting a tissue sample from the endocervix and the exocervix with a sampling device that is placed directly into a liquid fixative instead of being spread onto a glass slide. This process provides immediate fixation and improves specimen adequacy. The LBP has not completely replaced the tradition Pap smear but is an increasingly popular alternative to conventional cervical cytology smears.
a noninvasive procedre that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis
the process of measuring the female pelvis, manually or by X-ray to determine its adequacy for childbearing
American Cancer Society
carcinoma in situ
dilatation and curettage
estrogen replacement therapy
human papilloma virus
intrauterine device; a particular type of contraceptive device
loop electrosurgical excision procedure
last menstrual period
pelvic inflammatory disease
total abdominal hysterectomy
total vaginal hysterectomy