Flashcards in Gerontology Deck (136):
skin tag; a benign growth that hangs from a short stalk, commonly occurring on the neck, eyelids, axilla, or groin.
the process of getting old
partial or complete loss of hair. It may result form normal aging, a reaction to a medication such as anticancer medications, an endocrine disorder, or a skin disease.
a surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other.
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat. It is seen in individuals who are depressed, with the onset of fever and illness, with stomach disorders, or as a result of excessive intake of alcohol or drugs.
an abnormal intraperitoneal (within the peritoneal cavity) accumulation of a fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes.
a form of arteriorsclerosis (hardening of the arteries) characterized by fatty deposit buildup within the inner layers of the walls of larger arteries.
characterized by a wasting of tissues, usually associated with general malnutrition or a specific diesease state.
wasting or decrease in size or physiological activity of a part of the body; literally, "without development"
ophthalmaic examination of the eye by use of a slit lamp and a magnifying lens; also known as a slit-lamp test.
an abnormal sound or murmur heard when listening to a carotid artery, organ, or gland with a stethoscope (e.g., during auscultation)
surgical removal of a bunion; removing the bony overgrowth and the bursa
cramplike pains in the calves of the legs caused by poor circulation to the muscles of the legs; commonly association with atherosclerosis
clicking or crackling sounds heard upon joint movement.
a noninvasive treatment for nonmelanoma skin cancer by using liquid nitrogen, which freezes the tissue. It is also used to remove benign tumors and growths such as warts.
the process of scraping material from the wall of a cavity or other surface for the purpose of removing abnormal tissue or unwanted material.
an impairment of the ability to execute voluntary movements.
eversion (turning outward) of the edge of the eyelid.
abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues.
a technique using an electrical spark to burn and destroy tissue; used primarily for the removal of surface lesions
inversion (turning inward) of the edge of the eyelid
a physician who has specialized postgraduate education and experience in the medical care of the older person
geriatric nurse practitioner
a registered nurse with additional education obtained through a master's degree program that prepares the nurse to delivery primary care to older adults.
the branch of medicine that deals with the physiological characteristics of aging and the diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting the aged.
pertaining to old age.
one who specializes in the study of gerontology
an abnormal fear of growing old; fear of aging and of old people
the study and treatment of psychiatric aspects of aging and mental disorders of older adults.
a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose when the blood sugar level is dangerously low.
the presence of sugar in the urine.
elevated blood sugar level
unusual lack of skin color
decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ.
substances that increase in the blood as a result of incomplete fat metabolism. Fats are broken down for energy when the body is unable to use carbohydrates for energy, as the result is a buildup of keytone bodies in the blood and the urine.
an abnormal outward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as humpback or hunchback
thickening and hardening of the skin
impaired absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract.
a term used to describe an individual between the ages of 75-84 years.
a refractive error in which the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately, resulting in impaired distant vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused in front of the retina because the eyeball is longer than normal; nearsightedness.
urination at night
a term used to describe an individual 85 years of age and older. The fastest number of older adults is in the old-old age group
swelling, usually of the skin of the extremities, that when pressed firmly with a finger will maintain the dent produced by the finger.
loss of hearing due to the natural aging process.
loss of accommodation for near vision; poor vision due to the natural aging process.
the process of growing old.
age spots; brown macules found on areas of the skin that are frequently exposed to the sun such as the face, neck, or back of the hands of many older people. The singular form of the word is lentigo
a rod or threadlike device (mesh tube) for supporting tubular structures during surgical anastomosis or for holding arteries open during angioplasty
a reflection of the skin's elasticity. It can be checked by lightly pinching the skin of the forearm between the examiner's thumb and forefinger and releasing it. The time it takes for the skin to return to its normal position is the measurement. with the normal return time being approximately three seconds.
inability to control urination; the inability to retain urine in the bladder
a term used to describe an individual between the ages of 65 - 74 years.
identified by raised areas that appear scaly and may bleed at the edges. An area of inflammation around the border of the lesion may be noted.
carcinoma, basal cell
a malignant epithelial cell tumor that begins as a slightly elevated nodule with a depression or ulceration in the center that becomes more obvious as the tumor grows. As the depression enlarges, the tissue breaks down, crusts, and bleeds.
carcinoma, squamous cell
a malignancy of the squamous, or scalelike, cells of the epithelial tissue. It is a much faster growing cancer than basal cell carcinoma and has a greater potential for metastasis if not treated.
an acute or chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, or scabs; accompanied by intense itching.
a common, noninfectious, chronic disorder of the skin manifested by silvery white scales over round, raised, reddened plaques, producing pruritius
appears as a brown or waxy yellow wartlike lesion(s), 5 to 20 mm in diameter, loosely attached to the skin surface.
fracture of the hip
a break in the continuity of the bone involving the upper third of the femur
a disease in which the bones become abnormally soft due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood (which is necessary for bone mineralization). this disease results in fractures and noticeable deformities of the weigh-bearing bones. This disease is the adult equivalent of rickets.
literally means porous bones; that is, bones that were once strong become fragile due to the loss of bone density.
a nonmetabolic disease of the bone, characterized by excessive bone destruction (breakdown of bone tissue by the osteoclasts) and unorganized bone formation by the osteoblasts. The bone is weak and prone to fractures. After symptoms are present, the diseased bone takes on a characteristic mosaic pattern that can be detected with X-ray or bone scan; also known as osteitis deformans.
a type of arthritis that affects the vertebral column and causes deformities of the spine; also known as Marie-Strumpell disease and as rheumatoid spondylitis
bunion (hallus valgus)
an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe.
a metabolic disease in which uric acid crystals are deposited in joints or other tissues. It is characterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal joint of the great toe. Although the great toe is the most common site for this, it can occur in other parts of the food and body. Men between the ages of 40 and 60 are more commonly affected than women. It usually appears in women in the postmenopausal period.
also known as degenerative joint disease. It is the most common form of arthritis, having universal prevalence in those age 80 and over. It results from wear and tear on the joints, especially weight-bearing joints such as the hips and knees.
restless legs syndrome (RLS)
a condition of the legs involving annoying sensations of uneasiness, tiredness, itching, or tingling of the leg muscles while resting. The individual feels an overwhelming desire to get up and move around due to the jerking sensation and painful twitching of the muscles. It is sometimes referred to as Ekbom's syndrome, after the doctor who first recognized it.
a progressive, degenerative disease that affects the cortex of the brain and results in deterioration of the a person'ts intellectual functioning. It is progressive and extremely debilitating. it begins with minor memory loss and progresses to complete loss of mental, emotional, and physical functioning, frequently occurring in persons over 65 years of age.
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
neurological deficit(s) resulting from a decrease in blood (ischemia) to a specific localized area in the brain; also called "stroke" or "brain attack".
a degenerative, slowly progressive, deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system, characterized by a gradual onset of symptoms (such as a stooped posture with the body flexed forward; a bowed head; a shuffling gait; pill-rolling gestures; an expressionless, masklike facial appearance; muffled speech; and swallowing difficulty.
shingles (herpes zoster)
an acute viral infection seen mainly in adults, characterized by inflammation of the underlying spinal or cranial nerve pathway, producing painful vesicular eruptions on the skin following along these nerve pathways.
collection of blood beneath the skin in the form of pinpoint hemorrhages appearing as re-purple skin discolorations.
an arterial condition in which there is thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries, resulting in decreased blood supply, especially to the lower extremities and cerebrum; also called hardening of the arteries.
congestive heart failure (CHF)
condition characterized by weakness, breathlessness, and abdominal discomfort. Edema in the lower potions of the body results from the flow of the blood through the vessels being slowed (venous stasis) and the outflow ow blood from the left side of the heart being reduced. The pumping ability of the heart is progressively impaired to the point that it no longer meets bodily needs; also known as cardiac failure. It is the single most frequent cause of hospitalization for those individuals 65 years of age and older.
coronary artery disease (CAD)
narrowing of the coronary arteries to the extent that adequate blood supply to the myocardium is prevented.
a chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increase beyond the normal in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, either from dilatation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls.
a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract transmitted by airborne droplet infection; also known as the flu. It an occur in isolated cases or can be an epidemic. The incubation period is usually one to three days after exposure. Older adults may be more prone to developing bacterial influenza, as are those individual who have chronic pulmonary disease.
an acute inflammation of the lungs caused mainly by inhaled pneumococci of the Streptococcus pneumoniae species. it may also be caused by other bacteria as well as by viruses.
swelling of the lungs caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, in either the alveoli or the interstitial spaces.
pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale)
hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart (with or without failure) resulting from disorders of the lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall; heart failure resulting form disorders of the lungs; pulmonary disease.
decreased mobility of the lower two-thirds of the esophagus along with constriction of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), making it difficult for food and liquids to move down the esophagus.
the presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine.
a state in which the individual's pattern of bowel elimination is characterized by a decrease in frequency of bowel movements and the passage of hard, dry stools. The individual experiences difficult defecation.
an expression used to characterize both diverticulosis and diverticulitis. Diverticulosis describes the noninflammed outpouchings or herniations through the muscular layer of the intestine, typically the sigmoid colon. Inflammation of the outpouchings called diverticulum is referred to as diverticulitis.
a disorder of the pancreas in which the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas fail to produce an adequate amount of insulin, resulting in the body's inability to appropriately metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
the lens in the eye becomes progressively cloudy, losing its normal transparency and thus altering the perception of images due to the interference of light transmission to the retina.
hearing loss caused by the inability of nerve stimuli to be delivered to the brain from the inner ear due to damage to the auditory nerve or cochlea
occurs as a consequence of an 8- to 10-year duration of diabetes mellitus in which the capillaries of the retina experience scarring
"turning out" or eversion of the eyelash margins (especially the lower eyelid) from the eyeball, leading to exposure of the eyelid and eyeball surface and lining.
"turning in" of the eyelash margins (especially the lower margins) resulting in the sensation similar to that of a foreign body in the eye (redness, tearing, burning, and itching).
ocular disorders identified as a group due to the increase in intraocular pressure. This increase in intraocular pressure may be primary or secondary, acute or chronic, and described as open or closed angle.
progressive deterioration of the retinal cells in the macula due to aging. Known as senile or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), this condition is a common and progressive cause of visual deficiency and permanent reading impairment in the adult over 65 years of age.
a refractive error occurring after the age of 40, when the lens of the eye(s) cannot focus on an image accurately due to its decreasing elasticity.
the inability to retain urine in the bladder; the loss of urine from the bladder due to loss of sphincter control. This involuntary loss of urine is severe enough to cause social or hygienic problems.
benign prostatic hypertorphy
a benign (noncancerous) enlargement of the prostate gland, creating pressure on the upper part of the urethra or neck of the bladder, causing obstruction of the flow of urine.
carcinoma of the prostate
malignant growth within the prostate gland, creating pressure on the upper part of the urethra.
degeneration of the vaginal mucous membrane after menopause. Also known as senile vaginitis, this condition is common in estrogen-deprived older women. The tissues of the vagina become drier and thinner.
a malignant tumor of the ovaries, most commonly occurring in women in their 50s. It is rarely detected in the early stage and is usually far advanced when diagnosed.
a progressive, organic mental disorder characterized by chronic personality disintegration, confusion, disorientation, stupor, deterioration of the intellectual capacity and function, and impairment of control of memory, judgment, and impulses.
a mood disturbance characterized by exaggerated feelings of sadness, discouragement, and hopelessness that are inappropriate and out of proportion to reality; may be relative to some personal loss or tragedy.
barium enema (lower GI series)
infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum and held in place in the lower intestinal tract while X-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract.
barium swallow (upper GI series)
oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows.
the direct visualization of the lining of the large intestine by using a fiberoptic colonoscope
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery
a surgical procedure (designed to increase the blood flow to the myocardial muscle) that involves bypass grafts to the coronary arteries that reroute the blood flow around the occluded area of the coronary artery
directional coronary artherectomy
a procedure that uses a catheter (AtheroCath), which has a small mechanically driven clutter that shaves the plaque and stores it in a collection chamber
dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
this newer technique is also a noninvasive procedure that measure bone density. In the procedure, an X-ray machine generates the energy photons that pass through the bones. A computer evaluates the amount of radiation absorbed by the bones, and the findings are interpreted by a physician
extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE)
the surgical removal of the anterior segment of the lens capsule and the lens, allowing for the insertion of an intraocular lens implant.
devices that amplify sound to provide more precise perception and interpretation of words communicated to the individual with a hearing deficit
internal fixation devices
the treatment of choice for a fractured hip is usually surgery. Devices such as screws, pins, wires, and nails may be used to internally maintain the bone alignment while healing takes place. These internal fixation devices are more commonly used with fractures of the femur and fractures of the joints.
intraocular lens implant
the surgical process of cataract extraction and the insertion of an artificial lens into the patient's eye. This restores visual acuity and provides improved depth perception, light refraction, and binocular vision
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
a nonsurgical procedure in which a catheter, equipped with a small inflatable balloon on the end, is inserted into the femoral artery and is threaded up the aorta (under X-ray visualization) into the narrowed coronary artery.
a surgical procedure that uses an argon laser to treat conditions such as glaucoma, retinal detachment, and diabetic retinopathy.
serum glucose tests
measure the amount of glucose in the blood at the time the sample is drawn.
the surgical removal of the prostat gland by making an incision into the abdominal wall just above the pubis
transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
the surgical removal of the prostate gland by inserting a resectoscope (an instrument used to remove tissue form the body) through the urethra and into the bladder to remove small pieces of tissue from the prostate gland.
Area Agency on Aging
activities of daily living
benign prostatic hypertorphy
coronary artery bypass graft
coronary artery disease
congestive heart failure
cerebrovascular accident; stroke
dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
gerontological clinical nurse specialist
gerontological nurse practitioner
kidneys, ureters, bladder (an x-ray)
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
retired seniors volunteer program
shortness of breath
transient ischemic attack
transurethral resection of the prostate