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Medical Terminology > Whole Body > Flashcards

Flashcards in Whole Body Deck (115):
1

Abdominal membrane

membrane that lines the abdominal wall

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ventral cavity

contains the organs on the front, or "belly side" of the body

3

dorsal cavity

contains the organs of the back side of the body

4

Divisions of the back

cervical vertebrae,
thoracic vertebrae,
lumbar vertebrae,
sacrum,
coccyx

5

dorsal cavity subdivisions

cranial cavity, spinal cavity

6

4 abdominal quadrants

right upper quadrant (RUQ),
Left upper quadrant (LUQ),
right lower quadrant (RLQ),
left lower quadrant (LLQ)
center of quadrants - umbillicus (navel)

7

3 types of muscle tissue

skeletal muscle,
smooth muscle/visceral muscle,
cardiac muscle

8

4 main types of tissue

connective tissue
epithelial tissue
muscle tissue
nervous tissue

9

plasma membrane

cell membrane

10

viscer/o

internal organs

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vertebr/o

vertebra

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abdomin/o

abdomen

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cervic/o

neck; cervix

14

coccyg/o

coccyx

15

crani/o

skull; cranium

16

cyt/o

cell

17

dors/o

back

18

hist/o

tissue

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ili/o

ilium

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inguin/o

groin

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later/o

side

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lumb/o

loins, lower back

23

medi/o

middle

24

nucle/o

nucleus

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pelv/i

pelvis

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-plasm

living substance

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poster/o

back

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proxim/o

near

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sacr/o

sacrum

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-some

"a body" of a specified type

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spin/o

spine

32

thorac/o

chest

33

umbilic/o

navel

34

ventr/o

belly, front side

35

abdominal cavity

separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm
contains the liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, pancreas, intestines, and kidneys

36

abdominopelvic cavity

space between diaphragm and the groin
includes abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity

37

anaplasia

a change in the structure and orientation of cells, characterized by a loss of differentiation and reversion to a more primitive form

38

anatomical position

means the person is standing with arms at the sides and the palms turned forward. Head and feet are also pointing forward.

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anterior

pertaining to the front of the body or toward the belly of the body

40

aplasia

a developmental failure resulting in the absence of any organ or tissue

41

cardiac muscle

muscle that makes up the muscular wall of the heart

42

caudal

pertaining to the tail

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cell

smallest and most numerous structural unit of living matter

44

cell membrane

semipermeable barrier that is the outer covering of a cell

45

cervical vertebrae

consisting of the first seven segments of the spinal column.

C1 through C7

46

chromosomes

the threadlike structures within the nucleus that control the functions of growth, repair, and reproduction for the body.

47

coccyx

The tailbone. Located at the very end of the vertebral column, the coccyx results from the fusion of 4 individual coccygeal bones in the child.

48

connective tissue

Tissue that supports and binds other body tissue and parts

49

cranial

pertaining to the skull or cranium

50

cranial cavity

cavity that contains the brain

51

cytology

study of cells

52

cytoplasm

gel-like substance that surrounds the nucleus of a cell. It contains cell organs, called organelles, which carry out essential functions of the cell

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deep

away from the surface and toward the inside of the body

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distal

away from or farthest from the trunk of the body or farthest from the point of origin of a body part

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dorsal

pertaining to the back or the posterior

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dorsum

the back or posterior surface

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dysplasia

any abnormal development of tissues or organs; "disordered formation"

58

Epigastric Region

The region of the abdomen located between the right and left hypochondriac regions in the upper section of the abdomen, beneath the cartilage of the ribs

59

Epithelial tissue

The tissue that covers the internal and external organs of the body; it also lines the vessels, body cavities, glands, and body organs.

60

frontal plane

any of the vertical planes passing through the body from the head to the feet, perpendicular to the sagittal planes and dividing the body into front and back portions (aka. coronal plane)

61

genes

segments of chromosomes that transmit hereditary characteristics

62

histologist

a medical scientist who specializes in the study of tissues.

63

hyperplasia

an increase in the number of cells of a body part

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hypochondriac region

The right and left regions of the upper abdomen, beneath the cartilage of the lower ribs; located on either side of the epigastic region

65

hypogastric region

the middle section of the lower abdomen; beneath the umbilical region

66

hypoplasia

incomplete or underdeveloped organ or tissue, usually the result of a decrease in the number of cells

67

inferior

below or downward toward the tail or feet

68

inguinal region

the right and left regions of the lower section of the abdomen; also call the iliac region

69

interevertebral disc

a flat, circular, plate-like structure of cartilage that serves as a cushion (a shock absorber) between the vertebrae

70

lateral

Toward the side of the body, away from the midline of the body

71

long axis

The long axis of the body; the imaginary line created by directing a vertical line through the middle of the body from the top of the head to a space equidistant between the feet; essentially the midline of the body

72

lumbar region

the right and left regions of the middle section of the abdomen

73

lumbar vertebrae

The largest and the strongest of the vertebrae of the spinal column, located in the lower back. The lumbar vertebrae consist of five large segments of the movable part of the spinal column; identified as L1 through L5

74

lysosomes

Cell organs (or organelles) that contain various types of enzymes that function in intracellular digestion. They destroy bacteria by digesting them.

75

McBurney's Point

A point on the right sides of the abdomen, about two-thirds of the distance between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip.

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medial

toward the midline of the body

77

mediolateral

pertaining to the middle and side of a structure

78

membrane

a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space.

79

midline

the imaginary "line" created when the body is divided into equal right and left halves

80

midsagittal plane

the plane that divides the body (or a structure) into right and left equal portions.

81

mitochondria

cell organs (or organelles), which provide the energy needed by the cell to carry on its essential functions.

82

Munro's Point

a point on the left side of the abdomen, about halfway between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip.

83

muscle tissue

the tissue capable of producing movement of the parts and organs of the body by contracting and relaxing its fibers

84

navel

the umbilicus; the belly button

85

neoplasia

the new and abnomral development of cells that may be benign or malignant

86

nervous tissue

tissue that transmits impulses throughout the body, thereby activating, coordinating, and controlling the many functions of the body

87

nucleus

the central controlling body within a living cell that is enclosed within the cell membrane

88

organ

tissues arranged together to perform a special function

89

pelvic cavity

the lower front cavity of the body located beneath the abdominal cavity; contains the urinary bladder and reproductive organs

90

peritoneum

a specific serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body ad is reflected over the contained viscera

91

plane

imaginary slices (or cuts) made through the body as if a dividing sheet were passed though the body at a particular angle and in a particular direction, permitting a view from a different angle.

92

plantar

Pertaining to the sole or bottom of the foot

93

posterior

Pertaining to the back of the body

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pronation

a movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn downward and backward

95

prone

lying facedown on the abdomen

96

proximal

toward or nearest to the trunk of the body or nearest to the point of origin of a body part

97

ribosomes

cell organs (or organelles) that synthesize proteins; often called the cells "protein factories"

98

sacrum

the singular triangular-shaped bone that results from the fusion of the 5 individual sacral bones of the child.

99

skeletal muscle

muscle that is attached to bone and is responsible for the movement of the skeleton

100

smooth muscle

muscle found in the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body such as the stomach and intestines

101

spinal cavity

the cavity that contains the nerves of the spinal cord; also known as the spinal canal

102

superficial

pertaining to the surface of the body or near the surface

103

superior

above or upward toward the head

104

supination

a movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn upward or forward

105

supine

lying horizontally on the back, faceup

106

system

organs that work together to perform the many functions of the body as a whole

107

thoracic cavity

the chest cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, aorta, esophagus, and trachea

108

thoracic vertebrae

the second segment of 12 vertebrae that make up the vertebral bones of the chest; identified as T1 through T12

109

tissue

a group of cells that performs specialized functions

110

transverse plane

any of the planes cutting across the body perpendicular to the sagittal and the frontal planes, dividing the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions

111

umbilical region

the region of the abdomen located in the middle section of the abdomen, between the right and left lumbar region and direction beneath the epigastric region

112

umbilicus

the navel; also call the belly button

113

ventral

pertaining to the front; belly side

114

visceral

Pertaining to the internal organs

115

visceral muscle

muscle found in the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body such as the stomach and intestines.