Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (130):
1

Inspection

visual examination of the external surface of the body as well as of its movements and posture.

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palpatation

the process of examining by application of the hands or fingers to the external surface of the body to detect evidence of disease or abnormalities of the various organs

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auscultation

Process of listening for sounds within the body, usually the sounds of thoracic or abdominal viscera, to detect some abnormal condition or to detect fetal heart sounds.

4

percussion

use of the fingertips to tap the body lightly but sharply to determine position, size, and consistency of an underlying structure and the presence of fluid or pus in a cavity.

5

adenoids

lymphatic tissue forming a prominence on the wall of the recess o the nasopharynx

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alveoli

air cells of the lungs; known as the pulmonary parenchyma (functional units of the lungs)

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apex

the upper portion of the lung, rising about 2.5 to 5 cm above the collarbone

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asymptomatic

without symptoms

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base

the lowest part of the lung, resting on the diaphragm

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bronchi

the two main branches leading from the trachea to the lungs proving the passageway for air movement

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bronchiole

one of the smaller subdivisions of the bronchial tubes.

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capillaries

any of the minute (tiny) blood vessels. The capillaries connect the ends of the smallest arteries (arterioles) with the beginnings of the smallest veins (venules).

13

diaphragm

the musculomembranous wall separating the abdomen from the thoracic cavity.

14

epiglottis

a thin, leaf-shaped structure located immediately posterior to the root of the tongue; covers the entrance of the larynx when the individual swallows

15

glottis

the sound-producing apparatus of the larynx, consisting of the two vocal folds and the intervening space (the epiglottis protects this opening).

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laryngalgia

pain in the larynx

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laryngopharynx

lower portion of the pharynx that extends from the vestibule o the larynx (the portion just above the vocal cords) to the lowermost cartilage of the larynx.

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laryx

the enlarged upper end of the trachea below the root of the tongue; the voice box.

19

mediastinum

the mass of organs and tissues separating the lungs. It contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, and bronchi.

20

nares

external nostrils

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nasopharynx

part of the pharynx located above the soft palate (postnasal space)

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oropharynx

Central portion of the pharynx lying between the soft palate and upper potion of the epiglottis

23

palatine tonsils

lymphatic tissue located in the depression of the mucous membrane of fauces (the constricted opening leading from the mouth and the oral pharynx) and the pharynx

24

paranasal sinuses

Hollow areas or cavities within the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity.

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parietal pleura

portion of the pleura that is closest to the ribs.

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pharynx

passageway for air from nasal cavity to larynx an food from mouth to esophagus. Serves both the respiratory and digestive systems; the throat.

27

phrenic nerve

the nerve known as the motor nerve to the diaphragm

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pleura

the double-folded membrane that lines the thoracic cavity

29

pleura space

the space that separates the visceral and parietal pleurae, whcih contains a small amount of fluid that acts as a lubricant to the pleural surfaces during respiration.

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pulmonary parenchyma

the functional units of the lungs (for example, the alveoli) which have very thin walls that allow for the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood.

31

septum

a wall dividing two cavities.

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thorax

the chest; the part of the body between the base of the neck and the diaphragm

33

trachea

a cylinder-shaped tube lines with rings of cartilage (to keep it open) that is 4.5 inches long, from larynx to the bronchial tubes; the windpipe

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visceral pleura

portion of the pleura that is closest to the internal organs.

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apnea

a temporary cessation of breathing; "without breathing"

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bradypnea

abnormally slow breathing

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cough

a forceful and sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration. The glottis is partially closed, the accessory muscles of expiration are brought into action, and the air is noisily expelled.

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cyanosis

slightly bluish, grayish, slatelike, or dark discoloration of the skin due to presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood.

39

dysphonia

difficulty in speaking; hoarseness.

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dyspnea

air hunger resulting in labored or difficulty breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain.

41

epistaxis

hemorrhage from the nose, nosebleed

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expectoration

the act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs.

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hemoptysis

an expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs.

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hypercapnia

increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.

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hypoxemia

insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood

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hypoxia

deficiency of oxygen

47

Kussmaul respirations

very deep, gasping type of respiration associated with severe diabetic acidosis.

48

orthopnea

respiratory condition in which there is discomfort in breathing in any but erect, sitting, or standing position

49

pleural rub

friction rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space

50

rales

an abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest, produced by passage of air through bronchi that contain secretion or exudate or that are constricted by spasm or a thickening of their walls, also known as crackle.

51

rhinorrhea

thin, watery discharge from the nose

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rhonchi

rales or rattlings in the throat, especially when it resembles snoring.

53

sneeze

to expel air forcibly through the nose and mouth by spasmodic contraction of muscles of expiration due to irritation of nasal mucosa.

54

stridor

harsh sound during respiration, high-pitched and resembling the blowing of win, due to obstruction of air passages.

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tachypnea

abnormal rapidity of breathing

56

wheeze

a whistling sound or sighing sound resulting from narrowing of the lumen of a respiratory passageway

57

coryza

inflammation of the respiratory mucous membrane, known as rhinitis or the common cold. The term common cold is usually used when referring to symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection.

58

croup

a childhood disease characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, tachypnea, inspiratory stridor, and laryngeal spasm.

59

diphtheria

serious infectious disease affecting the nose, pharynx or larynx, usually resulting in sore throat, dysphonia, and fever. The disease is caused by the Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacterium, which forms a white coating over the affected airways as it multiples.

60

laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx, usually resulting in dysphonia (hoarseness), cough, and difficulty swallowing.

61

pertussis

an acute upper respiratory infectious disease caused by the Bordetella pertussis bacterium; "whooping cough"

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pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharynx, usually resulting in sore throat.

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rhinitis

inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, usually resulting in obstruction f the nasal passages, rhinorrhea, sneezing and facial pressure or pain; also known as coryza

64

sinusitis

inflammation of a sinus, especially paranasal sinus

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tonsillitis

inflammation of the palatine tonsils, located in teh area of the oropharynx

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asthma

paroxysmal dyspnea accompanies by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane

67

bronchiectasis

chronic dilatation of a bronchus or bronchi, with secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lung.

68

bronchitis

inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes. Infection is often preceded by the common cold.

69

bronchogenic carcinoma

a malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi; lung cancer

70

emphysema

a chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increase beyond the normal in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, either from dilation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls.

71

empyema

pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity (pyothorax); usually the result of a primary infection in the lungs

72

hyaline membrane disease

also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the premature infant, hyaline membrane disease is severe impairment of the function of respiration in the premature newborn. This condition is rarely present in a newborn of greater than 37 weeks' gestation or in one weighing at lease 5 pounds.

73

influenza

a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract transmitted by airborne droplet infection; also known as the flu. influenza can occur in isolated cases or can be epidemic. The incubation period is usually one to three days after exposure.

74

lung abscess

a localized collection of pus formed by the destruction of lung tissue and microorganisms by white blood cells that have migrated to the area to fight infection.

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pleural effusion

accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, resulting in compression of the underlying portion of the lung, with resultant dyspnea.

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pleuritis (pleurisy)

inflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura.

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pneumonia

inflammation of the lungs caused primarily by bacteria, viruses, and chemical irritants.

78

pneumothorax

a collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity. The air enters as the result of a perforation through the chest wall or the pleura covering the lung (visceral pleura) causing the lung to collapse.

79

pulmonary edema

swelling of the lungs caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, either in the alveoli or the interstitial spaces.

80

pulmonary embolism

the obstruction of one or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus (clot) that dislodges from another location and is carried through the venous system to the vessels of the lung.

81

pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale)

hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart (with or without failure) resulting from disorders of the lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall; heart failure resulting from pulmonary disease.

82

sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

the completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, infant. Also known as crib death. Is the most common cause of death between the second week and first year of life.

83

tuberculosis

an infectious disease caused by the Mycobactrium tuberculosis tubercle bacillus and characterized by inflammatory infiltrations, formations of tubercles, and caseous (cheeselike) necrosis in the tissues of the lungs. Other organ systems may also be infected.

84

anthracosis

the accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs due to breathing smoke or coal dust (black lung disease); also called coal worker's pneumoconiosis

85

asbestosis

a lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles.

86

byssinosis

a lung disease resulting from inhalation of cotton, flax, and hemp; also known as brown lung disease.

87

silicosis

a lung disease resulting from inhalation of silica (quartz) dust, characterized by formation of small nodules.

88

bronchoscopy

the examination of the interior of the bronchi using a lighted flexible tube known as a bronchscope (or endoscope)

89

chest x-ray

the use of high-energy electromagnetic waves passing through the body onto a photographic film to produce a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy.

90

laryngoscopy

the examination of the interior of the larynx using a lighted, flexible tube known as a laryngoscope (or endoscope)

91

lung scan

the visual imaging of the distribution of ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or has inhaled radioactive material

92

pulmonary function test

physicians use this variety of test to assess respiratory function.

93

sputum specimen

a specimen of material expectorated from the mouth. If produced after a cough, it may contain (in addition to saliva) material from the throat and bronchi

94

thoracentesis

involved the use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space.

95

tonsillectomy

surgical removal of the palatine tonsils.

96

tuberculin skin test

the tuberculin skin test is used to determine past or present tuberculosis infection present int he body. This is based on a positive skin reaction to the introduction of a purified protein derivative (PPD) of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, into the skin.

97

ABG(s)

arterial blood gas(es)

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AFB

acid-fast bacilli (The only AFB of cinical significance are organisms of the genus Mycobacterium, which caused tuberculsis and leprosy)

99

AP

anteroposterior (a directional term, used particularly in X-rays, meaning "from the front to the back"; i.e., anteroposterior view of the chest)

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ARD

acute respiratory disease (or distress)

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ARDS

adult respiratory distress syndrome

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ARF

acute respiratory failure

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CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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CO2

carbon dioxide

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COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (associated with chronic bronchitis and emphysema)

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CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

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CXR

chext X-ray

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DPT

diphtheria, pertussis (whopping cough), and tetanus; an immunization given in childhood to prevent these diseases by providing immunity

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IPPB

intermittent positve pressure breathing

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LLL

lower left lobe (of the lung)

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LUL

left upper lobe (of the lung)

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O2

oxygen

113

PA

posteroanterior (a directional term, used particularly in X-rays, meaning "from the back to the front"; i.e. posteroanterior view of the chest)

114

PaCO2

partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Co2) dissolved in the blood

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PaO2

partial pressure of oxygen (O2) dissolved in the blood.

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PCP

Pneumocystis carinii (pneumonia)

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PFT(s)

pulmonary function test(s)

118

PPD

purified protein derivative; substance used in intradermal test for tuberculosis; now called TST.

119

R

respiration

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RDS

respiratory distress syndrome

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RLL

right lower lobe (of the lungs)

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RML

right middle lobe (of the lungs)

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RUL

right upper lobe (of the lungs

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SIDS

sudden infant death syndrome

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SOB

shortness of breath

126

T&A

tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

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TB

tuberculosis

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TPR

temperature, pulse and respiration

129

TST

tuberculosis skin test

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URI

upper respiratory infection