thin layer of cartilage that covers the ends of the long bones and the surfaces of the joints
concave, indented areas or openings in bones
specific features of individual bones
projections or outgrowth of bones
spongy bone, not as dense as compact bone
vertebrae or bones of the neck, C1 through C7
hard outer shell of the bone
knucklelike projection at the end of a bone
distinct border or ridge
main shaftlike portion of a bone
a layer of cartilage that separates the diaphysis and epiphysis of a bone; also known as the epiphyseal plate
the end of a bone
rib pairs 8 through 10, which connect to the vertebrae in the back but not to the sternum in the front because they join the seventh rib in the front
a groove or depression in a bone; a sulcus
bones that are broad and thin with flat or cured surfaces; such as the sternum
rib pairs 11 and 12, which connect to the vertebrae in the back but are free of any attachment in the front
space between the bones of an infant’s cranium; “soft spot”
hole in a bone through which blood vessels or nerves pass
hallow or concave depression in a bone
system of small canals within compact one that contain blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves.
the normal formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow
spaces between the ribs
a flat, circular, plate-like structure of cartilage that serves as a cushion (or shock absorber) between the vertebrae
bones that are longer than they are wide and with distinctive shaped ends, such as the femur
the vertebrae of the lower back; L1 through L5
he center portion of the shaft of a long bone containing the yellow marrow
the conversion of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue to the bone; formation of bone.
immature bone cells that actively produce boney tissue
large cells that absorb or digest old bone tissue
mature bone cells
the thick, white, fibrous membrane that covers the surface of a long bone
red bone marrow
the soft, semifluid substance located in the small spaces of cancellous bone that is the source of blood cell production
the process of removing or digesting old bone tissue
irregular bones imbedded in tendons near a join, as in the kneecap
bones that are about as long as they are wide and somewhat box shaped, such as the wrist bone
an opening or hallow space in a bone; a cavity within a bone
a sharp projection from the surface of a bone, similar to a crest
an abnormal condition characterized by a narrowing or restriction of an opening or passageway in a body structure.
a groove or depression in a bone; a fissure
immovable joints; such as those of the cranium
the 12 vertebrae of the chest; T1 through T12
needlelike bony spicules within cancellous one that contribute to the spongy appearance. Their distribution along lines of stress adds to the strength of the bone
large bony process located below the neck of the femur
the first seven pairs of ribs, which connect to the vertebrae in the back and to the sternum in the front
a small rounded process of bone
an elevated, broad, rounded process of a bone
a large opening in the center of each vertebra that serves as a passageway for the spinal cord
located in the diaphysis of long bones, yellow marrow consists of fatty tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells
porous bones; bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density
a disease in which the bones become abnormally soft due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood which is necessary for bone mineralization). This disease results in fracture noticeable deformities of the weight bearing bones. When the disease occurs in children, it is called rickets.
a local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow, resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood.
a malignant tumor of the ones common to young adults, particularly adolescent boys
malignant tumor arising from the bone. The most common malignant bone tumor, with common sites being the distal femur (just above the knee), the proximal tibia (just below the knee), and the proximal humerus (just below the shoulder joint).
most common benign bone tumor. The femur and the tibia are most frequently involved.
a non-metabolic disease of the bone, characterized by excessive bone destruction (breakdown of bone tissue by the osteoclasts) and unorganized bone formation by the osteoblasts. The bone is weak and prone to fractures. After symptoms are present, the diseased bone takes on the the characteristic mosaic pattern that can be detected with x-ray or bone scan; also known as osteitis deformans.
a narrowing of the vertebral canal, nere root canals or intervertebral foramini (openings) of the lumbar spinal canal. The narrowing causes pressure on the nerve roots prior to their exit fro the foramini
an abnormal outward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as humpback or hunchback.
an abnormal inward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as swayback
an abnormal lateral (sideward) curvature of a portion of the spine. The curvature may be to the left or to the right.
a broken bone; a sudden breaking of a bone
a simple fracture. there is a break in a bone, but no open wound in the skin.
a compound fracture; there is a break in a bone, as well as an open wound in the skin
a break that extends throught eh entire thickness of the bone.
an incomplete fracture; a break that does not extend through the entire thickness of the bone; That is one side of the bone is fractured and one side of the bone is bent.
caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other; as in the compression of one vertebra against another. Often associated with osteoporosis.
occurs when a direct force causes the bone to break, forcing the broken end of the smaller bone into the broken end of the larger bone.
occurs when the force is so great that it splinters or crushes a segment of the bone.
occurs at the lower wend of the radius, within 1 inch of connecting with the wrist bones.
stress fracture; a minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment. The fracture appears on an X-ray as a very thin “hair line” between two segments. It does not extend through the entire surface of the bone.
occurs when a bone, which is weakened by a preexisting disease, breaks in response to a force that would not cause a normal bone to break.
is a fracture that cannot be detected by X-ray until several weeks after the injury (a “hidden” fracture)
consists of aligning the bone fragments through manual manipulation or traction without making an incision into the skin.
consists of realigning the bone under direct observation during surgery.
involves the intravenous injection of a radioisotope which is absorbed by bone tissue. After approximately 3 hours, the skeleton is scanned with a gamma camera (scanner) moving from one end of the body to the other. The scanner detects the areas of radioactive concentration (areas here the bone absorbs the isotope) and converts the radioactive image to a screen on which the concentrations show up as pinpoint dots cast the image of a skeleton.
bone marrow aspiration
the process of removing a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site with a needle for the purpose of examining the specimen under a microscope
dual energy X-ray absorptiometry
a non-invasive procedure that measures one density. In the DEXA procedure, an X-ray machine generates the energy photons that pass through the bones. A computer then evaluates the amount of radiation absorbed by the bones and the findings are interpreted by a physician.
C1, C2, C3,…
cervical vertebra 1, 2, 3, etc.
dual energy X-ray absorptiometry
distal interphalangeal (joint)
L1, L2, L3, …
lumbar vertebra 1, 2, 3, etc.
left lower extremity
left upper extremity
proximal interphalangeal (joint)
right lower extremity
right upper extremity
T1, T2, T3, …
thoracic vertebra 1, 2, 3, etc.
total hip arthroplasty
total hip replacement
total knee arthroplasty
total knee replacement
internal fixation devices
devices such as screws, pins, wires and nails may be used to internally maintain the bone alignment while healing takes place.