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Medical Terminology > Skeletal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (97):
1

articular cartilage

thin layer of cartilage that covers the ends of the long bones and the surfaces of the joints

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bone depressions

concave, indented areas or openings in bones

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bone markings

specific features of individual bones

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bone processes

projections or outgrowth of bones

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cancellous bone

spongy bone, not as dense as compact bone

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cervical vertebrae

vertebrae or bones of the neck, C1 through C7

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compact bone

hard outer shell of the bone

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condyle

knucklelike projection at the end of a bone

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crest

distinct border or ridge

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diaphysis

main shaftlike portion of a bone

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epiphyseal line

a layer of cartilage that separates the diaphysis and epiphysis of a bone; also known as the epiphyseal plate

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epiphysis

the end of a bone

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false ribs

rib pairs 8 through 10, which connect to the vertebrae in the back but not to the sternum in the front because they join the seventh rib in the front

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fissure

a groove or depression in a bone; a sulcus

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flat bones

bones that are broad and thin with flat or cured surfaces; such as the sternum

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floating ribs

rib pairs 11 and 12, which connect to the vertebrae in the back but are free of any attachment in the front

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fontanelle

space between the bones of an infant's cranium; "soft spot"

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foramen

hole in a bone through which blood vessels or nerves pass

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fossa

hallow or concave depression in a bone

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haversian canals

system of small canals within compact one that contain blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves.

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hematopoisis

the normal formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow

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intercostal spaces

spaces between the ribs

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intervertebral disk

a flat, circular, plate-like structure of cartilage that serves as a cushion (or shock absorber) between the vertebrae

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long bones

bones that are longer than they are wide and with distinctive shaped ends, such as the femur

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lumbar vertebrae

the vertebrae of the lower back; L1 through L5

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medullary cavity

he center portion of the shaft of a long bone containing the yellow marrow

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ossification

the conversion of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue to the bone; formation of bone.

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osteoblasts

immature bone cells that actively produce boney tissue

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osteoclasts

large cells that absorb or digest old bone tissue

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osteocytes

mature bone cells

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periosteum

the thick, white, fibrous membrane that covers the surface of a long bone

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red bone marrow

the soft, semifluid substance located in the small spaces of cancellous bone that is the source of blood cell production

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resorption

the process of removing or digesting old bone tissue

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sesamoid bones

irregular bones imbedded in tendons near a join, as in the kneecap

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short bones

bones that are about as long as they are wide and somewhat box shaped, such as the wrist bone

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sinus

an opening or hallow space in a bone; a cavity within a bone

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spine

a sharp projection from the surface of a bone, similar to a crest

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stenosis

an abnormal condition characterized by a narrowing or restriction of an opening or passageway in a body structure.

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sulcus

a groove or depression in a bone; a fissure

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sutures

immovable joints; such as those of the cranium

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thoracic vertebrae

the 12 vertebrae of the chest; T1 through T12

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trabeculae

needlelike bony spicules within cancellous one that contribute to the spongy appearance. Their distribution along lines of stress adds to the strength of the bone

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trochanter

large bony process located below the neck of the femur

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true ribs

the first seven pairs of ribs, which connect to the vertebrae in the back and to the sternum in the front

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tubercle

a small rounded process of bone

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tuberosity

an elevated, broad, rounded process of a bone

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vertebral foramen

a large opening in the center of each vertebra that serves as a passageway for the spinal cord

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yellow marrow

located in the diaphysis of long bones, yellow marrow consists of fatty tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells

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osteoporosis

porous bones; bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density

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osteomalacia

a disease in which the bones become abnormally soft due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood which is necessary for bone mineralization). This disease results in fracture noticeable deformities of the weight bearing bones. When the disease occurs in children, it is called rickets.

51

osteomyelitis

a local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow, resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood.

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Ewing's Sarcoma

a malignant tumor of the ones common to young adults, particularly adolescent boys

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osteogenic sarcoma

malignant tumor arising from the bone. The most common malignant bone tumor, with common sites being the distal femur (just above the knee), the proximal tibia (just below the knee), and the proximal humerus (just below the shoulder joint).

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osteochondroma

most common benign bone tumor. The femur and the tibia are most frequently involved.

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Paget's disease

a non-metabolic disease of the bone, characterized by excessive bone destruction (breakdown of bone tissue by the osteoclasts) and unorganized bone formation by the osteoblasts. The bone is weak and prone to fractures. After symptoms are present, the diseased bone takes on the the characteristic mosaic pattern that can be detected with x-ray or bone scan; also known as osteitis deformans.

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spinal stenosis

a narrowing of the vertebral canal, nere root canals or intervertebral foramini (openings) of the lumbar spinal canal. The narrowing causes pressure on the nerve roots prior to their exit fro the foramini

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talipes equinovarus

clubfoot

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Kyphosis

an abnormal outward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as humpback or hunchback.

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Lordosis

an abnormal inward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as swayback

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Scoliosis

an abnormal lateral (sideward) curvature of a portion of the spine. The curvature may be to the left or to the right.

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fracture

a broken bone; a sudden breaking of a bone

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closed fracture

a simple fracture. there is a break in a bone, but no open wound in the skin.

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open fracture

a compound fracture; there is a break in a bone, as well as an open wound in the skin

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complete fracture

a break that extends throught eh entire thickness of the bone.

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greenstick fracture

an incomplete fracture; a break that does not extend through the entire thickness of the bone; That is one side of the bone is fractured and one side of the bone is bent.

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compression fracture

caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other; as in the compression of one vertebra against another. Often associated with osteoporosis.

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impacted fracture

occurs when a direct force causes the bone to break, forcing the broken end of the smaller bone into the broken end of the larger bone.

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comminuted fracture

occurs when the force is so great that it splinters or crushes a segment of the bone.

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Colles' fracture

occurs at the lower wend of the radius, within 1 inch of connecting with the wrist bones.

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hairline fracture

stress fracture; a minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment. The fracture appears on an X-ray as a very thin "hair line" between two segments. It does not extend through the entire surface of the bone.

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pathological fracture

occurs when a bone, which is weakened by a preexisting disease, breaks in response to a force that would not cause a normal bone to break.

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occult fracture

is a fracture that cannot be detected by X-ray until several weeks after the injury (a "hidden" fracture)

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closed reduction

consists of aligning the bone fragments through manual manipulation or traction without making an incision into the skin.

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open reduction

consists of realigning the bone under direct observation during surgery.

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bone scan

involves the intravenous injection of a radioisotope which is absorbed by bone tissue. After approximately 3 hours, the skeleton is scanned with a gamma camera (scanner) moving from one end of the body to the other. The scanner detects the areas of radioactive concentration (areas here the bone absorbs the isotope) and converts the radioactive image to a screen on which the concentrations show up as pinpoint dots cast the image of a skeleton.

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bone marrow aspiration

the process of removing a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site with a needle for the purpose of examining the specimen under a microscope

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dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

a non-invasive procedure that measures one density. In the DEXA procedure, an X-ray machine generates the energy photons that pass through the bones. A computer then evaluates the amount of radiation absorbed by the bones and the findings are interpreted by a physician.

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C1, C2, C3,...

cervical vertebra 1, 2, 3, etc.

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DEXA

dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

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DIP

distal interphalangeal (joint)

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Fx

fracture

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L1, L2, L3, ...

lumbar vertebra 1, 2, 3, etc.

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LLE

left lower extremity

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LUE

left upper extremity

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MCP

metacarpophalangeal (joint)

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MTP

metatarsophalangeal (joint)

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PIP

proximal interphalangeal (joint)

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RLE

right lower extremity

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RUE

right upper extremity

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S1

sacrum

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T1, T2, T3, ...

thoracic vertebra 1, 2, 3, etc.

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THA

total hip arthroplasty

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THR

total hip replacement

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TKA

total knee arthroplasty

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TKR

total knee replacement

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TMJ

temporomandibular joint

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internal fixation devices

devices such as screws, pins, wires and nails may be used to internally maintain the bone alignment while healing takes place.