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Medical Terminology > Obstetrics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Obstetrics Deck (130):
1

afterbirth

the placenta, the amnion, the chorion, some amniotic fluid, blood, and blood clots expelled from the uterus after childbirth

2

amenorrhea

absence of menstrual flow

3

amnion

the inner of the two membrane layers that surround and contain the fetus and the amniotic fluid during pregnancy

4

amniotic fluid

a liquid produced by and contained within the fetal membranes during pregnancy. This fluid protects the fetus from trauma and temperature variations, helps to maintain fetal oxygen supply, and allows for freedom of movement by the fetus during pregnancy.

5

amniotic sac

the double layered sac that contains the fetus and the amniotic fluid during pregnancy

6

areola

the darker pigmented, circular area surrounding the nipple of each breast; also known as the areola mammae or the areola papillaris

7

ballottement

a technique of using the examiner's finger to tap against the uterus, through the vagina, to cause the fetus to "bounce" within the amniotic fluid and feeling it rebound quickly.

8

Braxton Hicks contractions

irregular, ineffective contractions of the uterus that occur throughout pregnancy

9

cerclage

suturing the cervix to keep it from dilating prematurely during pregnancy. This procedure is sometimes referred to as a "purse string procedure." The sutures are removed near the end of the pregnancy.

10

cervix

the part of the uterus that protrudes into the cavity of the vagina; the neck of the uterus.

11

cesarean section

a surgical procedure in which the abdomen and uterus are incised and a baby is delivered transabdominally. Also called cesarean birth or cesarean delivery.

12

Chadwick's sign

the bluish-violet hue of the cervix and vagina after approximately the sixth week of pregnancy

13

chloasm

patches of tan or brown pigmentation associated with pregnancy, occurring mostly on the forehead, cheeks, and nose; also called the "mask of pregnancy".

14

chorion

the outer of the two membrane layers that surround and contain the fetus and amniotic fluid during pregnancy

15

coitus

sexual intercourse; copulation

16

colostrum

the thin, yellowish fluid secreted by the breasts during pregnancy and the first few days after birth, before lactation begins.

17

conception

the union of a male sperm and a female ovum;; also termed fertilization

18

copulation

sexual intercourse; coitus

19

corpus luteum

a mass of yellowish tissue that forms within the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation. It functions as a temporary endocrine gland for the purpose of secreting estrogen and large amounts of progesterone, which will sustain pregnancy, should it occur, until the placenta forms. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will degenerate approximately three days before the beginning of menstruation.

20

culdocentesis

needle aspiration, through the vagina, into the cul-de-sac area (area in the peritoneal cavity immediately behind the vagina) for the purpose of removing fluid from the area for examination or diagnosis. Aspiration of unclotted blood from the cul-de-sac area may indicate bleeding form a ruptured fallopian tube. The aspiration of clear fluid from the area would rule out a ruptured fallopian tube.

21

dilatation (of cervix)

the enlargement of the diameter of the cervix during labor. The calculation of the amount of dilatation is measure in centimeter (cm). When the cervix has dilated to 10 cm, it is said to be completely dilated. Also known as dilation.

22

Doppler

a technique used in ultrasound imagine to monitor the behavior of a moving structure such as flowing blood or a beating heart. Fetal heart monitors operate on the Doppler sound wave principle to determine the fetal heart rate.

23

eclampsia

the most severe form of hypertension during pregnancy, evidenced by sizures (convulsions).

24

edema

swelling, with water retention

25

effacement

thinning of the cervix, which allows it to enlarge the diameter of its opening in preparation for childbirth. This occurs during the normal process of labor

26

ejaculation

the sudden emission of semen from the male urethra, usually occurring during sexual intercourse or masturbation.

27

embryo

the name given to the product of conception from the second through the eighth week of pregnancy (through the second month).

28

endometrium

the inner lining of the uterus

29

episiotomy

a surgical procedure in which an incision is made into the woman's perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening for delivery of the baby. This incision is usually made shortly before the baby's birth (second stage of labor) to prevent tearing of the perineum.

30

estrogen

one of the female hormones that promotes the development of the female secondary sex characteristics.

31

fallopian tubes

a pair of tubes opening at one end into the uterus and at the other end into the peritoneal cavity, over the ovary.

32

fertilization

the union of a male sperm and a female ovum; also termed conception.

33

fetoscope

a special stethoscope for hearing the fetal heartbeat through the mother's abdomen

34

fetus

the name given to the developing baby from approximately the eighth week after conception until birth.

35

fimbriae

the fringelike end of the fallopian tube

36

fundus

superior aspect of the uterus

37

gaete

a mature sperm or ovum

38

gastroesophageal reflux

a return, or reflux, of gastric juices into the esophagus, resultingin a buring sensation

39

gestation

the term of pregnancy, which equals approximately 280 days from the onset of the last menstrual period. The period of intrauterine development of the fetus from conception through birth; also termed the gestational period

40

gestational hypertension

a complication of pregnancy in which the expectant mother develops high blood pressure after 20 weeks' gestation, with no signs of proteinuria or edema

41

glycogen

the form of sugar stored in body cells, primarily the liver.

42

gonads

a gamete-producing gland such as an ovary or a testis.

43

Goodell's sign

the softening of the uterine cervix, a probably sign of pregnancy

44

graafian follicles

a mature, fully developed ovarian cyst containing the ripe ovum

45

gravida

a woman who is pregnant. She may be identified as gravida I if this is her first pregnancy, gravida II for a second pregnancy, and so on.

46

Hegar's sign

Softening of the lower segment of the uterus; a probably sign of pregnancy

47

hyperpigmentation

an increase in the pigmentation of the skin

48

hypertension

high blood pressure; a common, often asymptomatic, disorder in which the blood persistently exceeds 140/90 mmHg.

49

hypotension

low blood pressure; an abnormal condition in which the blood pressure is not adequate for normal passage through the blood vessels or for normal oxygenation of the body cells.

50

hypovolemic shock

a state of extreme physical collapse and exhaustion due to massive blood loss; "less than normal" blood volume

51

labor

the time and processes that occur during birth, from the beginning of cervical dilatation to the delivery of the placenta

52

lactation

the production and secretion of milk from the female breasts as nourishment for the infant. lactation can be referred to as a process or a period of time during which the female is breastfeeding.

53

lactiferous duts

channels or narrow tubular structures that carry milk from the lobes of each breast to the nipple

54

laparoscopy

visualization of the abdominal cavity with an instrument called a laparoscope through an incision into the abdominal wall.

55

leukorrhea

a white discharge from the vagina

56

lightening

the settling of the fetal head into the pelvis, occurring a few weeks prior to the onset of labor

57

linea nigra

a darkened vertical midline appearing on the abdomen of a pregnant woman, extending form the fundus to the symphysis pubis

58

lithotomy position

a position in which the patient lies on her back, buttocks even with the end of the table, with her knees bent back toward her abdomen and the heel of each foot resting in an elevated foot rest at the end of the examination table.

59

lordosis

a forward curvature of the spine, noticeable if the person is observed from the side

60

lunar month

four weeks or 28 days; approximately the amount of time it takes the moon to revovle around the earth.

61

mammary glands

the female breasts

62

mask of pregnancy

patches of tan or brown pigmentation associated with pregnancy, occurring mostly on the forhead, cheeks, and nose; also know as chloasma

63

multigravida

a woman who has been pregnant more than once.

64

multipara

a woman who has given birth two or more times after 20 weeks' gestation

65

Nagele's rule

a formula that is used to calculate the date of birth: Subtract three months from the first day of the last normal menstrual period and add one year and seven days to that date to arrive at the estimated date of birth.

66

neonatology

The branch of medicine that specializes in the treatment and care of the diseases and disorders of the newborn through the first four weeks of life.

67

nullipara

a woman who has never completed a pregnancy beyond 20 weeks' gestation

68

obstetrician

a physician who specializes in the care of women during pregnancy, the delivery of the baby, and the first six weeks following the delivery (known as the immediate postpartum period).

69

obstetrics

the field of medicine that deals with pregnancy, the delivery of the baby, and the first six weeks after delivery (the immediate postpartum period).

70

ovary

one of a pair of female gonads responsible for producing mature ova (eggs) and releasing them at monthly intervals (ovulation); also responsible for producing the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone

71

ovulation

the release of the mature ovum form the ovary; occurs approximately 14 days prior to the beginning of menses

72

ovum

the female reproducing cell; female sex cell or egg

73

para

a woman who has produced an infant regardless of whether the infant was alive or stillborn. This term applies to any pregnancies carried to more than 20 weeks gestation. The term may be written para II, para III, and so on, to indicate the number of pregnancies lasting more than 20 weeks' gestation, regardless of the number of offspring produced by pregnancy. a woman who has had only one pregnancy resulting in multiple births is still para I.

74

parturition

the act of giving birth

75

perineum

the area between the vaginal orifice and the anus. It consists of muscular and fibrous tissue and serves as support for the pelvic structures.

76

placenta

a highly vascular, disk-shaped organ that forms in the pregnant uterine wall for exchange of gasses and nutrients between the mother and the fetus The maternal side attaches to the uterine wall, whereas the fetal side of the placenta gives rise to the umbilical cord (which connects directly to the baby). After the delivery of the baby when the placenta is no longer needed, it separates from the uterine wall and passes to the outside of the body through the vagina (at which time it is called the afterbirth)

77

preeclampsia

a state during pregnancy in which the expectant mother develops high blood pressure, accompanied by proteinuria or edema, or both, after 20 weeks' gestation

78

pregnancy

the period of intrauterine development of the fetus from conception through birth. the average pregnancy lasts approximately 40 weeks; also known as gestational period.

79

prenatal

pertaining to the period of time during pregnancy; that is, before the birth of the baby.

80

primigravida

a woman who is pregnant for the first time.

81

primipara

a woman who has given birth for the first time, after a pregnancy of at least 20 weeks' gestation

82

progesterone

a female hormone secreted by the corpus luteum and the placenta. It is primarily responsible for the changes that occur in the endometrium in anticipation of a fertilized ovum and for development of the maternal placenta after implantation of a fertilized ovum. Also known as progestin.

83

proteinurina

the presence of protein (albumin) in the urine; also called albuminuira. This can be a sign of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)

84

puberty

the period of life at which the ability to reproduce begins; that is, in the female, it is the period when the female reproductive organs become fuly developed and secondary sex characteristics appear

85

pyrosis

Heartburn; indigestion.

86

quickening

the first feeling of movement of the fetus felt by the expectant mother; usually occurs at about 16 to 20 weeks' gestation.

87

salpingectomy

surgical removal of a fallopian tube

88

sexual intercourse

the sexual union of two people of the opposite sex in which the penis is introduced into the vagina; also known as copulation or coitus

89

signs

objecting findings as perceived by an examiner, such as the measurement of a fever on the thermometer, the observation of a rash on the skin, or the observation of a bluish-violet color on the cervix

90

sperm

a mature male germ cell

91

striae gravidarum

stretch marks that occur during pregnancy due to the great amount of stretching that occurs. They appear as slightly depressed, pinkish-purple streaks in the areas of greatest stretch (which are the abdomen, the breasts and the thighs)

92

supine hypotension

low blood pressure that occurs in a pregnant woman when she is lying on her back. It is caused by the pressure of the pregnant uterus on the vena cava; also known as supine hyposention syndrome or vena cava syndrome

93

symptoms

a subjective indication of a disease or a change in condition as perceived by the patient; something experienced or felt by the patient.

94

tachycardia

rapid heartbeat, consistently over 100 beats per minute

95

testes

the paired male gonads that produce sperm. They are suspended in the scrotal sac in the adult male.

96

transvaginal ultrasonography

an ultrasound image that is produced by inserting a transvaginal probe into the vagina. The probe is encased ina disposable cover and is coated with gel for easy insertion. The gel also promotes conductivity. This procedure allows clear visualization of the uterus, gestational sac, and embryo in the early stages of pregnancy. It also alllows the examiner to visualize deeper pelvic structures such as the ovaries and fallopian tubes

97

trimester

one of the three periods of approximately three months into which pregnancy is divided. The first trimester consists of weeks 1 to 12, the second trimester consists of weeks 13 to 27, and the third trimester consists of weeks 28 - 40.

98

ultrasonography

a noninvasive procedure that involves the use of reflected sound waves to detect the presence of the embryo or fetus.

99

umbilical cord

a flexible structure connecting the umbilicus (navel) of the fetus with the placenta in the pregnant uterus. It serves as passage for the umbilical arteries and vein.

100

uterus

the hollow, pear-shaped organ of the female reproductive system that housed the fertilized, implanted ovum as it develops throughout pregnancy; also the source of the monthly menstrual flow from the nonpregnant uterus.

101

AFP

alpha-fetoprotein

102

C-section

cesarean section

103

CS

cesarean section

104

CST

contraction stress test

105

EDB

expected date of birth

106

EDC

expected date of confinement; estimated date of confinement (i.e., estimated date for birth of baby)

107

EDD

expected date of delivery

108

EFM

electronic fetal monitoring

109

FHR

fetal heart rate

110

FHS

fetal heart sound

111

FHT

fetal heart tone

112

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

113

G

gravida (pregnant)

114

GPA

gravida, para, abortion

115

HCG

human chorionic gonadotropin

116

HELLP

Hemolytic anemia, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet Count

117

L & D

labor and delivery

118

LMP

last menstrual period

119

LNMP

last normal menstrual period

120

Multip

multipara

121

NSD

normal spontaneous delivery

122

NST

non stress test

123

OB

obstetrics

124

Primip

primipara

125

SVD

spontaneous vaginal delivery

126

TPAL

term, preterm, abortions, living (this is used on obstetrical history forms to obtain patient data)

127

UC

uterine contractions

128

vagina

the muscular tube that connects the uterus with the vulva. It is approximately 3 inches in length and rests between the bladder (anteriorly) and the rectum (posteriorly)

129

varicose veins

twisted, swollen veins that occur as a result of the blood pooling in the legs

130

waddling gait

a manner of walking in which the feet are wide apart and the walk resembles that of a duck.