Flashcards in Obstetrics Deck (130):
the placenta, the amnion, the chorion, some amniotic fluid, blood, and blood clots expelled from the uterus after childbirth
absence of menstrual flow
the inner of the two membrane layers that surround and contain the fetus and the amniotic fluid during pregnancy
a liquid produced by and contained within the fetal membranes during pregnancy. This fluid protects the fetus from trauma and temperature variations, helps to maintain fetal oxygen supply, and allows for freedom of movement by the fetus during pregnancy.
the double layered sac that contains the fetus and the amniotic fluid during pregnancy
the darker pigmented, circular area surrounding the nipple of each breast; also known as the areola mammae or the areola papillaris
a technique of using the examiner's finger to tap against the uterus, through the vagina, to cause the fetus to "bounce" within the amniotic fluid and feeling it rebound quickly.
Braxton Hicks contractions
irregular, ineffective contractions of the uterus that occur throughout pregnancy
suturing the cervix to keep it from dilating prematurely during pregnancy. This procedure is sometimes referred to as a "purse string procedure." The sutures are removed near the end of the pregnancy.
the part of the uterus that protrudes into the cavity of the vagina; the neck of the uterus.
a surgical procedure in which the abdomen and uterus are incised and a baby is delivered transabdominally. Also called cesarean birth or cesarean delivery.
the bluish-violet hue of the cervix and vagina after approximately the sixth week of pregnancy
patches of tan or brown pigmentation associated with pregnancy, occurring mostly on the forehead, cheeks, and nose; also called the "mask of pregnancy".
the outer of the two membrane layers that surround and contain the fetus and amniotic fluid during pregnancy
sexual intercourse; copulation
the thin, yellowish fluid secreted by the breasts during pregnancy and the first few days after birth, before lactation begins.
the union of a male sperm and a female ovum;; also termed fertilization
sexual intercourse; coitus
a mass of yellowish tissue that forms within the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation. It functions as a temporary endocrine gland for the purpose of secreting estrogen and large amounts of progesterone, which will sustain pregnancy, should it occur, until the placenta forms. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will degenerate approximately three days before the beginning of menstruation.
needle aspiration, through the vagina, into the cul-de-sac area (area in the peritoneal cavity immediately behind the vagina) for the purpose of removing fluid from the area for examination or diagnosis. Aspiration of unclotted blood from the cul-de-sac area may indicate bleeding form a ruptured fallopian tube. The aspiration of clear fluid from the area would rule out a ruptured fallopian tube.
dilatation (of cervix)
the enlargement of the diameter of the cervix during labor. The calculation of the amount of dilatation is measure in centimeter (cm). When the cervix has dilated to 10 cm, it is said to be completely dilated. Also known as dilation.
a technique used in ultrasound imagine to monitor the behavior of a moving structure such as flowing blood or a beating heart. Fetal heart monitors operate on the Doppler sound wave principle to determine the fetal heart rate.
the most severe form of hypertension during pregnancy, evidenced by sizures (convulsions).
swelling, with water retention
thinning of the cervix, which allows it to enlarge the diameter of its opening in preparation for childbirth. This occurs during the normal process of labor
the sudden emission of semen from the male urethra, usually occurring during sexual intercourse or masturbation.
the name given to the product of conception from the second through the eighth week of pregnancy (through the second month).
the inner lining of the uterus
a surgical procedure in which an incision is made into the woman's perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening for delivery of the baby. This incision is usually made shortly before the baby's birth (second stage of labor) to prevent tearing of the perineum.
one of the female hormones that promotes the development of the female secondary sex characteristics.
a pair of tubes opening at one end into the uterus and at the other end into the peritoneal cavity, over the ovary.
the union of a male sperm and a female ovum; also termed conception.
a special stethoscope for hearing the fetal heartbeat through the mother's abdomen
the name given to the developing baby from approximately the eighth week after conception until birth.
the fringelike end of the fallopian tube
superior aspect of the uterus
a mature sperm or ovum
a return, or reflux, of gastric juices into the esophagus, resultingin a buring sensation
the term of pregnancy, which equals approximately 280 days from the onset of the last menstrual period. The period of intrauterine development of the fetus from conception through birth; also termed the gestational period
a complication of pregnancy in which the expectant mother develops high blood pressure after 20 weeks' gestation, with no signs of proteinuria or edema
the form of sugar stored in body cells, primarily the liver.
a gamete-producing gland such as an ovary or a testis.
the softening of the uterine cervix, a probably sign of pregnancy
a mature, fully developed ovarian cyst containing the ripe ovum
a woman who is pregnant. She may be identified as gravida I if this is her first pregnancy, gravida II for a second pregnancy, and so on.
Softening of the lower segment of the uterus; a probably sign of pregnancy
an increase in the pigmentation of the skin
high blood pressure; a common, often asymptomatic, disorder in which the blood persistently exceeds 140/90 mmHg.
low blood pressure; an abnormal condition in which the blood pressure is not adequate for normal passage through the blood vessels or for normal oxygenation of the body cells.
a state of extreme physical collapse and exhaustion due to massive blood loss; "less than normal" blood volume
the time and processes that occur during birth, from the beginning of cervical dilatation to the delivery of the placenta
the production and secretion of milk from the female breasts as nourishment for the infant. lactation can be referred to as a process or a period of time during which the female is breastfeeding.
channels or narrow tubular structures that carry milk from the lobes of each breast to the nipple
visualization of the abdominal cavity with an instrument called a laparoscope through an incision into the abdominal wall.
a white discharge from the vagina
the settling of the fetal head into the pelvis, occurring a few weeks prior to the onset of labor
a darkened vertical midline appearing on the abdomen of a pregnant woman, extending form the fundus to the symphysis pubis
a position in which the patient lies on her back, buttocks even with the end of the table, with her knees bent back toward her abdomen and the heel of each foot resting in an elevated foot rest at the end of the examination table.
a forward curvature of the spine, noticeable if the person is observed from the side
four weeks or 28 days; approximately the amount of time it takes the moon to revovle around the earth.
the female breasts
mask of pregnancy
patches of tan or brown pigmentation associated with pregnancy, occurring mostly on the forhead, cheeks, and nose; also know as chloasma
a woman who has been pregnant more than once.
a woman who has given birth two or more times after 20 weeks' gestation
a formula that is used to calculate the date of birth: Subtract three months from the first day of the last normal menstrual period and add one year and seven days to that date to arrive at the estimated date of birth.
The branch of medicine that specializes in the treatment and care of the diseases and disorders of the newborn through the first four weeks of life.
a woman who has never completed a pregnancy beyond 20 weeks' gestation
a physician who specializes in the care of women during pregnancy, the delivery of the baby, and the first six weeks following the delivery (known as the immediate postpartum period).
the field of medicine that deals with pregnancy, the delivery of the baby, and the first six weeks after delivery (the immediate postpartum period).
one of a pair of female gonads responsible for producing mature ova (eggs) and releasing them at monthly intervals (ovulation); also responsible for producing the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone
the release of the mature ovum form the ovary; occurs approximately 14 days prior to the beginning of menses
the female reproducing cell; female sex cell or egg
a woman who has produced an infant regardless of whether the infant was alive or stillborn. This term applies to any pregnancies carried to more than 20 weeks gestation. The term may be written para II, para III, and so on, to indicate the number of pregnancies lasting more than 20 weeks' gestation, regardless of the number of offspring produced by pregnancy. a woman who has had only one pregnancy resulting in multiple births is still para I.
the act of giving birth
the area between the vaginal orifice and the anus. It consists of muscular and fibrous tissue and serves as support for the pelvic structures.
a highly vascular, disk-shaped organ that forms in the pregnant uterine wall for exchange of gasses and nutrients between the mother and the fetus The maternal side attaches to the uterine wall, whereas the fetal side of the placenta gives rise to the umbilical cord (which connects directly to the baby). After the delivery of the baby when the placenta is no longer needed, it separates from the uterine wall and passes to the outside of the body through the vagina (at which time it is called the afterbirth)
a state during pregnancy in which the expectant mother develops high blood pressure, accompanied by proteinuria or edema, or both, after 20 weeks' gestation
the period of intrauterine development of the fetus from conception through birth. the average pregnancy lasts approximately 40 weeks; also known as gestational period.
pertaining to the period of time during pregnancy; that is, before the birth of the baby.
a woman who is pregnant for the first time.
a woman who has given birth for the first time, after a pregnancy of at least 20 weeks' gestation
a female hormone secreted by the corpus luteum and the placenta. It is primarily responsible for the changes that occur in the endometrium in anticipation of a fertilized ovum and for development of the maternal placenta after implantation of a fertilized ovum. Also known as progestin.
the presence of protein (albumin) in the urine; also called albuminuira. This can be a sign of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)
the period of life at which the ability to reproduce begins; that is, in the female, it is the period when the female reproductive organs become fuly developed and secondary sex characteristics appear
the first feeling of movement of the fetus felt by the expectant mother; usually occurs at about 16 to 20 weeks' gestation.
surgical removal of a fallopian tube
the sexual union of two people of the opposite sex in which the penis is introduced into the vagina; also known as copulation or coitus
objecting findings as perceived by an examiner, such as the measurement of a fever on the thermometer, the observation of a rash on the skin, or the observation of a bluish-violet color on the cervix
a mature male germ cell
stretch marks that occur during pregnancy due to the great amount of stretching that occurs. They appear as slightly depressed, pinkish-purple streaks in the areas of greatest stretch (which are the abdomen, the breasts and the thighs)
low blood pressure that occurs in a pregnant woman when she is lying on her back. It is caused by the pressure of the pregnant uterus on the vena cava; also known as supine hyposention syndrome or vena cava syndrome
a subjective indication of a disease or a change in condition as perceived by the patient; something experienced or felt by the patient.
rapid heartbeat, consistently over 100 beats per minute
the paired male gonads that produce sperm. They are suspended in the scrotal sac in the adult male.
an ultrasound image that is produced by inserting a transvaginal probe into the vagina. The probe is encased ina disposable cover and is coated with gel for easy insertion. The gel also promotes conductivity. This procedure allows clear visualization of the uterus, gestational sac, and embryo in the early stages of pregnancy. It also alllows the examiner to visualize deeper pelvic structures such as the ovaries and fallopian tubes
one of the three periods of approximately three months into which pregnancy is divided. The first trimester consists of weeks 1 to 12, the second trimester consists of weeks 13 to 27, and the third trimester consists of weeks 28 - 40.
a noninvasive procedure that involves the use of reflected sound waves to detect the presence of the embryo or fetus.
a flexible structure connecting the umbilicus (navel) of the fetus with the placenta in the pregnant uterus. It serves as passage for the umbilical arteries and vein.
the hollow, pear-shaped organ of the female reproductive system that housed the fertilized, implanted ovum as it develops throughout pregnancy; also the source of the monthly menstrual flow from the nonpregnant uterus.
contraction stress test
expected date of birth
expected date of confinement; estimated date of confinement (i.e., estimated date for birth of baby)
expected date of delivery
electronic fetal monitoring
fetal heart rate
fetal heart sound
fetal heart tone
gravida, para, abortion
human chorionic gonadotropin
Hemolytic anemia, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet Count
L & D
labor and delivery
last menstrual period
last normal menstrual period
normal spontaneous delivery
non stress test
spontaneous vaginal delivery
term, preterm, abortions, living (this is used on obstetrical history forms to obtain patient data)
the muscular tube that connects the uterus with the vulva. It is approximately 3 inches in length and rests between the bladder (anteriorly) and the rectum (posteriorly)
twisted, swollen veins that occur as a result of the blood pooling in the legs