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Medical Terminology > Mental Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mental Health Deck (135):
1

compensation

an effort to overcome, or make up for, real or imagined inadequacies

2

denial

a refusal to admit or acknowledge the reality of something, thus avoiding emotional conflict or anxiety

3

displacement

the process of transferring a feeling or emotion from the original idea or object to a substitute idea or object.

4

introjection

an ego defense mechanism whereby an individual unconsciously identifies with another person or with some object. The individual assumes the supposed feelings and/or characteristics of the other personality or object.

5

projection

the act of transferring one's own unacceptable thoughts or feeling to someone else.

6

rationalization

attempting to make excuses or invent logical reasons to justify unacceptable feelings or behaviors

7

regression

a response to stress in which the individual reverts to an earlier level of development and the comfort measures associated with that level of functioning.

8

repression

an involuntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from one's conscious mind.

9

sublimation

rechanneling or redirecting one's unacceptable impulses into constructive activities

10

suppression

the voluntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from one's mind.

11

affect

observable evidence of a person's feelings or emotions.

12

amnesia

loss of memory caused by severe emotional trauma, brain injury, substance abuse, or reaction to medications or toxins.

13

amphetamines

a group of nervous system stimulants that produce alertness and a feeling of well-being (euphoria)

14

anorexia

lack of or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat.

15

anorexia nervosa

a disorder (seen primarily in adolescent girls) characterized by an emotional disturbance concerning body image; prolonged refusal to eat followed by extreme weight loss; amenorrhea; and a lingering, abnormal fear of becoming obese.

16

anxiety

a state of mind in which the individual feels increased tension, apprehension, a painfully increased sense of helplessness, a feeling of uncertainty, fear, jitteriness, and worry. Observable signs include (but are not limited to) restlessness, poor eye contact, glancing about, facial tension, dilated pupils, increased perspiration and constant focus on self.

17

anxiety disorders

disorders characterized by chronic worry

18

apathy

absence or suppression of observable emotion, feeling, concern, or passion

19

autism

a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by the individual being extremely withdrawn and absorbed with fantasy. The individual suffers from impaired communication/social interaction skills, and activities and interests are very limited. Was first classified as a type of schizophrenia

20

behavior therapy

a form of psychotherapy that seeks to modify observable maladjusted patterns of behavior by substituting new responses to given stimuli; also called behavior modification.

21

bulimia nervosa

an uncontrolled craving for food, often resulting in eating binges, followed by vomiting to eliminate the food from the stomach. The individual may then feel depressed, go through a period of self-deprivation followed by another eating binge, and the cycle continues.

22

cannabis

a mind-altering drug derived from the flowering top of hemp plants; also called marijuana. This drug is classified as a controlled substance, Schedule I drug.

23

cataplexy

a sudden loss of muscle tone in which the individual's head may drop, the jaw may sag, the knees become weakened, and the individual may collapse or fall to the ground; may accompany a narcolepsy attack (sudden, uncontrollable attack of sleep).

24

compensation

an effort to overcome, or make up for, real or imagine inadequacies

25

compulsions

irresistible, repetitive, irrational impulses to perform an act. These behavior patterns are intended to reduce anxiety, not provide pleasure or gratifications.

26

conversion disorder

a disorder in which the individual represses anxiety experienced by emotional conflicts by converting the anxious feelings into physical symptoms that have no organic basis but are perceived to be real by the individual. The individual may experience symptoms such as paralysis, pain, loss of sensation, or some other form of dysfunction of the nervous system; also called conversion hysteria

27

cyclothymic disorder

a chronic (of long duration) mood disorder characterized by numerous periods of mood swings from depression to happiness. The period of mood disturbance is at least two years.

28

defense mechanism

an unconscious, intrapsychic (within one's mind) reaction that offers protection to the self from a stressful situation

29

delirium

a state of frenzied excitement or wild enthusiasm

30

delirium tremens (DTs)

an acute and sometimes fatal psychotic reaction caused by cessation of excessive intake of alcoholic beverages over a long period of time.

31

delusion

a persistent, abnormal belief or perception held firmly by a person despite evidence to the contrary. Two forms of delusions are delusions of persecution (in which the person thinks others are following him, spying on him, or trying to torment him) and delusions of grandeur, in which the person has a false sense of possessing wealth or power.

32

dementia

a progressive, organic mental disorder characterized by chronic personality disintegration, confusion, disorientation, stupor, deterioration of intellectual capacity and function, and impairment of control of memory, judgment, and impulses.

33

denial

a refusal to admit or acknowledge the reality of something, thus avoiding emotional conflict or anxiety.

34

depression

a mood disturbance characterized by exaggerated feelings of sadness, discouragement, and hopelessness that are inappropriate and out of proportion with reality; may be relative to some personal loss or tragedy.

35

displacement

the process of transferring a feeling or emotion from the original idea or object to a substitute idea or object.

36

dissociation

an unconscious defense mechanism by which an idea, though, emotion, or other mental process is separated from the consciousness and thereby loses emotional significance.

37

drug therapy

the use of psychotropic drugs to treat mental disorders. Psychotropic drugs are those prescribed for their effects in relieving symptoms of anxiety, depression, or other mental disorders (such as schizophrenia)

38

dysphoria

a disorder of affect (mood) characterized by depression and anguish

39

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

the process of passing an electrical current through the brain to create a brief seizure in the brain, much like a spontaneous seizure from some forms of epilepsy; also called shock therapy.

40

euphoria

a sense of well-being or elation

41

exhibitionism

a sexual disorder involving the exposure of one's genitals to a stranger.

42

factitious disorders

disorders that are characterized by physical or psychological symptoms that are intentionally produced or feigned to assume the sick role

43

family therapy

a form of psychotherapy that focuses the treatment on the process between family members that supports and sustains symptoms.

44

fetishism, transvestic

a sexual disorder in which the focus of the fetish involves cross-dressing.

45

free association

the spontaneous, consciously unrestricted association of ideas, feelings, or mental images.

46

frotteurism

a sexual disorder in which the person gains sexual stimulation or excitement by rubbing against nonconsenting person.

47

group therapy

the application of psychotherapeutic techniques within a small group of people who experience similar difficulties.

48

hallucination

a subjective (existing in the mind) perception of something that does not exist in the external environment. They may be visual, olfactory (smell), gustatory, (taste), tactile (touch), or auditory (hearing).

49

hallucinogens

substances that cause excitation of the central nervous system, characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations, mood changes, anxiety, increased pulse and blood pressure, and dilation of the pupils

50

hypnosis

a passive, trancelike state of existence that resembles normal sleep, during which perception and memory are altered, resulting in increased responsiveness to suggestion.

51

hypochondriasis

a chronic, abnormal concern about the health of the body, characterized by extreme anxiety, depression, and an unrealistic interpretation of real or imagined physical symptoms as indications of a serious illness or disease despite rational medical evidence that no disorder is present. A persona affected is referred to as a hypochondriac.

52

hypomania

a mild degree of mania characterized by optimism, excitability, energetic and productive behavior, marked hyperactivity and talkativeness, heightened sexual interest, quickness to anger, irritability, and a decreased need for sleep.

53

intoxication

a state of being characterized by impaired judgment, slurred speech, loss of coordination, irritability, and mood changes; may be due to drugs, including alcohol.

54

introjection

an ego defense mechanism whereby an individual unconsciously identifies with another person or with some object, assuming the supposed feelings and/or characteristics of the other personality or object.

55

lithium

a drug that is particularly useful in treating the manic phase of bipolar disorders (manic depressive disorders).

56

major depressive disorder

a disorder characterized by one or more episodes of depressed mood that lasts at least two weeks and is accompanied by at least four additional symptoms of depression

57

malingering

a willful and deliberate faking of symptoms of a disease or injury to gain some consciously desired end.

58

mania

"madness"; an unstable emotional state characterized by symptoms such as extreme excitement, hyperactivity, overtalkativeness, agitation, flight of ideas, fleeting attention, and sometimes violent, destructive, and self-destructive behavior.

59

marijuana

a mind-altering drug derived from the flowering top of hemp plants; also called marijuana. This drug is classified as a controlled substance, Schedule I drug.

60

mood disorders

an affective state characterized by any of a variety of periods of depression or depression elation.

61

mutism

the inability to speak because of a physical defect or emotional problem

62

neurosis

a psychological or behavioral disorder in which anxiety is the primary characteristic; though to be related to unresolved conflicts.

63

obsession

a persistent though or idea with which the mind continually and involuntarily preoccupied.

64

panic attack

an episode of acute anxiety during which the individual may experience intense feelings of uneasiness or fright accompanied by dyspnea, dizziness, sweating, trembling, and palpitations of the heart. Panic attacks, which occur unexpectedly,k my last a few minutes and may return

65

panic disorder

a disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks that come on unexpectedly

66

paranoia

a mental disorder characterized by an elaborate, overly suspicious system of thinking, with delusions of persecution and grandeur usually centered on one major theme (such as a financial matter, a job situation, an unfaithful spouse, or other problem).

67

paraphilia

sexual perversion or deviation; a condition in which the sexual instinct is expressed in ways that are socially prohibited, unacceptable, or biologically undesirable.

68

pedophilia

a sexual disorder in which the individual is sexually aroused and engages in sexual activity with children (generally age 13 or younger)

69

personality disorders

any of a large group of mental disorders characterized by rigid, inflexible, and maladaptive behavior patterns that impair a person's ability to function in society by severely limiting adaptive potential

70

phobia

an anxiety disorder characterized by an obsessive, irrational, and intense fear of a specific object, of an activity, or of a physical situation. Phobias are usually characterized by symptoms such as faintness, fatigue, palpitations, perspiration, nausea, tremor, and panic.

71

play therapy

a form of psychotherapy in which a child plays in a protected and structured environment with games and toys provided by a therapist.

72

projection

the act of transferring one's own unacceptable thoughts or feelings to someone else.

73

psychiatrist

a physician who specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.

74

psychiatry

the branch of medicine that deals with the causes, treatment, and prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.

75

psychoanalysis

a form of psychotherapy that uses free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of defense mechanisms to help the patient become aware of repressed emotional conflicts.

76

psychoanalyst

a psychotherapist, usually a psychiatrist, who has had special training in psychoanalysis and who applies the techniques of psychoanalytic theory.

77

psychodrama

a form of group psychotherapy in which people act out their emotional problems through unrehearsed dramatizations; also called role-playing therapy.

78

psychologist

a person who specializes in the study of the structure and function of the brain and related mental processes of animals and humans. A clinical psychologist has a graduate degree with specialized training in providing testing and counseling to patients with mental emotional disorders.

79

psychology

the study of behavior and the processes of the mind, especially as it relates to the individual's social and physical environment.

80

psychosis

any major mental disorder of organic or emotional origin characterized by a loss of contact with reality

81

psychosomatic

pertaining to the expression of an emotional conflict through physical symptoms

82

psychotherapy

any of a large number of related methods of treating mental and emotional disorders by using psychological techniques instead of physical means of treatment.

83

psychotropic

any substance capable of affecting the mind, emotions and behavior; drugs used in the treatment of mental illness

84

pruging

the means of ridding the body of what has been consumed; that is, the individual may induce vomiting or use laxatives to rid the body of food that has just been eaten.

85

schizophrenia

any of a large group of psychotic disorders characterized by gross distortion of reality, disturbances of language and communication, withdrawal from social interaction, and the disorganization and fragmentation of though, perception, and emotional reaction.

86

sedative

an agent that decreases functional activity and has a calming effect on the body.

87

senile dementia

an organic mental disorder of the aged, resulting from the generalized atrophy (wasting) of the brain with no evidence of cerebrovascular disease. This condition is characterized by loss of memory, impaired judgement, decreased moral and ethical values, inability to think abstractly, and periods of confusion and irritability. These symptoms may range from mild to severe.

88

sexual sadism/sexual masochism

a sexual disorder that involves the act (real, not simulated) of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer; or the act of inflicting psychological or physical suffering on the victim.

89

somatoform disorders

any group of neurotic disorders characterized by symptoms suggesting physical illness or disease for which there are no demonstrable organic causers or physiologic dysfunctions

90

tolerance

the ability to endure unusually large doses of a drug without apparent adverse effects and with continued use of the drug, to require increased dosages to produce the same effect.

91

amnesia disorders

also called amnestic disorders, are characterized by short-term and long-term memory deficits.

92

paranoid schizophrenia

a condition characterized by the individual being overly suspicious of others and having hallucinations and delusions.

93

bipolar disorders

a psychological disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression, alternations between the two, or a mixture of the two moods simultaneously.

94

cyclothymic disorder

a chronic mood disorder characterized by numerous periods of mood swings from depression to happiness. The period of mood disturbance is at least two years in duration.

95

major depressive disorder

a disorder characterized by one or more episodes of depressed mood that last at least two weeks and are accompanied by at least five additional symptoms of depression

96

generalized anxiety disorder

a disorder characterized by chronic, unrealistic and excessive anxiety and worry. The symptoms have usually existed for at least six months or more and have no relation to any specific causes.

97

panic disorder

characterized by recurrent panic attacks that come on unexpectedly, followed by at least one month of persistent concern about having another panic attack.

98

phobic disorder

anxiety disorder characterized by an obsessive, irrational, and intense fear of a specific object, of an activity, or of a physical situation; also called phobia disorder.

99

obsessive-compulsive disorder

a disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are severe enough to be time consuming (they take more than one hour a day) or to cause obvious distress or a notable handicap.

100

posttraumatic stress disorder

a disorder in which the individual experiences characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extremely traumatic event. The individual reacts with horror, extreme fright, or helplessness to the event.

101

Munchausen syndrome (by proxy)

a somewhat rare form of child abuse in which a parent of a child falsifies an illness in a child by fabricating or creating the symptoms and then seeks frequent medical attention for the child.

102

narcolepsy

a sleep disorder characterized by a repeated, uncontrolled desire to sleep - often several times a day. The sleep attacks must occur daily over a period of at least three months to establish the diagnosis

103

dissociative amnesia

a disorder in which the individual is unable to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature. The loss of memory is more than simple forgetting.

104

dissociative fugue

a disorder in which the individual separates from a past life and associations, wanders away for a period of time, and returns with no recollection of the disappearance.

105

dissociative identity disorder

a disorder in which there is the presence of two or more distinct personalities within one individual. At some point in time, each personality takes complete control of the person's behavior.

106

antisocial personality disorder

characterized by repetitive behavioral patterns that lack moral and ethical standards, keeping the individual in continuous conflict with society.

107

borderline personality disorder

characterized by an extensive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and marked impulsivity that begins by early adulthood and is present in a variety of contexts.

108

narcissistic personality disorder

characterized by an abnormal interest in oneself, especially in one's own body and sexual characteristics

109

paranoid personality disorder

characterized by a generalized distrust and suspiciousness of others, so much so that the individual blames them for his or her own mistakes and failures.

110

schizoid personality disorder

characterized by the inability to form social relationships. The individual may appear as emotionally cold or indifferent.

111

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

a condition of persistent inattention and hyperactivity, impulsivity, or both; formerly known as attention-deficit disorder (ADD)

112

psychoeducation

refers to education offered to individuals who live with a psychological disturbance. It involves teaching people about their illness, how to treat it, and how to recognize signs of relapse so they can seek treatment before the condition worsens or returns.

113

Draw-a-Person (DAP) test

a personality test that is based on interpretation of drawings of human figures of both sexes.

114

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

a self-report personality inventory test that consists of 550 statements that can be answered "true", "false", or "cannot say". They statements vary widely in content and are sometimes repeated in various ways throughout the test.

115

Rorschach inkblot test

a personality test that involves the use of 10 inkblot cards, half black-and-white and half in color. The cards are shown to the individual one at a time. The person is shown a card and asked to describe what he or she sees in the card.

116

thematic apperception test (TAT)

designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual's personality. This test consists of a series of 30 black-and-white pictures, each on an individual card.

117

intelligence testing

designed to measure an individual's ability to adapt and constructively solve problems in the environment.

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ADD

attention-deficit disorder

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ADHD

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

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CA

chronological age

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CNS

central nervous system

122

DAP

Draw-a-Person personality test

123

DSM

Diagnositc and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

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DTs

delirium tremens

125

ECT

electroconvulsive therapy

126

IQ

intelligence quotient

127

LSD

lysergic acid diethylamide (a hallucinogenic drug)

128

MA

mental age

129

MMPI

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

130

OCD

obsessive-compulsive disease

131

PCP

phencyclidine (a psychoactive drug)

132

TAT

thematic apperception test (personality test)

133

WAIS

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

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WISC

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

135

WPPSI

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence