Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (123):
1

acromegaly

a chronic metabolic condition characterized by gradual, noticeable enlargement and elongation of the bones of the face, jaw, and extremities due to oversecretion of the pituitary gland after puberty.

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adenohypophysis

the anterior pituitary gland

3

adenoma

a glandular tumor

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adenopathy

any disease of a gland, characterized by enlargement.

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adrenalectomy

surgical removal of one or both of the adrenal glands

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adrenocortical

pertaining to the cortex of the adrenal gland

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aldosterone

a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates sodium and potassium balance in the blood.

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androgen

any steroid hormone (e.g., testosterone) that increases male characteristics

9

antidiuretic

pertaining to the suppression of urine production; an agent given to suppress the production of urine.

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cortex

pertaining to the outer region of an organ or structure.

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cortisol

a steroid hormone occurring naturally in the body; also called hydrocortisone

12

cretinism

a congenital condition (one that occurs at birth) caused by a lack of thyroid secretion. This condition is characterized by dwarfism, slowed mental development, puffy facial features, dry skin, and large tongue.

13

diabetes, gestational

a condition occurring in pregnancy characterized by the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus (such as impaired ability to metabolize carbohydrates due to insulin deficiency, and elevated blood sugar level). These symptoms usually disappear after the delivery of the baby.

14

diabetes insipidus

a metabolic disorder characterized by extreme polydipsia (excessive thirst) and polyuria (excessive urination). This is a disorder of the pituitary gland due to a deficiency in secretion of the antidiuretic hormone.

15

diabetes mellitus

a disorder of the pancreas in which the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas fail to produce an adequate amount of insulin, resulting in the body's inability to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins appropriately.

16

diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

a dangerous condition that occurs as a result of severe lack of insulin, causing the body to break down body fats instead of glucose for energy. The stored fat is broken down in to fatty acids andglycerol. The liver changes the fatty acids into ketone bodies (acids), which leads to an increase in acidity of the blood (acidosis). Also known as a diabetic coma.

17

dwarfism

a condition in which there is an abnormal underdevelopment of the body. This condition is characterized by extremely short height and is usually caused by undersecretion of the pituitary gland (growth hormone).

18

endocrine gland

a ductless gland that produces a chemical substance called a hormone, which is secreted directly into the bloodstream instead of exiting the body through ducts.

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endocrinologist

a physician who specializes in the medical practice of treating the diseases and disorders of the endocrine system.

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endocrinology

The field of medicine that deals with the study of the endocrine system and of the treatment of the diseases and disorders of the endocrine system.

21

epinephrine

a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla. This hormone plays an important role in the body's response to stress by increasing the heart rate, dilating the bronchioles, and releasing glucose into the bloodstream.

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estrogen

one of the female hormones that promotes the development of the female secondary sex characteristics.

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euthyroid

pertaining to a normally functioning thyroid gland.

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exocrine gland

a gland that opens onto the surface of the skin through ducts in the epithelium, such as an oil gland or a sweat gland.

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exophthalmia

an abnormal condition characterized by a marked outward protrusion of the eyeballs.

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exophthalmos

an abnormal condition characterized by a marked outward protrusion of the eyeballs.

27

gigantism

an abnormal condition characterized by excessive size and height. This condition is usually due to an oversecretion of the pituitary gland (growth hormone)

28

glucagon

a hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose.

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glucogenesis

the formation of glycogen from fatty acids and proteins instead of from carbohydrates.

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glucose

the simplest form of sugar in the body; a simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits; also a major source of energy for the human body.

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glycogenesis

the conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver for later use as needed.

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glycosuria

the presence of sugar in the urine.

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goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland due to excessive growth (hyperplasia)

34

gonads

a term used to refer to the female sex glands (ovaries) and the male sex glands (testes).

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Graves' disease

overactivity of the thyroid gland; also called hyperthyroidism

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growth hormone

a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that regulates the cellular processes necessary for normal body growth; also called the somatotropic hormone.

37

hirsutism

a condition in which there is excessive body hair in a male distribution pattern.

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hypercalcemia

elevated blood calcium level

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hyperglycemia

elevated blood sugar level

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hypergonadism

excessive activity of the ovaries or testes.

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hyperinsulinism

an excessive amount of insulin in the body.

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hyperkalemia

an elevated blood potassium level

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hypernatremia

an elevated blood sodium level.

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hyperparathyroidism

hyperactivity of any of the four parathyroid glands, resulting in an oversecretion of the parathyroid hormone.

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hyperpituitarism

overactivity of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

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hyperthyroidism

overactivity of the thyroid gland; also called Graves' disease.

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hypocalcema

Less than normal blood calcium level

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hypoglycemia

less than normal blood sugar level.

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hypokalemia

Less than normal blood potassium level.

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hypoatremia

Less than normal blood sodium level

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hypophysectomy

surgical removal of the pituitary gland

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hypothyroidism

less than normal activity of the thyroid gland

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insulin shock

a state of shock due to extremely low blood sugar level caused by an overdose of insulin, a decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise by a diabetic patient who is insulin dependent. Severe hypoglycemia is a medical emergency.

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medulla

the internal part of a structure or organ

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metabolism

the sum of all physical and chemical processes that take place within the body.

56

myxedema

the most severe from of hypothyroidism in the adult. This condition is characterized by puffiness of the hands and the face; coarse, thickened edematous skin; an enlarged tongue; slow speech; loss of and dryness of the hair; sensitivity to cold; drowsiness; and mental apathy.

57

norepinephrine

a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla. This hormone plays an important role in the body's response to stress by raising the blood pressure.

58

oxytocin

a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. This hormone stimulates the contractions of the uterus during childbirth and stimulates the release of milk from the breasts of lactating women (women who breastfeed) in response to the suckling reflex of the infant.

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polydipsia

excessive thirst

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polyphagia

excessive eating

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polyuria

the excretion of excessively large amounts of urine.

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progesterone

a female hormone secreted by the ovaries. This hormone is primarily responsible for the changes that occur in the endometrium in anticipation of a fertilized ovum and for development of the maternal placenta after implantation of a fertilized ovum.

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somatotropic hormone

a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that regulates the cellular processes necessary for normal body growth; also called the growth hormone.

64

syndrome

a group of symptoms occurring together, indicative of a particular disease or abnormality.

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T-cells

Specialized lymphocytes that are involved in the immune response.

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tetany

a condition characterized by sever cramping and twitching of the muscles and sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints; a complication of hypocalcemia

67

thymopoietin

a hormone secreted by the thymus, though to stimulate the production of T-cells (which are involved in the immune response).

68

thymosin

a hormone secreted by the thymus. This hormone is though to stimulate the production of specialized lymphocytes, called T-cells, which are involved in the immune response.

69

thyroiditis

inflammation of the thyroid gland

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thyroxine

a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. This hormone helps maintain normal body metabolism (abbreviated as T4)

71

triodothyronine

a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. This hormone helps regulate growth and development of the body and control metabolism and body temperature (abbreviated as T3).

72

virilism

the development of masculine physical traits in the female (such as growth of facial and body hair, increased secretion of the sebaceous glands, deepening of the voice, and enlargement of the clitoris); also called masculinization. This condition may be due to an abnormality or dysfunction of the adrenal gland, as in adrenal virilism

73

hypopituitarism

a complex syndrome resulting from the absence or deficiency of the pituitary hormone(s).

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cancer, thyroid gland

malignant tumor of the thyroid gland, which leads to dysfunction of the gland and thus inadequate or excessive secretion of the thyroid hormone

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thyroiditis, chronic

chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland, leading to enlargement of the thyroid gland.

76

thyrotoxicosis

an acute, sometimes fatal, incident of overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone.

77

hypoparathyroidism

decreased production of parathyroid hormone, resulting in hypocalcemia, characterized by nerve and muscle weakness with muscle spasms or tetany (a state of continual contraction of the muscles).

78

Addison's disease

a life-threatening disease process due to failure of the adrenal cortex to secrete adequate mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids resulting from an autoimmune process, a neoplasm, an infection or a hemorrhage in the gland.

79

Conn's disease (primary aldosteronism)

a condition characterized by excretion of excessive amounts of aldosterone, the most influential of the mineralocoricoids, which causes the body to retain extra sodium and excrete extra potassium, leading to an increased volume of blood (hypervolemia) and hypertension.

80

Cushing's syndrome

a condition of the adrenal gland in which a cluster of symptoms occur as a result of an excessive amount of cortisol or ACTH circulating in the blood.

81

phechromocytoma

a vascular tumor of the adrenal medulla that produces extra epinephrine and norepinephrine, leading to persistent or intermittent hypertension or heart palpatations.

82

diabetic retniopathy

a disorder of the blood vessels of the retina of the eye, in which the capillaries of the retina experience localized areas of bulging (microaneurysms), hemorrhages, leakage, and scarring.

83

pancreatic cancer

a life-threatening primary malignant neoplasm typically found in the head of the pancreas.

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pancreatitis

an acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas.

85

fasting blood sugar (FBS)

blood glucose sample taken usually early in the morning after the person has been without food or drink since midnight.

86

glucose tolerance test (GTT)

a test that evaluates the person's ability to tolerate a concentrated oral glucose load by measuring the glucose levels.

87

homglobin A1C test (HgbA1C)

a blood test that shows the average level of glucose in an individual's blood during the past 3 months. A small sample of blood is collected from a vein (usually an arm vein) and is sent to the lab for analysis

88

radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) test

a thyroid function test that evaluates the function of the thyroid gladn by administering a known amount of radioactive iodine and later placing a gamma ray detector over the thyroid gland to determine the percentage or quantity of radioactive iodine absorbed by the gland over a specific time.

89

serum glucose test

measures the amount of glucose in the blood at the time the sample was drawn

90

thyroid echogram

an ultrasound examination important in distinguishing solid thyroid nodules from cystic nodules

91

thyroid function tests

tests that measure the blood levels of T3, T4, and TSH horomones

92

thyroid scan

an examination that determines the position, size, shape and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of radionuclear scanning.

93

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) blood test

a test that measures the concentration of TSH in the blood.

94

ACTH

adrenocorticotropic hormone

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ADH

antidiuretic hormone

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BMR

basal metabolic rate

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Ca

calcium

98

DI

diabetes insipidus

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DKA

diabetic ketoacidosis

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DM

diabetes mellitus

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FBS

fasting blood sugar

102

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

103

GH

growth hormone

104

GTT

glucose tolerance test

105

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

106

HgbA1C

hemoglobin A1C

107

IDDM

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; also known as type 1 diabetes

108

K

potassium

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LH

luteinizing hormone

110

LTH

lactogenic hormone

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MSH

melanocyte-stimulating hormone

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Na

sodium

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NiDDM

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; also known as type 2 diabetes

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OT

oxytocin

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PBI

protein-bound iodine

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PTH

parathyroid hormone

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RAI

radioactive iodine

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RAIU

radioactive iodine uptake

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T3

trilodothyronine (thyroid hormone)

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T4

thyroxine (thyroid hormone)

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TFT

thyroid function tests

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TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone

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VLDL

very-low-density lipoprotein