Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (223):
1

abdomen

the portion of the body between the thorax (chest) and the pelvis; the diaphragm separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity. The stomach is located in the upper left quadrant.

2

absorption

the passage of substances across and into tissues, such as the passage of digested food molecules into intestinal cells or the passage of liquids into kidney tubules.

3

alimentary canal

a musculomembranous tube, about 30 feet long, extending from the mouth to the anus and line with mucous membrane. Also called the digestive tract or the gastrointestinal tract.

4

amino acids

an organic chemical compound composed f one or more basic amino groups and one or more acidic carboxyl groups.

5

amylase

an enzyme that breaks down starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules

6

anus

the opening through which the solid wastes (feces) are eliminated from the body.

7

ascitic fluid

a watery fluid containing albumin, glucose, and electrolytes that accumulates in the peritoneal cavity in association with certain disease conditions (such as liver disease).

8

bicuspid tooth

one of the two teeth between the molars and canines of the upper and lower jaw, these teeth have a flat surface with multiple projections (cusps) for crushing and grinding food; also known as premolar tooth.

9

bile

a bitter, yellow-green secretion of the liver.

10

bilirubin

the orange-yellow pigment of bile, formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells after termination of their normal life span.

11

bolus

a ball-like mass of chewed food (mixed with saliva) that is ready to be swallowed.

12

bowel

the portion o the alimentary canal extending from the pyloric opening of the stomach to the anus.

13

canine tooth

any one of the fourth teeth, two in each jaw, situated immediately lateral to the incisor teeth in the human dental arches; also called cuspid tooth

14

cardiac sphincter

the muscular ring (sphincter) in the stomach that controls the passage of food from the esophagus into the stomach; also known as the lower esophageal sphincter.

15

cecum

a cul-de-sac containing the first part of the large intestine. It joins the ileum, the last segment of the small intestine.

16

cholangiogram

a record, or X-ray film, of the bile ducts following the injection of a radiopaque contrast medium.

17

choledocholithiasis

the presence of stone (calculus) in the common bile duct.

18

cholelithiasis

abnormal presence of gallstones in the gallbladder

19

chyme

the liquidlike material of partially digested food and digestive secretions found in the stomach just before it is released into the duodenum.

20

colon

the portion of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum

21

common bile duct

the duct formed by the joining of the cystic duct and the hepatic duct.

22

crown

the part of the tooth that is visible above the gum line

23

cuspid tooth

any one of the fourth teeth, two in each jaw, situated immediately lateral to the incisor teeth in the human dental arches; also called canine tooth

24

deciduous teeth

the first set or primary teeth; baby teeth

25

defecation

the act of expelling feces from the rectum through the anus

26

deglutition

swallowing

27

dentin

the chief material of teeth surrounding the pulp and situated inside of the enamel and cementum

28

dietitian

an allied health professional trained to plan nutrition programs for sick as well as healthy people. This may involved planning meals for a hospital or large organization or individualized diet counseling with patients.

29

digestion

the process of altering the chemical and physical composition of food so that it can be used by the body cells. This occurs in the digestive tract.

30

digestive tract

a musculomembranous tube, about 30 feet long, extending from the mouth to the anus and line with mucous membrane. Also called the digestive tract or the alimentary canal.

31

duodenum

the first portion of the small intestine. This is the shortest, widest, and most fixed portion of the small intestine, taking an almost circular course from the pyloric valve on the stomach so that its termination is close to its starting point.

32

emulsify

to disperse a liquid into another liquid, making a colloidal suspension.

33

enamel

a hard, white substance that covers the dentin of the crown of a tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body

34

endocrine gland

a gland that secretes its enzymes directly into the blood capillaries instead of being transported by way of ducts.

35

enzyme

a protein produced by living cells that catalyzes chemical reactions in organic matter.

36

esophagus

a muscular canal, about 24 cm long, extending from the pharynx to the stomach.

37

exocrine gland

a gland that secretes its enzymes into a network of tiny ducts that transport it to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel.

38

fatty acids

any of several organic acids produced by the hydrolysis of neutral fats.

39

feces

waste or excrement from the digestive tract that is formed in the intestine and expelled through the rectum.

40

gallblader

a pear-shaped excretory sac lodged in a fossa on the visceral surface of the right lo of the liver

41

gastroenterologist

a medical doctor who specializes in the study of the diseases and disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract (including the stomach, intestines, gallbladder and bile duct).

42

gastrointestinal tract

a musculomembranous tube, about 30 feet long, extending from the mouth to the anus and line with mucous membrane. Also called the digestive tract or the alimentary canal.

43

gavage

a procedure in which liquid or semi-liquid food is introduced into the stomach through a tube.

44

gingiva

gum tissue

45

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

46

glucagon

a hormone produced by the alpha cells o the pancreas that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose when the blood sugar level is dangerously low.

47

glucose

a simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits, and major source of energy occurring in human and animal body fluids.

48

glycogen

a complex sugar (starch) that is the major carbohydrate stored in animal cells. It is formed from glucose and stored chiefly in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in muscle cells.

49

glycogenesis

the conversion of simple sugar (glucose) into a complex form of sugar (starch) for storage in the liver.

50

glycogenolysis

the breakdown of glycogen into glucose by the liver, releasing it back into the circulating blood in response to a very low blood sugar level.

51

hematemesis

vomiting of blood.

52

hepatocyte

liver cell

53

hydrochloric acid

a compound consisting of hydrogen and chlorine

54

ileum

the distal portion of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the cecum

55

incisor

one of the eight front teeth, four in each dental arch, the first appear as primary teeth during infancy are replaced by permanent incisors during childhood and last until old age.

56

insulin

a naturally occurring hormone secreted by the eta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas in response to increased levels of glucose in the blood.

57

jejunum

the intermediate or middle of the three portions of the small intestine, connecting proximally with the duodenum and distally with the ileum.

58

laparoscope

a thin-walled, flexible tube with a telescopic lens and light that is inserted through an incision in the abdominal wall to examine or perform minor surgery within the abdominal or pelvic cavities.

59

lavage

the process o irrigating (washing out) an organ - usually the bladder, bowel, paranasal sinuses, or stomach - for therapeutic purposes

60

lipase

an enzyme that aids in the digestion of fats.

61

liver

the largest gland of the body and one of its most complex organs

62

lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

the muscular ring (sphincter) in the stomach that controls the passage of food from the esophagus into the stomach; also known as the cardiac sphincter.

63

lower GI tract

the lower portion of the gastrointestinal tract consisting of the small and large intestines

64

mastication

chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva

65

McBurney's point

a point on the right side of the abdomen, about 2/3rds of the distance between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip. When tenderness exists upon this point, a physician might suspect appendicitis.

66

molar tooth

any of 12 molar teeth, six in each dental arch, located posterior to the premolar teeth. The molar teeth have a flat surface with multiple projections (cusps) for crushing and grinding food.

67

nutritionist

an allied health professional who studies and applies the principles and science of nutrition.

68

oropharynx

the section of the pharynx leading away from the oral cavity

69

palate

a structure that forms the roof of the mouth.

70

pancreas

an elongated organ approximately 6 to 9 inches long, located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen that secretes various substances such as digestive enzymes, insulin, and glucagon.

71

papillae

a small, nipple-shaped projection (such as the conoid papillae of the tongue and the papillae of the corium) that extend from collagen fibers, the capillary blood vessels, and sometimes the nerves of the dermis.

72

parotid gland

one of the largest pairs of salivary glands that lie at the side of the face just below and in front of the external ear.

73

peristalsis

the coordinated, rhythmic, serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract, bile through the bile duct and urine through the ureters.

74

peritoneum

a specific serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera

75

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum

76

permanent teeth

the full set of teeth (32 teeth) that replaces the deciduous or temporary teeth.

77

pharynx

the throat; a tubular structure about 13 cm long that extends from the base of the skull to the esophagus and is situated just in front of the cervical vertebrae

78

premolars

one of the two teeth between the molars and canines of the upper and lower jaw, these teeth have a flat surface with multiple projections (cusps) for crushing and grinding food; also known as bicuspid tooth.

79

pulp

any soft, spongy tissue such as that contained within the spleen, the pulp chamber of the tooth, or the distal phalanges of the fingers and the toes.

80

pyloric sphincter

a thickened muscular ring in the stomach that regulates the passage of food from the pylorus of the stomach into the duodenum.

81

pyorrhea

discharge or flow of pus

82

rebound tenderness

a sensation of severe pain experienced by the patient when the doctor applies deep pressure to the abdomen and releases it quickly When this deep pressure is applied to the lower right quadrant of the abdomen at McBurney's point, and this type of pain is experienced, it is strong indicator of appendicitis

83

rectum

the portion of the large intestine, about 12 cm long, continuous with the descending sigmoid colon (just proximal to the anal canal.

84

rugae

a ridge or fold that presents large fold in the mucous membrane of the organ. (ie. hard palate or stomach)

85

saliva

the clear, viscous fluid secreted by the salivary and mucous glands in the mouth

86

salivary glands

one of the three pairs of glands secreting into the mouth, thus aiding the digestive process.

87

secondary teeth

the full set of teeth (32 teeth) that replaces the deciduous or temporary teeth.

88

sigmoid colon

the portion of the colon that extends from the end of the descending colon in the pelvis to the juncture of the rectum.

89

sphincter

a circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening in the body,

90

stomach

the major organ of digestion located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen and divided into a body and pylorus

91

triglycerides

a compound consisting of a fatty acid (oleic, palmitic, or stearic) and glycerol.

92

upper GI tract

the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract consisting of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach.

93

uvula

the small, cone-shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate.

94

villi

one of the many tiny projections barely visible to the naked eye clustered over the entire mucous surface of the small intestine.

95

achlorhydria

an abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice

96

anorexia

lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat.

97

aphagia

a condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes

98

ascites

an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. The fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes

99

borborygmus

an audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis. They are rumbling, gurgling, and tinkling noises heard when listening with a stethoscope.

100

constipation

difficulty in passing stools or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools

101

diarrhea

the frequent passage of loose, watery stools

102

dyspepsia

a vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating, It involves an uncomfortable feeling of fullness, heartburn, bloating, and nausea.

103

dysphagia

is difficulty in swallowing, commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus.

104

emaciation

excessive leanness caused by the disease or lack of nutrition.

105

emesis

the material expelled from the stomach during vomiting; vomitus

106

eructation

the act of bringing up air from the stomach with a characteristic sound through the mouth; belching

107

flatus; flatulence

air or gas in the intestine that is passed through the rectum.

108

gastroesophageal reflux

a backflow of the content of the stomach into the esophagus that is often the result of incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter.

109

icterus

a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera of the eyes caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood; also called jaundice.

110

jaundice

a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera of the eyes caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood; also called jaundice.

111

melena

an abnormal, black, tarry stool containing digested blood.

112

nausea

an unpleasant sensation often leading to the urge to vomit.

113

pruritus ani

a common chronic condition of itching of the skin around the anus.

114

steatorrhea

greater than normal amounts of fats in the feces, characterized by frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter that floats (as in celiac disease, some malabsorption syndromes, and any condition in which fats are poorly absorbed by the small intestine.

115

vomit

to expel the content of the stomach through the esophagus and out of the mouth.

116

vomitus

the material expelled from the stomach during vomiting; emesis

117

achalasia

decreased mobility of the lower tow-thirds of the esophagus along with constriction of the lower esophageal sphincter.

118

anal fistula

an abnormal passageway in the skin surface near the anus usually connecting with the rectum.

119

aphthous stomatitis

small, inflammatory, noninfectious, ulcerated lesions occurring on the lips, tongue, and inside of the cheeks of the mouth; also called canker sores.

120

appendicitis

inflammation of the vermiform appendix

121

celiac disease

nutrient malabsorption due to damaged small-bowel mucosa

122

cirrhosis

a disease of the liver that is chronic and degenerative, causing injury to the hepatocytes (functional cells of the liver)

123

colorectal cancer

the presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine.

124

constipation

a state in which the individual's pattern of bowel elimination is characterized by a decrease in the frequency of bowel movements and the passage of hard, dry stools. The individual experiences difficult defecation.

125

Crohn's disease

digestive tract inflammation of a chronic nature, causing fever, cramping, diarrhea, weight loss and anorexia

126

dental caries

tooth decay caused by acid-forming microorganisms

127

diverticular disease

an expression used to characterize both diverticulosis and diverticulitis. Diverticulosis describes the noninflamed outpouchings or herniations of the muscular layer of the intestine, typically the sigmoid colon. Inflammation of these outpouchings (called diverticula) is referred to as diverticulitis.

128

dysentery

a term used to describe painful intestinal inflammation typically caused by ingesting water or food containing bacteria, protozoa, parasites, or chemical irritants.

129

esophageal varices

swollen, twisted (tortuous) veins located in the distal end of the esophagus

130

gallstones (cholelithiasis)

pigmented or hardened cholesterol stones formed as a result of bile crystallization

131

hemorrhoids

an unnaturally distended or swollen vein (called a variscosity) in the distal rectum or anus

132

hepatitis

acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to a viral or bacterial infection, drugs, alcohol, toxins, or parasites.

133

hernia

an irregular protrusion of tissue, organ, or portion of an organ through an abnormal break in the surrounding cavity's muscular wall.

134

herpetic stomatitis

inflammatory infectious lesions in or on the oral cavity occurring as a primary or secondary viral infection caused by herpes simplex.

135

Hirschsprung's disease

absence at birth of the autonomic ganglia in a segment of the intestinal smooth muscle wall that normally stimulates peristalsis

136

ileus

a term used to describe an obstruction of the intestine.

137

intestinal obstruction

complete or partial alteration in the forward flow of the content in the small or large intestines.

138

intussusception

telescoping of a portion of proximal intestine into distal intestine, usually in the ileocecal region (causing an obstruction)

139

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); spastic colon

increased motility of the small or large intestinal wall, resulting in abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, anorexia, and the trapping of gas throughout the intestines.

140

oral leukoplakia

a precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth.

141

pancreatitis

an acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas.

142

peptic ulcers (gastric, duodenal, perforated)

a break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the gastrointestinal tract as a result of hyperacidity or he bacterium Helicobacter pylori

143

periodontal disease

a term used to describe a group of inflammatory gum disorders, which may lead to degeneration of teeth, gums, and sometimes surrounding bones.

144

polyps, colorectal

small growths projecting from the mucous membrane of the colon or rectum

145

thrush

a fungal infection in the mouth and throat, producing sore creaming white, slightly raised curdlike patches on the tongue and other oral mucosal surfaces. It is caused by Candida albicans.

146

ulcerative colitis

a chronic inflammatory condition resulting in a break of continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the colon in the form of ulcers. It is characterized by large watery diarrheal stools containing mucus, pus, or blood.

147

volvulus

a rotation of loops of bowel, causing a twisting on itself that results in an intestinal obstruction

148

abdominal ultrasound

the use of very-high-frequency sound waves to provide visualization of the internal organs of the abdomen (liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, and ureters); also known as an abdominal sonogram.

149

abdominocentesis (paracentesis)

involves insertion of a needle or trocar into the abdominal cavity to remove excess fluid, with the person in a sitting position.

150

alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

a hepatocellular enzyme released in elevated amounts due to liver dysfunction; also known as serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)

151

alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

enzyme is found in the highest concentrations in the liver, biliary tract and bone.

152

amylase

an enzyme secreted normally from the pancreatic cells that travels to the duodenum by way of the pancreatic duct and aids in digestion.

153

appendectomy

the surgical removal of an inflamed appendix

154

barium enema (BE) (lower GI series)

infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum and held in the lower intestinal tract while X-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract

155

barium swallow (UGI) (upper GI series)

involves oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows

156

capsule endoscopy

the process of viewing the entire length of the small intestine by using an ingestible video camera with a light source, which is enclosed in a capsule (about the size of a large vitamin pill). This tiny video camera, known as the camera pill, produces digital images of the entire length of the small intestine and can visualize areas that other diagnostic techniques cannot. use of the camera pill is not disruptive to the normal activities of the digestive tract; also known as wireless endoscopy

157

cheiloplasty

surgically correcting a defect of the lip

158

cholecystectomy

the surgical removal of the gallbladder

159

cholecystography

visualization of the gallbladder through X-ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye.

160

colonoscopy

the direct visualization of the lining of the large intestine using fiberoptic colonscope

161

colostomy

surgical creation of a new opening on the abdominal wall through which feces will be expelled (an abdominal-wall anus) by bringing the incised colon out to the abdominal surface

162

CT of the abdomen

a painless, noninvasive X-ray procedure that produces an image created by the computer representing a detailed cross section of the tissue structure within the abdomen

163

CT colonography (virtual colonoscopy)

uses CT scanning (or MRI) to obtain an interior view of the colon that is usually seen using an endoscope inserted into the rectum. This non-invasive, painless procedure provides two-and three- dimensional images that can show polyps and other lesions as clearly as when they are seen with direct visual colonoscopy. Use allows these growths to be detected in their early stages; also called virtual colonoscopy.

164

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

a procedure that examines the size of and the filling of the pancreatic an biliary ducts through direct radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic endoscope.

165

esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

the process of direct visualization of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, using a lighted fiberoptic endoscope; also known as an upper endoscopy.

166

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)

an alternative treatment for gallstones by using ultrasound to align the computerized lithotripter and source of shock waves with the stones to crush the gallstones and thus enable the contraction of the gallbladder to remove stone fragments.

167

fluoroscopy

a radiological technique used to examine the function of an organ or body part by using a fluoroscope.

168

gastric analysis

study of the stomach content to determine the acid content and to detect the presence of blood, bacteria, bile and abnormal cells.

169

gastric lavage

the irrigation, or washing out, of the stomach with sterile water or a saline solution

170

herniorrhaphy

the surgical repair of a hernia by closing the defect using sutures, mesh, or wire.

171

liver biopsy

a piece of liver tissue is obtained for examination by inserting a specially designed needle into the liver through the abdominal wall.

172

liver scan

a non-invasive scanning technique, which enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the liver after the IV injection of a radioactive compound.

173

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

an noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony structures without the use of radiation.

174

nasogastric intubation

involves tube placement through the nose into the stomach for the purpose of relieving gastric distension by removing gastric secretions, gas or food.

175

percutaneous transphepatic cholangiography (PTC)

an examination of the bile duct structure by using a needle to pass directly into an intraheptic bile duct to inject a contrast medium; also abbrevieated as PTHC

176

48-hour pH study

a procedure used to measure and monitor the amount of gastric acid reflux into the esophagus during the specified period. The monitoring system will determine how often the stomach contents reflux into the esophagus, how long the acid stays in the esophagus and how much reflux occurs at nighttime. this test is used to determine if the patient has GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) and if so, the severity of the GERD; also known as 48-hour wireless esophageal pH monitoring

177

serum bilirubin

a measurement of the bilirubin level in the serum. These levels are a result of the breakdown of red blood cells.

178

serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)

an enzyme that has very high concentrations in liver cells; also known as aspartate aminotraansferase (AST)

179

small bowel follow-through

oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows through the GI system. X-ray films are obtained at timed intervals to observe the progression of the barium through the small intestine.

180

stool analysis for occult blood

the analysis of a stool sample to determine the presence of blood not visible to the naked eye (i.e., hidden or occult blood).

181

stool culture

involves a collection of a stool specimen placed on one or more culture mediums and allowed to grow colonies of microorganisms to identify pathogen(s).

182

stool guaiac

a test on a stool specimen using guaiac as a reagent which identifies the presence of blood in the stool

183

urinary bilirubin

a test performed on urine to check for conjugated or direct bilirubin in a urine specimen.

184

a.c.

before meals (ante cibum)

185

ALT

alanine aminotransferase

186

AST

aspartate aminotransferase (formally called serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)

187

Ba

barium

188

BE

barium enema

189

b.i.d.

twice a day

190

CT SCAN

computed tomography (scan)

191

EGD

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

192

ERCP

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

193

GB

gallbladder

194

GBS

gallbladder series

195

GER

gastroesophageal reflux

196

GERD

gastroesophageal reflux disease

197

GI

gastrointestinal

198

GI series

gastrointestinal series

199

GTT

glucose tolerance test

200

HAV

hepatitis A virus

201

HBV

hepatitis B virus

202

HCI

hydrochloric acid

203

HCV

hepatitis C virus

204

IBS

irritable bowl syndrome

205

IVC

intravenous cholangiography

206

LES

lower esophageal sphincter (also known as the cardiac sphincter)

207

LFT

liver function test

208

MRI

magnetic resonance imagine

209

N&V

nausea and vomiting

210

NG

nasogastric

211

NPO, n.p.o.

nothing by mouth

212

OCG

oral cholecystogram

213

p.c.

after meals (post cibum)

214

PP, pp

postprandial

215

PPBS

postprandial blood sugar

216

PPG

postprandial glucose

217

PTC, PTHC

percutaneious transhepatic cholangiogram

218

SBFT

small bowel follow-through

219

SBS

small bowel series

220

SGOT

serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase; now called aspartate aminotransferase (AST)

221

SGPT

serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase

222

TPN

total parenteral nutrition

223

UGI series

upper gastrointestinal series.