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Flashcards in The Special Senses Deck (185):
1

ambiopia

double vision caused by each eye focusing separately; known as diplopia

2

amblyopia

reduced vision that is not correctable with lenses and with no obvious pathological or structural cause ("dullness or dimness of vision".

3

anisocoria

inequality in the diameter of the pupils of the eyes.

4

aphakia

absence of the lens of the eye

5

aqueous

watery

6

Argyll-Robertson pupil

a pupil that constricts upon accommodation but no in response to light. This can be due to miosis or advanced neurosyphilis

7

biomicroscopy

ophthalamic examination of the eye by use of a slit lamp and a magnifying lens; also known as slit-lamp test.

8

blepharochalasis

relaxation of the skin of the eyelid (usually the upper eyelid). The skin may droop over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open

9

blepharoptosis (ptosis)

drooping of the upper eyelid; occurs when the eyelid partially or entirely covers the eye as a result of a weakened muscle.

10

blepharospasm

a twitching of the eyelid muscles; may be due to eyestrain or nervous irritability.

11

conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye; may be caused by a bacterial infection, a viral infection, allergy, or a response to the environment

12

corneal

pertaining to the cornea

13

cyclopegia

paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye.

14

dacryoadenitis

inflammation of the lacrimal (tear) gland

15

dacryorrhea

excessive flow of tears

16

diplopia

double vision caused by each eye focusing separately; also called ambiopia

17

ectropion

eversion (turning outward) of the edge of the eyelid; "turning out" or eversion of the eyelash margins (especially the lower eyelid) from the eyeball, leading to exposure of the eyelid and eyeball surface and lining.

18

emmetropia

a state of normal vision. the eye is at rest and the image is focused direction on the retina.

19

entropion

inversion (turning inward) of the edge of the eyelid; "turning in" of the eyelash margins (especially the lower margins), resulting in the sensation similar to that of a foreign body in the eye (redness, tearing, burning, and itching).

20

episcleritis

inflammation of the outermost layers of the sclera

21

esotropia

an obvious inward turning of one eye in relation to the other eye; also called crosseyes..

22

exotropia

an obvious outward turning of one eye in relation to the other eye; also called walleye

23

extraocular

pertaining to the outside of the eye

24

floaters

one or more spots that appear to drift, or "float" across the visual field.

25

funduscopy

the examination of the fundus of the eye, the base or the deepest part of the eye, with an instrument called an ophthalmoscope through a procedure called ophthalmoscopy.

26

hemianopia

loss of vision, or blindness, in one-half of the visual field.

27

hemianopsia

loss of vision, or blindness, in one-half of the visual field.

28

iridocyclitis

inflammation of the iris and ciliary body of the eye.

29

iritis

inflammation of the iris

30

keratoconjunctivitis

inflammation of the cornea and the conjunctiva of the eye

31

keratoconus

a cone-shaped protrusion of the center of the cornea, not accompanied by inflammation

32

keratomycosis

a fungal growth present on the cornea

33

lacrimal

pertaining to tears

34

lacrimation

the secretion of tears from the lacrimal glands

35

miosis

abnormal constriction of the pupil of the eyey

36

miotic

an agent that causes the pupil of the eye to constrict.

37

mydriasis

abnormal dilatation of the pupil of the eye

38

mydriatic

an agent that causes the pupil of the eye to dilate

39

nasolacrimal

pertaining to the nose and the lacrimal (tear) ducts.

40

nystagmus

involuntary, rhythmic jerking movements of the eye. These "quivering" movements may be from side to side, up and down, or a combination of both.

41

ophthalmologist

a medical doctor who specializes in the comprehensive care of the eyes and visual system in the prevention and treatment of eye disease and injury. The ophthalmologist is the medically trained specialist who can deliver total eye care and diagnose general disease of the body affecting the eye.

42

ophthalmology

the branch of medicine that specializes in the study of the diseases and disorders of the eye.

43

optic

pertaining to the eyes or to sight.

44

optician

a health professional (not an M.D.) who specializes in filling prescriptions for corrective lenses for glasses or for contact lenses.

45

optometrist

doctor of optometry (O.D.) is responsible for examination of the eye, and associated structures - to determine vision problems. He or she can also prescribe lenses or optical aids

46

palpebral

pertaining to the eyelid

47

papilledema

swelling of the optic disc, visible upon ophthalmoscopic examination of the interior of the eye.

48

phacomalacia

softening of the lens of the eye.

49

photophobia

abnormal sensitivity to light, especially by the eyes.

50

presbyopia

loss of accommodation for near vision; poor near-vision due to the natural aging process.

51

pupillary

pertaining to the pupil of the eye.

52

retinopathy

any disease of the retina

53

sclerectomy

excision, or removal, of a portion of the sclera of the eye.

54

scotoma

an area of depressed vision (blindness) within the usual visual field, surrounded by an area of normal vision.

55

uveitis

inflammation of all of part of the middle vascular layer of the eye, or the uveal tract of the eye, which includes the iris, ciliary body, and the choroid.

56

vitreous

pertaining to the vitreous body of the eye.

57

astigmatism

a refractive error causing light rays entering the eye to be focused irregularly on the retina due to an abnormally shaped cornea or lens

58

blepharitis

acute or chronic inflammation of the eyelid margins stemming from seborrheic, allergic, or bacterial origin.

59

blindness

loss of the sense of sight, or extreme visual limitations.

60

color blindness (monochromatism)

an inability to perceive visual colors sharply.

61

cataract

the lens in the eye becomes progressively cloudy, losing its normal transparency and thus altering the perception of images due to the interference of light transmission to the retina.

62

chalazion

a cyst or nodule on the eyelid, resulting from an obstruction of a meibomian gland, which is responsible for lubricating the margin of the eyelid.

63

conjunctivitis, acute

inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the front part of the eyeball

64

corneal abrasion

a disruption of the cornea's surface epithelium commonly caused by an eyelash, a small foreign body, contact lenses, or a scratch from a fingernail.

65

diabetic retinopathy

occurs as a consequence of long-term or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus in which the tissues of the retina experience scarring due to the following.

66

exophthalmia

an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball(s), usually with the sclera noticeable over the iris; typically due to an expanded volume of the orbital contents.

67

glaucoma

ocular disorders identified as a group due to the increase in intraocular pressure.

68

hordeolum (stye)

bacterial infection of an eyelash follicle or sebaceous glad originating with redness, swelling, and mild tenderness in the margin of the eyelash.

69

hyperopia

a refractive error in which the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately, resulting in impaired close vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused behind the retina because the eyeball is shorter than normal.

70

hyphema (hyphemia)

a bleed into the anterior chamber of the eye, resulting from a postoperative complication or from a blunt eye injury

71

keratitis

corneal inflammation caused by a microorganism, trauma to the eye, a break in the sensory innervation of the cornea, a hypersensitivity reaction, or a tearing defect (may be due to dry eyes or ineffective eyelid closure).

72

macular degeneration

progressive deterioration of the retinal cells in the macular due to agine. Known as senile or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), this condition is a common and progressive cause of visual deficiency and permanent reading impairment in the adult over 65 years of age.

73

myopia

a refractive error in which the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately, resulting in impaired distant vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused in front of the retina because the eyeball is longer than normal

74

nyctalopia (night blindness)

inadequate vision at night or in faint lighting following reduction in the synthesis of rhodopsin, a compound in the rods of the retina that enables the eye to adjust to low-density light.

75

nystagmus

vertical, horizontal, rotary, or mixed rhythmic involuntary movements of the eye(s) caused by use of alcohol or certain drugs, lesions on the brain or inner ear, congenital abnormalities, nerve injury at birth, or abnormal retinal development. It may not be apparent to the patient.

76

ophthalmia neonatorum

a purulent (contains pus) inflammation of the conjunctiva and/or cornea in the newborn

77

presbyopia

a refractive error occurring after the age of 40, when the lens of the eye(s) cannot focus on an image accurately due to its decreasing loss of elasticity.

78

pterygium

an irregular growth developing as a fold on the conjunctiva, usually on the nasal side of the cornea, that can disrupt vision if it extends over the pupil.

79

retinal detachment

the partial or complete splitting away of the retina from the pigmented vascular layer called the choroid, interrupting vascular supply to the retina and thus creating a medical emergency.

80

retinal tear

an opening in the retina that allows leakage of vitreous humor

81

scleritis

the presence of inflammation in the white, outside covering of the eyeball (the sclera)

82

strabismus

failure of the eyes to gaze in the same direction due to weakness in the muscles controlling the position of one eye. The most common type this is nonparalytic strabismus, an inherited defect in which the eye position of the two eyes has no relationship.

83

synechia

an adhesion in the eye that develops as a complication of trauma or surgery or as a secondary condidtion of one of the following pathological conditions: cataracts, glaucoma, keratitis, uveitis

84

trachoma

an infectious eye disease caused by chlamydia trachomatis, which is chronic and will lead to blindness without effective treatment

85

corneal transplant

surgical transplantation of a donor cornea (cadaver's) into the eye of a recipient, usually under local anethesia

86

electronystagmograpy

a group of tests used in evaluating the vestibulo-ocular reflex

87

electroretinogram (ERG)

a recording of the changes in the electrical potential of the retina after the stimulation of light.

88

extracapsular cataract extraction

surgical removal of the anterior segment of the lens capsule along with the lens, allowing for the insertion of an intraocular lens implant.

89

fluorescein staining

application of a fluorescein-stained sterile filter paper strip mostened with a few drops of sterile saline or sterile anesthetic solution to the lower cul-de-sac of the eye to visualize a corneal abrasion.

90

gonioscopy

the process of viewing the anterior chamber angle of the eye fro evaluation, management, and classification of normal and abnormal angle structures. The examination involves using gonioprism (mirrored contact lens) and a slit-lamp biomicroscope to observe the anterior chamber of the eye (area between the cornea and the iris). The painless examination is used to determine whether the drainage angle of the eye (area where the fluid drains out of the eye) is open or closed.

91

intraocular lens implant

the surgical process of cataract extraction and insertion of an artificial lens in the patient's eye. This restores visual acuity and provides improved depth perception, light refraction, and binocular vision.

92

iridectomy

extraction of a small segment of the iris to open an anterior chamber angle and permit the flow of aqueous humor between the anterior and posterior chambers, thus relieving the person's intraocular pressure.

93

keratoplasty

the transplantation of corneal tissue from one human eye to another to improve vision in the affected eye; also called corneal grafting.

94

Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)

procedure is a form of laser vision correction for nearsightedness (myopia)

95

ophthalmoscopy

The examination of the external and internal structures of the eye with an instrument called an ophthalmoscope

96

pachymetry

the measurement of the thickness of the cornea

97

phacoemulsification

a method of removing a lens by using ultrasound vibrations to split up the lens material into tiny particles that can be suctioned out of the eye.

98

photo-refractive keratectomy

a surgical procedure in which a few layers of corneal surface cells are shaved off by an excimer laser beam to flatten the cornea and reduce myopia (nearsightedness)

99

retinal photocoagulation

a surgical procedure that uses an argon laser to treat conditions such as glaucoma, retinal detachment, and diabetic retinopathy

100

slit-lamp exam

the examination of the external and internal structures of the eye, using a low-power microscope combined with a high-intensity light source that can be focused to shine as a slit beam; also known as a biomicroscopy

101

tonometry

the process of determining the intraocular pressure by calculating the resistance of the eyeball to an applied force causing indentation.

102

trabeculectomy

the surgical excision of a portion of corneoscleral tissue to decrease the intraocular pressure in persons with severe glaucoma

103

trabeculoplasty

the surgical creation of a permanent fistula used to drain fluid (aqueous humor) from the eye's anterior chamber, usually performed under general anesthesia

104

Acc

accommodation

105

ARMD

age-related macular degeneration

106

cc

with correction (with glasses)

107

ECCE

extracapsular cataract extraction

108

EOM

extraocular movement

109

ERG

electroretinogram

110

ICCE

intracapsular cataract extraction

111

IOL

intraocular lens

112

IOP

intraocular pressure

113

LASIK

laser in situ keratomileusis

114

OD

right eye (ocular dexter)

115

OS

left eye (ocular sinister)

116

OU

each eye (ocular uterque)

117

PEARL

pupils equal and reactive to light

118

PERLA

pupils equal; react to light and accommodation

119

PERRLA

pupils equal; round, react to light, and accommodation

120

PRK

photo-refractive keratectomy

121

REM

rapid eye movement

122

sc

without correction

123

VA

visual acuity

124

VF

visual field

125

acoustic

pertaining to sound or hearing

126

audiogram

a recording of the faintest sounds an individual is able to hear

127

auditory

pertaining to the sense of hearing

128

aural

pertaining to the ear

129

auriculotemporal

pertaining to the ear and the temporal area of the skull

130

barotitis media

inflammation or bleeding of the middle ear caused by sudden changes in atmospheric pressure, as in scuba diving or descent of an airplane (especially when one has a cold or an upper respiratory infection).

131

cochlear

pertaining to a snail-shaped structure within the middle ear

132

labyrinthitis

infection or inflammation of the labyrinth or the inner ear -- specifically, the three semicircular canals in the inner ear, which are fluid-filled chambers and control balance.

133

mastoiditis

inflammation of the mastoid process of the temporal bone; usually an extension of a middle ear infection.

134

myringoplasty

surgical repair of the eardrum with a tissue graft. This procedure is performed to correct hearing loss. Also called tympanoplasty

135

myringotomy

surgical incision into the eardrum. This procedure is performed to relieve pressure or release fluid from the middle ear. Also called tympanotomy. It is usually accompanied by the insertion of a pressure-equalizing tube (PET) into the tympanic membrane to promote drainage of fluid from the middle ear.

136

otalgia

pain in the ear; earache. Also called otodynia

137

otitis media

inflammation of the middle ear

138

otodynia

pain in the ear; earache. Also called otalgia

139

otomycosis

a fungal infection of the external auditory meatus of the ear.

140

otorrhea

drainage from the ear; usually associated with inflammation of the ear.

141

presbycusis

loss of hearing due to the natural aging process.

142

purulent

containing pus

143

salpingoscope

an instrument used to examine the nasopharynx and the eustachian tube.

144

serous

pertaining to producing serum

145

stapedectomy

surgical removal of the stapes (middle ear) and insertion of a graft and prosthesis

146

tinnitus

a ringing or tinkling noise heard in the ears; may be a sign of injury to the ear, some disease process, or toxic levels of some medications from prolonged use (such as aspirin).

147

tympanoplasty

surgical repair of the eardrum with a tissue graft. This procedure is performed to correct hearing loss. Also called myringoplasty

148

tympanotomy

surgical incision into the eardrum. This procedure is performed to relieve pressure or release fluid from the middle ear. Also called myringotomy. It is usually accompanied by the insertion of a pressure-equalizing tube (PET) into the tympanic membrane to promote drainage of fluid from the middle ear.

149

vertigo

a sensation of spinning around or of having things in the room or area spinning around the person; a result of disturbance of the equilibrium.

150

cholesteatoma

a slow-growing cystic mass made up of epithelial cell debris and cholesterol found in the middle ear

151

deafness, conductive

hearing loss caused by the breakdown of the transmission of sound waves through the middle and/or external ear

152

deafness, sensorineural

hearing loss caused by the inability of nerve stimuli to be delivered to the brain from the inner ear due to damage to the auditory nerve or the cochlea or to lesions of the 8th cranial nerve (auditory)

153

impacted cerumen

an excessive accumulation of the waxlike secretions from the glands of the external ear canal.

154

Meniere's disease

chronic inner ear disease in which there is an overaccumulation of endolymph (fluid in the labyrinth) characterized by recurring episodes of vertigo (dizziness), hearing loss, feeling of pressure or fullness in the affected ear, and tinnitus; usually unilateral, but occurs bilaterally in about 10 to 20% of patients.

155

otitis extreme (OE)

inflammation of the outer or external ear canal; also called "swimmer's ear". this inflammation is produced from growth of bacteria or fungi in the external ear. In addition to the occurrence after swimming, it can develop due to conditions such as psoriasis or seborrhea, injury to the ear canal when trying to scratch or clean it with a foreign object, and frequent use of earphones or earplugs.

156

otitis media, acute (AOM)

a middle ear infection, which predominately affects infants, toddlers, and preschoolers

157

serous otitis media (SOM)

a collection of clear fluid in the middle ear that may follow acute otitis media or be due to an obstruction of the eustachian tube.

158

suppurative otitis media

a purulent collection of fluid in the middle ear, causing the person to experience pain (possibly severe), an elevation in temperature, dizziness, decreased hearing, vertigo, and tinnitus; also called acute otitis media

159

otosclerosis

a condition in which the footplate of the stapes becomes immobile and secured to the oval window, resulting in hearing loss.

160

perforation of the tympanic membrane

rupture of the tympanic membrane or eardrum.

161

audiometry

the process of measuring how well an individual hears various frequencies of sound waves.

162

otoscopy

the use of an otoscope to view and examine the tympanic membrane and various parts of the outer ear.

163

tuning fork test (Rinne test)

an examination that compares bone conduction and air conduction

164

tuning fork test (Weber test)

an examination used to evaluate auditory acuity and to discover whether a hearing deficit is a conductive loss or sesorineural loss

165

otoplasty

removal of a portion of ear cartilage to bring the pinna and auricle nearer the head

166

stapedectomy

microsurgical removal of the stapes diseased by otosclerosis, typically under local anesthesia

167

hearing aids

devices that amplify sound to provide more precise perception and interpretation of words communicated to the individual with a hearing deficit.

168

ABLB

alternate binaural louness balance

169

ABR

auditory brain stem response

170

AC

air conduction

171

AD

right ear (auris dextra)

172

AS

left ear (auris sinistra)

173

AOM

acute otitis media

174

AU

each ear (auris unitas)

175

BC

bone conduction

176

BOM

bilateral otitis media

177

COM

chronic otitis media

178

dB

decibel

179

EENT

ears, eyes, nose, and throat.

180

ENT

ears, nose, and throat

181

OE

otitis externa

182

PTS

permanent threshold shift

183

SOM

serous otitis media

184

TM

tympanic membrane

185

TTS

temporary threshold shift