double vision caused by each eye focusing separately; known as diplopia
reduced vision that is not correctable with lenses and with no obvious pathological or structural cause (“dullness or dimness of vision”.
inequality in the diameter of the pupils of the eyes.
absence of the lens of the eye
a pupil that constricts upon accommodation but no in response to light. This can be due to miosis or advanced neurosyphilis
ophthalamic examination of the eye by use of a slit lamp and a magnifying lens; also known as slit-lamp test.
relaxation of the skin of the eyelid (usually the upper eyelid). The skin may droop over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open
drooping of the upper eyelid; occurs when the eyelid partially or entirely covers the eye as a result of a weakened muscle.
a twitching of the eyelid muscles; may be due to eyestrain or nervous irritability.
inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye; may be caused by a bacterial infection, a viral infection, allergy, or a response to the environment
pertaining to the cornea
paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye.
inflammation of the lacrimal (tear) gland
excessive flow of tears
double vision caused by each eye focusing separately; also called ambiopia
eversion (turning outward) of the edge of the eyelid; “turning out” or eversion of the eyelash margins (especially the lower eyelid) from the eyeball, leading to exposure of the eyelid and eyeball surface and lining.
a state of normal vision. the eye is at rest and the image is focused direction on the retina.
inversion (turning inward) of the edge of the eyelid; “turning in” of the eyelash margins (especially the lower margins), resulting in the sensation similar to that of a foreign body in the eye (redness, tearing, burning, and itching).
inflammation of the outermost layers of the sclera
an obvious inward turning of one eye in relation to the other eye; also called crosseyes..
an obvious outward turning of one eye in relation to the other eye; also called walleye
pertaining to the outside of the eye
one or more spots that appear to drift, or “float” across the visual field.
the examination of the fundus of the eye, the base or the deepest part of the eye, with an instrument called an ophthalmoscope through a procedure called ophthalmoscopy.
loss of vision, or blindness, in one-half of the visual field.
loss of vision, or blindness, in one-half of the visual field.
inflammation of the iris and ciliary body of the eye.
inflammation of the iris
inflammation of the cornea and the conjunctiva of the eye
a cone-shaped protrusion of the center of the cornea, not accompanied by inflammation
a fungal growth present on the cornea
pertaining to tears
the secretion of tears from the lacrimal glands
abnormal constriction of the pupil of the eyey
an agent that causes the pupil of the eye to constrict.
abnormal dilatation of the pupil of the eye
an agent that causes the pupil of the eye to dilate
pertaining to the nose and the lacrimal (tear) ducts.
involuntary, rhythmic jerking movements of the eye. These “quivering” movements may be from side to side, up and down, or a combination of both.
a medical doctor who specializes in the comprehensive care of the eyes and visual system in the prevention and treatment of eye disease and injury. The ophthalmologist is the medically trained specialist who can deliver total eye care and diagnose general disease of the body affecting the eye.
the branch of medicine that specializes in the study of the diseases and disorders of the eye.
pertaining to the eyes or to sight.
a health professional (not an M.D.) who specializes in filling prescriptions for corrective lenses for glasses or for contact lenses.
doctor of optometry (O.D.) is responsible for examination of the eye, and associated structures - to determine vision problems. He or she can also prescribe lenses or optical aids
pertaining to the eyelid
swelling of the optic disc, visible upon ophthalmoscopic examination of the interior of the eye.
softening of the lens of the eye.
abnormal sensitivity to light, especially by the eyes.
loss of accommodation for near vision; poor near-vision due to the natural aging process.
pertaining to the pupil of the eye.
any disease of the retina
excision, or removal, of a portion of the sclera of the eye.
an area of depressed vision (blindness) within the usual visual field, surrounded by an area of normal vision.
inflammation of all of part of the middle vascular layer of the eye, or the uveal tract of the eye, which includes the iris, ciliary body, and the choroid.
pertaining to the vitreous body of the eye.
a refractive error causing light rays entering the eye to be focused irregularly on the retina due to an abnormally shaped cornea or lens
acute or chronic inflammation of the eyelid margins stemming from seborrheic, allergic, or bacterial origin.
loss of the sense of sight, or extreme visual limitations.
color blindness (monochromatism)
an inability to perceive visual colors sharply.
the lens in the eye becomes progressively cloudy, losing its normal transparency and thus altering the perception of images due to the interference of light transmission to the retina.
a cyst or nodule on the eyelid, resulting from an obstruction of a meibomian gland, which is responsible for lubricating the margin of the eyelid.
inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the front part of the eyeball
a disruption of the cornea’s surface epithelium commonly caused by an eyelash, a small foreign body, contact lenses, or a scratch from a fingernail.
occurs as a consequence of long-term or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus in which the tissues of the retina experience scarring due to the following.
an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball(s), usually with the sclera noticeable over the iris; typically due to an expanded volume of the orbital contents.
ocular disorders identified as a group due to the increase in intraocular pressure.
bacterial infection of an eyelash follicle or sebaceous glad originating with redness, swelling, and mild tenderness in the margin of the eyelash.
a refractive error in which the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately, resulting in impaired close vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused behind the retina because the eyeball is shorter than normal.
a bleed into the anterior chamber of the eye, resulting from a postoperative complication or from a blunt eye injury
corneal inflammation caused by a microorganism, trauma to the eye, a break in the sensory innervation of the cornea, a hypersensitivity reaction, or a tearing defect (may be due to dry eyes or ineffective eyelid closure).
progressive deterioration of the retinal cells in the macular due to agine. Known as senile or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), this condition is a common and progressive cause of visual deficiency and permanent reading impairment in the adult over 65 years of age.
a refractive error in which the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately, resulting in impaired distant vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused in front of the retina because the eyeball is longer than normal
nyctalopia (night blindness)
inadequate vision at night or in faint lighting following reduction in the synthesis of rhodopsin, a compound in the rods of the retina that enables the eye to adjust to low-density light.
vertical, horizontal, rotary, or mixed rhythmic involuntary movements of the eye(s) caused by use of alcohol or certain drugs, lesions on the brain or inner ear, congenital abnormalities, nerve injury at birth, or abnormal retinal development. It may not be apparent to the patient.
a purulent (contains pus) inflammation of the conjunctiva and/or cornea in the newborn
a refractive error occurring after the age of 40, when the lens of the eye(s) cannot focus on an image accurately due to its decreasing loss of elasticity.
an irregular growth developing as a fold on the conjunctiva, usually on the nasal side of the cornea, that can disrupt vision if it extends over the pupil.
the partial or complete splitting away of the retina from the pigmented vascular layer called the choroid, interrupting vascular supply to the retina and thus creating a medical emergency.
an opening in the retina that allows leakage of vitreous humor
the presence of inflammation in the white, outside covering of the eyeball (the sclera)
failure of the eyes to gaze in the same direction due to weakness in the muscles controlling the position of one eye. The most common type this is nonparalytic strabismus, an inherited defect in which the eye position of the two eyes has no relationship.
an adhesion in the eye that develops as a complication of trauma or surgery or as a secondary condidtion of one of the following pathological conditions: cataracts, glaucoma, keratitis, uveitis
an infectious eye disease caused by chlamydia trachomatis, which is chronic and will lead to blindness without effective treatment
surgical transplantation of a donor cornea (cadaver’s) into the eye of a recipient, usually under local anethesia
a group of tests used in evaluating the vestibulo-ocular reflex
a recording of the changes in the electrical potential of the retina after the stimulation of light.
extracapsular cataract extraction
surgical removal of the anterior segment of the lens capsule along with the lens, allowing for the insertion of an intraocular lens implant.
application of a fluorescein-stained sterile filter paper strip mostened with a few drops of sterile saline or sterile anesthetic solution to the lower cul-de-sac of the eye to visualize a corneal abrasion.
the process of viewing the anterior chamber angle of the eye fro evaluation, management, and classification of normal and abnormal angle structures. The examination involves using gonioprism (mirrored contact lens) and a slit-lamp biomicroscope to observe the anterior chamber of the eye (area between the cornea and the iris). The painless examination is used to determine whether the drainage angle of the eye (area where the fluid drains out of the eye) is open or closed.
intraocular lens implant
the surgical process of cataract extraction and insertion of an artificial lens in the patient’s eye. This restores visual acuity and provides improved depth perception, light refraction, and binocular vision.
extraction of a small segment of the iris to open an anterior chamber angle and permit the flow of aqueous humor between the anterior and posterior chambers, thus relieving the person’s intraocular pressure.
the transplantation of corneal tissue from one human eye to another to improve vision in the affected eye; also called corneal grafting.
Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)
procedure is a form of laser vision correction for nearsightedness (myopia)
The examination of the external and internal structures of the eye with an instrument called an ophthalmoscope
the measurement of the thickness of the cornea
a method of removing a lens by using ultrasound vibrations to split up the lens material into tiny particles that can be suctioned out of the eye.
a surgical procedure in which a few layers of corneal surface cells are shaved off by an excimer laser beam to flatten the cornea and reduce myopia (nearsightedness)
a surgical procedure that uses an argon laser to treat conditions such as glaucoma, retinal detachment, and diabetic retinopathy
the examination of the external and internal structures of the eye, using a low-power microscope combined with a high-intensity light source that can be focused to shine as a slit beam; also known as a biomicroscopy
the process of determining the intraocular pressure by calculating the resistance of the eyeball to an applied force causing indentation.
the surgical excision of a portion of corneoscleral tissue to decrease the intraocular pressure in persons with severe glaucoma
the surgical creation of a permanent fistula used to drain fluid (aqueous humor) from the eye’s anterior chamber, usually performed under general anesthesia
age-related macular degeneration
with correction (with glasses)
extracapsular cataract extraction
intracapsular cataract extraction
laser in situ keratomileusis
right eye (ocular dexter)
left eye (ocular sinister)
each eye (ocular uterque)
pupils equal and reactive to light
pupils equal; react to light and accommodation
pupils equal; round, react to light, and accommodation
rapid eye movement
pertaining to sound or hearing
a recording of the faintest sounds an individual is able to hear
pertaining to the sense of hearing
pertaining to the ear
pertaining to the ear and the temporal area of the skull
inflammation or bleeding of the middle ear caused by sudden changes in atmospheric pressure, as in scuba diving or descent of an airplane (especially when one has a cold or an upper respiratory infection).
pertaining to a snail-shaped structure within the middle ear
infection or inflammation of the labyrinth or the inner ear – specifically, the three semicircular canals in the inner ear, which are fluid-filled chambers and control balance.
inflammation of the mastoid process of the temporal bone; usually an extension of a middle ear infection.
surgical repair of the eardrum with a tissue graft. This procedure is performed to correct hearing loss. Also called tympanoplasty
surgical incision into the eardrum. This procedure is performed to relieve pressure or release fluid from the middle ear. Also called tympanotomy. It is usually accompanied by the insertion of a pressure-equalizing tube (PET) into the tympanic membrane to promote drainage of fluid from the middle ear.
pain in the ear; earache. Also called otodynia
inflammation of the middle ear
pain in the ear; earache. Also called otalgia
a fungal infection of the external auditory meatus of the ear.
drainage from the ear; usually associated with inflammation of the ear.
loss of hearing due to the natural aging process.
an instrument used to examine the nasopharynx and the eustachian tube.
pertaining to producing serum
surgical removal of the stapes (middle ear) and insertion of a graft and prosthesis
a ringing or tinkling noise heard in the ears; may be a sign of injury to the ear, some disease process, or toxic levels of some medications from prolonged use (such as aspirin).
surgical repair of the eardrum with a tissue graft. This procedure is performed to correct hearing loss. Also called myringoplasty
surgical incision into the eardrum. This procedure is performed to relieve pressure or release fluid from the middle ear. Also called myringotomy. It is usually accompanied by the insertion of a pressure-equalizing tube (PET) into the tympanic membrane to promote drainage of fluid from the middle ear.
a sensation of spinning around or of having things in the room or area spinning around the person; a result of disturbance of the equilibrium.
a slow-growing cystic mass made up of epithelial cell debris and cholesterol found in the middle ear
hearing loss caused by the breakdown of the transmission of sound waves through the middle and/or external ear
hearing loss caused by the inability of nerve stimuli to be delivered to the brain from the inner ear due to damage to the auditory nerve or the cochlea or to lesions of the 8th cranial nerve (auditory)
an excessive accumulation of the waxlike secretions from the glands of the external ear canal.
chronic inner ear disease in which there is an overaccumulation of endolymph (fluid in the labyrinth) characterized by recurring episodes of vertigo (dizziness), hearing loss, feeling of pressure or fullness in the affected ear, and tinnitus; usually unilateral, but occurs bilaterally in about 10 to 20% of patients.
otitis extreme (OE)
inflammation of the outer or external ear canal; also called “swimmer’s ear”. this inflammation is produced from growth of bacteria or fungi in the external ear. In addition to the occurrence after swimming, it can develop due to conditions such as psoriasis or seborrhea, injury to the ear canal when trying to scratch or clean it with a foreign object, and frequent use of earphones or earplugs.
otitis media, acute (AOM)
a middle ear infection, which predominately affects infants, toddlers, and preschoolers
serous otitis media (SOM)
a collection of clear fluid in the middle ear that may follow acute otitis media or be due to an obstruction of the eustachian tube.
suppurative otitis media
a purulent collection of fluid in the middle ear, causing the person to experience pain (possibly severe), an elevation in temperature, dizziness, decreased hearing, vertigo, and tinnitus; also called acute otitis media
a condition in which the footplate of the stapes becomes immobile and secured to the oval window, resulting in hearing loss.
perforation of the tympanic membrane
rupture of the tympanic membrane or eardrum.
the process of measuring how well an individual hears various frequencies of sound waves.
the use of an otoscope to view and examine the tympanic membrane and various parts of the outer ear.
tuning fork test (Rinne test)
an examination that compares bone conduction and air conduction
tuning fork test (Weber test)
an examination used to evaluate auditory acuity and to discover whether a hearing deficit is a conductive loss or sesorineural loss
removal of a portion of ear cartilage to bring the pinna and auricle nearer the head
microsurgical removal of the stapes diseased by otosclerosis, typically under local anesthesia
devices that amplify sound to provide more precise perception and interpretation of words communicated to the individual with a hearing deficit.
alternate binaural louness balance
auditory brain stem response
right ear (auris dextra)
left ear (auris sinistra)
acute otitis media
each ear (auris unitas)
bilateral otitis media
chronic otitis media
ears, eyes, nose, and throat.
ears, nose, and throat
permanent threshold shift
serous otitis media
temporary threshold shift