Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (161):
pertaining to relieving pain; a medication that relieves pain.
a surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other. May be performed on blood vessels to bypass an occluded area and restore normal blood flow to the area
localized dilation of a weakened area of the wall of an artery. The weakened area balloons out with every pulsation of the artery.
surgical removal of the sac of an aneurysm
deviation from normal; birth defect, for example, is a congenital anomaly.
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat. It is seen in individuals who are depressed, with the onset of fever and illness, with stomach disorders, or as a result of excessive intake of alcohol or drugs.
an abnormal collection of fluid within the peritoneal cavity (the peritoneium is the serous membrane that lines the entire abdominal cavity). This fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes.
absence of contractions of the heart.
a form of arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) characterized by fatty deposits building up within the inner layers of the walls of larger arteries.
noncancerous; not progressive
an abnormal sound or murmur heard with a stethoscope when listening to a carotid artery, organ, or gland; for example, during auscultation.
one who specializes in the study of diseases and disorders of the heart.
the study of the heart
inflammation of the heart muscles
cramp-like pains in the calves of the legs caused by poor circulation to the muscles of the legs; commonly associated with artheroscleroris
one of a pair of arteries that branch om the aorta. The coronary arteries and their branches supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscle (myocardium)
any one of the small flaps on the valves of the heart.
a fluid accumulation in the tissues influenced by gravity; usually greater in the lower extremities than in tissue levels above the heart.
the period of relaxation of the heart, alternating with the contraction phase known as systole
the graphic outline or record of movements of structures of the heart produced by ultrasonography (ultrasound)
the localized or generalized collection of fluid within the body tissues, causing the area to swell.
inflammation of the inner lining of the heart.
the inner layer of the pericardium, which is the double-folded membrane that encloses the heart.
enlargement of the liver
pain felt in the calf of the leg, or behind the knee, when the examiner is purposely dorsiflexing the foot of the patient (bending the toes upward toward the foot). If the patient feels pain, it is called a positive sign (indicating thrombophlebitis)
an excessive level of fats in the blood.
elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 135/85 mmHg; high blood pressure; also known as arterial hypertension.
low blood pressure; less than normal blood pressure reading.
insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood
a localized area of necrosis (death) in tissue, a vessel, an organ, or a part resulting from lack of oxygen (anoxia) due to interrupted blood flow to the area.
decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ.
a wound, injury, or any pathological change in body tissue
any of a group of fats or fatlike substances found in the blood. Examples are cholesterol, fatty acids, and triglycerides.
a cavity or the channel within any organ or structure of the body; the space within an artery, vein, intestine or tube.
a vague feeling of weakness or discomfort, often indicating the onset of an illness or disease.
the area between the lungs in the chest cavity that contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, and bronchi
a low-pitched humming or fluttering sound, as in a "heart murmur" heard on an auscultation.
urination at night
the middle muscular layer of the heart
closure, or state of being closed
an abnormal condition in which a person sits up straight or stands up to breath comfortably.
the SA node (sinoatrial) of the heart located in the right atrium. It is responsible for initiating the heartbeat, influencing the rate and rhythm of the heart beat. The cardiac pacemaker (artificial pacemaker) is an electric apparatus used for maintaining a normal heart rhythm by electrically stimulating the heart muscle to contract.
detectable by touch
a pounding or racing of the heart, associated with normal emotional responses or with heart disorders.
pertaining to the pericardium
the double membranous sac that encloses the heart and the origins of the great blood vessels.
small, purplish, hemorrhagic spots on the skin; may be due to abnormality in the blood-clotting mechanism of the body.
swelling, usually of the skin of the extremities, that when pressed firmly with a finger will maintain the dent produced by the finger
an agent that protects against disease
one of a pair of arteries that transports deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. The pulmonary arteries are the only arteries in the body to carry deoxygenated blood.
the circulation of deoxygenated bood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation and back to the left atrium of the heart; that is, from the heart, to the lungs,back to the heart.
one of four large veins (two from each lung) that returns oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart. The pulmonary veins are the only veins in the boy to carry oxygenated blood.
sinoatrial node; pacemaker of the heart
a wall, or partition, that divides or separates two cavities. The interatrial septum separates the right and left atria, the atrioventricular septum separates the atria and the ventricles, and the interventricular septum separates the right and left ventricles.
a hypersensitivity reaction that may occur two to three weeks after administration of an antiserum. Symptoms include fever, enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly), swollen lymph nodes, joint pain, and skin rash.
a form of chorea (involuntary muscle twiching) associated with rheumatic fever, usually occurring in childhood
the circulation of blood from the left ventricle of the heart, through the body, and back to the right atrium of the heart. Oxygenated blood leaves the left ventricle of the heart and is distributed to the capillaries. Deoxygenated blood is picked up from the capillaries and is transported back to the right atrium of the heart.
the contraction phase of the heartbeat forcing bood into the aorta and the pulonary arteries. Systole is marked by the first sound heard on auscultation, or the first pulse palpated, after the release of the blood pressure cuff (sphygmomanometer).
the formation of existence of a blood clot
narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel
an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve.
a feeling of apprehension, worry,uneasiness, or dread, especially of the future.
a slow heart rate characterized by a pulse rate under 60 beats per minute
a feeling of discomfort in the chest area.
slightly bluish, grayish, slatelike, or dark discoloration of the skin due to the presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
difficult breathing; air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain (normal when caused by vigorous work or athletic activity.
a local or generalized condition in which the body tissues contain an excessive amount of tissue fluid; swelling; generalized swelling is sometimes called dropsy.
a feeling or tiredness or weariness resulting from continued activity or as a side effect from some psychotropic drug
elevation of temperature above the normal
a diffuse pain in different portions of the head and not confined to any nerve distribution area.
unpleasant sensation, usually preceding vomiting
lack of color, paleness; an unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin
rapid violent, or throbbing pulsation, as an abnormally rapid throbbing or fluttering of the heart. The palpitation is felt by the patient
perspiration; the liquid secreted by the sweat glands, having a salty taste
abnormal rapidity of heart action, usually defined as a heart rate over 100 beats per minute.
ejection through the mouth of gastric content
lacking physical strength or vigor
a severe pain and constriction about the heart, usually radiating to the left shoulder and down the left arm, creating a feeling of pressure in the anterior chest.
compression of the heart caused by the accumulation of blood or other fluid within the pericardial sac. (There is normally just enough fluid within this cavity to lubricate the area.) The accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity prevents the ventricles from adequately filling or pumping blood. It is a life-threatening emergency if untreated.
a disease of the heart muscle itself, primarily affecting the pumping ability of the heart. This noninflammatory disease of the heart results in enlargement of the heart (cardiomegaly) anddysfunction of the ventricles of the heart.
congestive heart failure
condition characterized by weakness, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort. Edema in the lower portions of the body resulting from the flow of the blood through the vessels being slowed (venous stasis) and the outflow of blood from the left side of the heart is reduced. The pumping ability of the heart is progressively impaired to the point that it no longer meets bodily needs; also known as cardiac failure.
coronary artery disease
the narrowing of the coronary arteries to the extent that adequate blood supply to the myocardium is prevented.
inflammation of the membrane lining of the valves and chambers of the heart caused by direct invasion of bacteria or other organisms and leading to deformity of the valve cusps. Abnormal growths called vegetations are formed on or within the membrane
hypertensive heart disease
a result of long-term hypertension. The heart is affected because it must work against increased resistance due to increased pressure in the arteries.
mitral valve prolapse
drooping of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular systole, resulting in incomplete closure of the valve mitral insufficiency.
heart attack: a condition caused by occlusion of one or more of the coronary arteries. This life-threatening condition results when myocardial tissue is destroyed in areas of the heart that are deprived of an adequate blood supply due to the occluded vessels.
inflammation of the myocardium may be caused by viral or bacterial infection or may be a result of systemic dieseases such as rheumatic fever. This may also be caused by fungal infections, serum sickness, or a chemical agent.
inflammation of the pericardium (the saclike membrane that covers the heart muscle). It may be acute or chronic
an inflammatory disease that my develop as a delayed reaction to insufficiently treated group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract.
peripheral arterial occlusive disease
obstruction of the arteries in the extremities (predominantly the legs). The leading cause of this disease is atherosclerosis, which leads to narrowing of the lumen of the artery. The classic symptom is intermittent claudication, which is a cramplike pain in the muscles brought on by exercise and relieved by rest.
Intermittent attacks of vasoconstriction of the arterioles (causing pallor of the fingers or toes), followed by cyanosis and then redness before returning o normal color; initiated by exposure to cold or emotional disturbance.
Inflammation of a vein associated with the formation of a thrombus (clot); usually occurs in an extremity, most frequently a leg.
enlarged, superficial veins; twisted, dilated vein with incompetent valves.
an abnormal condition characterized by decreased return of venous blood from the legs to the trunk of the body.
coarctation of the aorta
a congenital heart defect characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta, which results in increased blood pressure in the upper extremities (area proximal to the defect) and decreased blood pressure in the lower extremities (area distal to the defect).
patent ductus arteriosus
an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth. This defect is seen primarily in premature infants.
tetralogy of Fallot
a congenital heart anomaly that consists of four defects: pulmonary stenosis, interventricular septal defect, dextroposition (shifting to the right) of the aorta so that it receives blood from both ventricles, and hypertrophy of the right ventricle; named for the French physician, Etienne Fallot, who first described the condition.
transposition of the great vessels
a condition in which the two major arteries of the heart are reversed in position, which results in two noncommunicating circulatory systems.
condition in which the contractions of the atria become extremely rapid, at the rate of between 250 and 350 beats per minute.
is extremely rapid, incomplete contractions of the atria resulting in disorganized and uncoordinated twitching of the atria.
is extremely rapid, incomplete contractions of the ventricular resulting in disorganized and uncoordinated twitching of the ventricular.
heart block (AV)
an interference with the normal conduction of electric impulses that control activity of the heart muscle
a condition in which the ventricles of the heart beat at a rate greater than 100 beats per minute; characterized by 3 or more consecutive premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). It is also known as "V-tach" (VT)
X-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the heart and blood vessels after introducing a radiopaque substance (contrast medium) that promotes the imaging (makes them visible) of internal structures that are otherwise difficult to see on X-ray film. This substance is injected into an artery or a vein.
a diagnositc procedure in which a catheter (a hollow, flexible tube) is introduced into a large vein or artery (usually of an arm or a leg) and then threaded through the circulatory system to the heart. It is used to obtain detailed information about the structure and function of the heart chambers, valves, and the great vessels.
cardiac enzymes test
performed on samples of blood obtained by venipuncture to determine the presence of damage to the myocardial muscle.
computed axial tomography (CAT)
a diagnostic X-ray technique that uses ionizing radiation to produce a cross-sectional image of the body. It is often used to detect aneurysms of the aorta. X-ray signals are fed into a computer, which then turns them into a cross-sectional picture of the section of the body being scanned; called a CAT scan
a diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart. It is useful in evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders
a graphic record (visual representation) of the electrical action of the heart as reflected from various angles to the surface of the sin; known as an EKG or ECG.
similar to the Holter monitor in that it also records the electrical activity of the heart while the patient goes about usual daily activities. This can be used for a longer period of time than a Holter monitor (usually a month).
exercise stress testing
a means of assessing cardiac functions by subjecting the patient to carefully controlled amounts of physical stress (for example, using the treadmill).
a small, portable monitoring device that makes prolonged electrocardiograph recordings on a portable tape recorder. The continuous EKG (ambulatory EKG) is recorded on a magnetic tape recording while the patient conducts normal daily activities.
implantable cardioverter defibrillator
a small, lightweight, electronic device placed under the skin or muscle in either the chest or abdomen to monitor the heart's rhythm. If an abnormal rhythm occurs, the ICD helps return the heart to its normal rhythm.
magnetic resonance imagine (MRI)
involves the use of a strong magnetic field and radiofrequency waves to produce imagine that is valuable in providing images of the heart, large blood vessels, brain and soft tissue.
positron emission tomography (PET)
a computerized X-ray technique that uses radioactive substances to examine the blood flow and the metabolic activity of various body structures such as the heart and blood vessels. The patient is given doses of strong radioactive tracers by injection or inhalation. The radiation emitted is measure by the PET camera.
serum lipid test
measures the amount of fatty substances (cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoproteins) in a sample of blood obtained by venipuncture.
thallium stress test
one of several nuclear stress tests, is a combination of exercise stress testing with thallium imaging (myocardial perfusion scan) to assess changes in coronary blood flow during exercise.
acute myocardial infarction
atrial septal defect
arteriosclerotic heart disease
bundle branch block
coronary artery bypass graft
coronary artery disease
coronary care unit
coronary heart disease
congestive heart failure
computed axial tomography (scan)
computed axial tomography (scan)
dyspnea on exertion
deep vein thrombosis
hypertensive cardiovascular disease
implantable cardioversion defibrillator
magnetic resonance imaging
mitral valve prolapse
premature atrial contractions
paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
patent ductus arteriosus
positron emission tomography
premature ventricular contractions
ventricular septal defect