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Flashcards in brain embryology Deck (29):
1

lateral neck cyst that doesn't move with swallowing

branchial cleft cyst: 2nd, 3rd, 4th clefts form a persistent cervical sinus

2

midline neck cyst that moves with swallowing

thyroglossal duct cyst

3

thymic aplasia
T cell deficiency
hypocalcemia

DiGeorge Syndrome: abnormal 3rd + 4th branchial pouch

4

anterior 2/3 of tongue comes from what branchial arch?

1st branchial arch

5

posterior 1/3 of tongue comes from what branchial arch?

3rd + 4th branchial arch

6

mandibular hypoplasia can be caused by which branchial arch syndrome?

Treacher Collins Syndrome:
1st arch neural crest cells don't migrate

7

fistula between tonsil area and lateral neck is due to what branchial arch abnormality

pharyngealcutaneous fistula: 2nd arch

8

when neuropores fail to fuse during 4th week → persistent connection between amniotic cavity and spinal canal this causes

neural tube defects

9

3 types of neural tube defects (occur in lumbrosacral region)

spina bifida occulta
meningocele
meningomyelocele

10

etiology of neural tube defects

low folic acid before conception and during pregancy

11

quad screen suggesting a neural tube defect or abdominal wall defect shows:

↑ maternal αfetoprotein (AFP)

12

quad screen suggesting down syndrome shows:

↓ maternal αfetoprotein (AFP)

13

amniocentesis suggesting a neural tube defect or abdmonial wall defect shows:

↑maternal αfetoprotein (AFP)

14

tuft of hair in lumbrosacral region
failure of bony spinal canal to close
dura intact
no herniation

spina bifida occulta (mildest neural tube defect)

15

meninges herniate through spinal canal defect (not spinal cord)

meningocele

16

meninges + spinal cord herniate through spinal canal defect

meningomyelocele

17

2 types of forebrain anomalies

anencephaly
holoprosencephaly

18

cranial neural tube malformation → open calvarium → brain tissue exposed to acidic amniotic fluid → forebrain dissolved

anencephaly

19

↑AFP (in maternal serum and amniotic fluid) + polyhydramnios + frog like appearance

anencephaly (a neural tube defect)

20

left + right hemis don't separate
cleft lip/palate (moderate form)
cyclopia (most severe)

holoprosencephaly

21

all of these can cause:
sonic hedgehog signaling pathway
severe FAS
trisomy 13

holoprosencephaly

22

agenesis of cerebellar vermis + cystic enlargement of 4th ventricle (fills posterior fossa)

dandy-walker syndrome

23

posterior fossa malformation that presents with hydrocephalus + spina bifida

dandy-walker syndrome

24

cerebellar tonsils herniate through foramen magnum→ compress spinal cord → syringomyelia

chiari I malformation (most mild)

25

lumbrosacral myelomeningocele → causes significant cerebellar/vermis herniation through foramen magnum→ over time: stenosis of cerebral aqueduct + hydrocephalus (enlarged ventricle)

chiari II malformation

26

cystic cavity in spinal cord (usually C8-T1)

syringomyelia

27

"cape-like" bilateral loss of pain + temperature in arms + shoulders with possible hand+arm weakness

syringomyelia:
spinothalamic tract crosses in anterior white commissure - first affected (bilateral loss of pain + temp in UE)
anterior horn of motor neurons also possible if extends laterally (hand muscle weakness)

28

chiari I or spinal trauma (mos-yrs later) can cause this

syringomyelia

29

↑AFP in maternal serum/amniotic fluid+ ↑acetylcholinesterase amniotic fluid + abnormal sonogram suggest

neural tube defect

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