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Flashcards in bacteria basics Deck (67)
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1

acute phase cytokines

IL-1
IL-6
TNFα

2

hair-like structures that mediate adherence of bacteria to surfaces (respiratory, GI tract)

fimbriae

3

forms attachment between 2 bacteria during conjugation

pilus

4

pilus allows transfer of DNA (plasmids = resistance, virulence factors = toxins) from one bacteria to another

conjugation

5

longer than fimbriae and pilus
provide whip-like motility

flagella

6

gelatinous polysaccharide coat of bacteria
adds in attachment to foreign material (indwelling catheter, teeth)

glycocalyx

7

if organized glycocalyx (polysaccharide coat) and firmly adherant to bacteria (sugar coat)

capsule

8

if loosely adherant and less organized glcyocalyx (polysaccharide coat)
produced by bacteria
shields from antibiotics, hard to remove

slime/biofilm

9

protects bacteria from phagocytosis
allows for time to evade immune system and divide

capsule (type of virulence factor)

10

test to detect encapsulated bacteria:
anti-capsular serum added to bacteria
positive: capsule swells under microscope

quellung reaction

11

encapuslated bacteria

SHiN
**Streptococcus pneumoniae
**Haemophilus
influenza type B
**Neisseria meningitidis

12

most vulnerable population to encapsulated bacteria infection

splenectomy patient
vaccinate against polysaccharide capsule (antigen):
**Streptococcus pneumoniae
**Haemophilus
influenza type B
**Neisseria meningitidis

13

yeast with capsule

cryptococcus neoformans

14

ribosomes

location of protein synthesis
2 subunits combine to translate mRNA

15

prokaryote (bacterial) ribosomes

70S (50S + 30S)

16

eukaryote (human) ribosomes

80S (60S + 40S)

17

genetic material separate from chromosomal DNA and
replicate separately
genes for: antibiotic resistance, enzymes, toxin production
transferred during conjugation

plasmids

18

mechanisms of genetic change in bacteria

conjugation via pili and plasmids
transformation
transposition
transduction

19

DNA released from lysed cell and then taken up by a living bacterium
DNA fragments incorporated into chromosomal DNA→recombinant bacteria

transformation

20

what bacteria can acquire genetic material via transformation

SHiN
**Streptococcus pneumoniae
**Haemophilus
influenza type B
**Neisseria meningitidis

21

small segments of DNA that can self-exise and relocate
transfer from chromosome to plasmid (allow for AR, spread to another bacteria via conjugation) and vice versa, chromosome to chromosome
may carry antibiotic resistance, VFs

transposons

22

bacteriophage (phage = virus that infects bacteria) attaches to bacterium and injects its DNA
phage DNA and proteins are repackaged in viral capsids -
some bacterial DNA also be in the viral capsid
new phage injects viral and bacterial DNA into next bacterium
bacterial DNA of virus + host can combine

transduction

23

sterols in plasma membrane
NO cell wall

mycoplasma (bacteria)

24

cell wall:
mycolic acid
high lipid content (resistant to gram staining)

mycobacteria

25

dormant form of bacteria until hospitable environment is available, then replicate again
resist: dessication, heat, cold, disinfectants, lack of nutrients

spores

26

bacteria that don't gram stain well

These Microbes May Lack Real Color:
Treponema (G- corkscrew, too small to visualize)
Mycobacteria (high lipid content in cell wall)
Mycoplasma (no cell wall)
Legionella pneumophila (branched fatty acids in cell walls, intracellular)
Rickettsia (intracellular)
Chlamydia (intracellular)

27

Giemsa stain

Honestly, Certain Bugs Really Try my Patience
Histoplasma
Chlamydia
Borrelia
Rickettsiae
Trypanosomes
my
Plasmodium

28

periodic acid schiff (PAS) stain

PASs the sugar (stains gycogen + mucopolysaccharides)
Tropheryma whipplei (Whipple's disease)

29

ziehl-neelsen stain

stain acid fast organisms:
mycobacterium tuberculosis

30

india ink stain

encapsualated yeast: cryptococcus neoformans

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