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Flashcards in reproductive anatomy Deck (32):
1

location where sperm are made

seminiferous tubules of testes

2

ejaculatory duct (ends in prostatic urethra) is formed by

seminal vesicle (above prostate) + vas deferens
fluid of seminal vesicle + sperm of vas deferens mix in the ejaculatory duct to form semen

3

produces mucous for lubrication in the urethra

cowper gland (bulbourethral)

4

layers of penis (outside to inside)

outer dermis
Dartos fascia (superficial)
Buck's fascia (deep)
3 cylinindrical masses of erectile tissue are encased by tunica albuginea
dorsal: corpus cavernosa
ventral: corpus spongiosum (urethra inside)

5

ligament connects ovary to pelvic sidewall
contains OVARIAN vessels

suspensory ligament of ovaries (infundibulopelvic ligament)

6

ligament connects cervix to pelvic sidewall
contains UTERINE vessels

Cardinal ligament = Cervix

7

ligament connects uterine fundus (below ovarian ligament) → inguinal canal → labia majora

round ligament of uterus

8

double-fold of peritoneum that connects the uterus, fallopian tubes, and to the pelvic side wall
contains the ovarian ligament + round ligament + suspensory ligament

broad ligament

9

ligament that connects the ovary to the lateral uterus

ovarian ligament

10

female pelvic ligaments that derived from the gubernaculum

round ligament of uterus
ovarian ligament

11

what nerve can cause these injuries (during childbirth, surgery, cyclist):
genital and perineal numbness/pain
fecal incontinence
urinary incontinence
ED

pudendal nerve: from sacral plexus (S2-S4)

12

what nerve innervates these:
SENSATION to perineum + genitals (penis + clitoris)
MOTOR to these perineal muscles:
base of penis - help with erection
external anal sphincter
external urethral sphincter

pudendal nerve

13

gonadal arteries (ovary, testes) are a branch of the

abdominal aorta (directly come off it)

14

R gonadal vein drains into the

IVC

15

L gonadal vein drains into the

L renal vein → IVC

16

"bag of worms" in L scrotum
worse with valsalva
improves with lying down

varicocele
left venous pressure > right venous pressure due to 90° the L gonadal vein takes when entering the L renal vein
if L gonadal vein is compressed:
poor venous return →enlarged pampiniform plexus

17

most blood in the pelvis is supplied by what artery

internal illiac artery

18

what lymph nodes drain:
2/3 proximal vagina, uterus, cervix, prostate

external illiac nodes
internal illiac nodes (hypogastric): includes obturator nodes
not palpable

19

what lymph nodes drain:
1/3 distal vagina, vulva, scrotum

superficial inguinal nodes
palpable

20

what lymph nodes drain:
ovary, testes

para-aortic lymph nodes

21

if too late in labor process to do an epidural, an alternative is a

pudendal nerve block
palpate ischial spine → inject local anesthetic toward ischial spine to block sensation to the perineum

22

enters the deep (internal) inguinal ring LATERAL to inferior epigastric artery → inguinal canal → superficial (external) inguinal ring → scrotum (has all 3 layers of spermatic fascia)

indirect inguinal hernia

23

congenital hernia due to failure of the rest of the processus vaginalis (outpouching of peritoneum) to obliterate after descent into scrotum and covering of the testes by the tunica vaginalis

indirect inguinal hernia:
results in connection between peritoneal cavity and scrotum
will either cause a hydrocele (fill with fluid) or indirect inguinal hernia

24

enters through Hesselbach triangle MEDIAL to inferior epigastric artery → superficial (external) inguinal ring
covered by external spermatic fascia only

direct inguinal hernia

25

hernia in older men due to weakened abdominal wall in Hesselbach's triangle from constipation, cough, lifting

direct inguinal hernia

26

hernia more common in females

femoral hernia

27

protrudes from femoral ring → femoral canal (below inguinal ligament)

femoral hernia

28

leading cause of small bowel incarceration

femoral hernia

29

contents of bowel in hernia get trapped (irreducible) → venous + lymph obstructed → edema

incarceration

30

complication of incarceration:
contents of bowel in hernia → edema → ↓ arterial blood supply → ischemia + necrosis

strangulation

31

nerve that can be injured after prostatectomy

cavernous nerve (parasympathetic - point) - sits on top of prostate

32

complication of varicocele

infertility (↑ temperature)

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