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Flashcards in cancer screening + prevention Deck (7)
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5 modifiable lifestyle factors that impact cancer risk (primary prevention)

smoking: cancer + CV disease + pulm disease
obesity: 70% of US is overweight or obese, ↑ insulin resistance: ↑insulin + IGF-1 (inhibit apoptosis → cancer)
high-fat diet: breast, colon, prostate, endometrial
inactivity: breast, colon
sun exposure: basal cell, squamous cell, melanoma (repeated sunburns at young age)


breast cancer screening

breast self-exams: not recommended
clinical breast exam: insufficient evidence for or against
mammograms: 50-74 yo every 2 years, 75+: insufficient evidence


cervical cancer screening

pap smear: 21-65 yo every 3 years, 65 +: none if normal in past, if total hysterectomy for benign reason (no cervix): no pap smears anymore


prostate cancer screeing

slow-growing, usually die with cancer (not from cancer)

PSA: specific for prostate tissue (not cancer) (not recommended)
digital rectal exam: 15% cancers not palpable (no recommendation for or against)
beginning at 50, or 40-45 for high-risk (discuss options for screening with patient)


colon cancer screening

colonoscopy: 50-75 yo every 10 years (identify early, remove), if history in family: begin at 40 yo or 10 years younger than family member diagnosis
fecal occult blood test: 50-75 yo annually


lung cancer screening

asymptomatic + no smoke: no screening (no chest xray, CT scan)
annual chest CT in adults 55-80 yo who have 30-pack year history of smoking if still smoking or quit within last 15 years



not for screening or diagnosis
monitor response to therapy after diagnosis

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