lung, brain, bone, GI bugs Flashcards Preview

DIT topics > lung, brain, bone, GI bugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in lung, brain, bone, GI bugs Deck (57):
1

normal flora of skin

staph epidermidis

when in blood: can cause bacteremia, endocarditis

2

normal flora of nose

staph epidermidis
staph aureus

MRSA can colonize in nose!

3

normal flora of oral cavity

anaerobes
staph
viridans group strep: s. mutans in cavities and dental plaques →if abnormal heart valve + dental procedure →endocarditis

4

normal flora of colon

anaerobe: bacteroides fragilis (most abundant)
e.coli: can enter vagina/urethra → UTI

5

normal flora of vagina

lactobacillus: converts glycogen → lactic acid (↓ pH - 4.0-4.5)
e.coli
aneorobes
staph: GBS (s. agalactiae) → if vertical transmission: neonatal sepsis, meningitis, or pneumonia
strep

6

causes of pneumonia in neonates (

GBS
E.coli
less common:
chlamydia trachomatis: long incubation (onset 4-12 wks later)
HSV

7

causes of pneumonia in children (4 wk-18 yr)

RSV (most common viral cause)
s. pneumoniae (most common bacterial cause)
school-aged children = atypicals:
mycoplasma pneumoniae
chlamydophila pneumoniae

8

causes of pneumonia in adults (18-65 yr)

s. pneumoniae
H. influenzae
influenza virus (older adults >40 yo)
atypicals:
mycoplasma pneumoniae (younger adults

9

causes of pneumonia in elderly (>65 yo)

s. pneumoniae
H. influenzae
influenza virus
s. aureus
anaerobes
G- rods: e.coli (fecal matter)

10

type of pneumonia in alcoholic patient

s. pneumoniae (most common)
klebsiella pnuemoniae: thick bloody sputum "currant jelly sputum"
aneoraboes: aspiration

11

type of pneumonia in patient with decreased level of consciousness (aspiration pneumoniae)

anaerobes

12

type of pneumonia in patient with CF

pseudomonas

13

type of pneumonia in patient with HIV and CD4

pneumocystis jirovecii

14

type of pneumonia in post-influenza

s. pneumoniae (most common)
s. aureus (know this one!, severe, fatal)

15

type of pneumonia acquired from patio-cooling water mister

legionella pneumophila (think with any water source)

16

type of pneumonia after travel to SW US

coccidioides immitis (fungus)

17

type of pneumonia after exposure to bird/bad droppings in Ohio/Mississippi River valleys

histoplasma capsulatum

18

type of pneumonia due to pet parrot

chlamydophila psittaci

19

causes of meningitis in neonates (

GBS
E.coli
listeria monocytogenes

20

causes of meningitis in infant + children (

S. pneumoniae (most common cause in all patient)
N. meningitidis
H. influenzae type B
enterovirus: coxsackie

21

causes of meningitis in 6-60 yo

S. pneumoniae
N. meningitidis (healthy, teenager-young adult)
enterovirus

22

causes of meningitis in elderly (60+ yo)

s. pneumoniae
listeria monocytogenes
G- rods

23

meningitis in unvaccinated child

H. influenzae type B

24

meningitis in outbreak in dorm

N. meningitidis

25

meningitis in patient with HIV

cryptococcus neoformans (stains with india ink)

26

RBC in CSF + temporal lobe involvement on MRI

HSV encephalitis

27

meningitis with petechial rash

N. meningitidis

28

fever
severe headache
nuchal rigidity
photophobia
AMS

meningitis

29

diagnosis of meningitis

lumbar puncture

30

G+ diplococci in CSF

s. pneumoniae

31

G- diplococci in CSF

N. meningitidis

32

G- coccobacili in CSF

H. influenzae

33

G+ rods in CSF

listeria monocytogenes

34

empiric treatment of meningitis

broad spectrum:
ceftriaxone + vancomycin +/- ampicillin (use if suspect listeria)

35

vomiting 1-6 hrs after eating reheated rice

food with B. cereus
ingest PREFORMED toxin = RAPID onset
VOMIT main sx

36

vomit + water diarrhea on cruise

norovirus
very contagious: person-to-person or food that someone with norovirus touched or put secretions on
VOMIT main sx

37

watery diarrhea 12 hrs after meat or poultry from cafeteria

food with clostridium perfringens
SPORES survive high temps
meat cooked but left out → spores germinate and grow → ingest
WATERY diarrhea

38

inflammatory diarrhea after eating undercooked hamburger meat, followed by acute renal failure

food with E. coli O157:H7
BLOODY diarrhea
can cause HUS esp children

39

inflammatory diarrhea 1-3 days after eating undercooked meat/poultry, eggs or produce

food with salmonella

40

vomit 1-6 hrs after eating potato salad at picnic unrefrigerated

food with s. aureus:
ingest PREFORMED toxin = RAPID onset
VOMIT (not diarrhea)

41

inflammatory diarrhea after eating raw seafood

food with vibrio

42

inflammatory diarrhea followed by ascending paralysis

food with camplyobacter jejuni
ASCENDING paralysis = gullian barre syndrome

43

leukocytes in stool
fever
ab pain
blood or mucus in diarrhea

inflammatory diarrhea: invasion into intestine

44

inflammatory diarrhea after eating undercooked poultry

food with camplyobacter jejuni

45

descending paralysis after ingestion of homemade canned goods

food with clostridium botulinum
spores germinate → produce toxin → inhibit release of Ach
babies with honey: ingest spore → grow and colonize GI and produce toxin →constipation, "floppy baby"
DESCENDING paralysis

46

ways of transmission for osteomyelitis

hematogenous spread
contiguous extension from nearby infection (started in soft tissue)
direct inoculation: trauma, surgery

47

systemic: fever, chills
pain, redness, swelling in region
leukocytosis
↑ESR and CRP

osteomyelitis

48

diagnosis of osteomyelitis

gold standard: bone biopsy + culture
(won't show up on xray til wks later)
MRI
radionuclide bone scan

49

most common cause of osteomyelitis

s. aureus

50

osteomyelitis in patient with sickle cell disease

salmonella!!

51

osteomyelitis in patient with prosthetic device

s. epidermidis

52

osteomyelitis involving of vertebrae

myocbacterium tuberculosis (TB in spine = Pott's disease: verebral collapse, spinal cord damage)

53

osteomyelitis following cat bite

pasteurella multocida

54

osteomyelitis in IVDU

s. aureus
pseudomonas
serratia
candida

55

osteomyelitis in diabetic with foot ulcer

polymicrobial: pseudomonas, anaerobes

56

osteomyelitis following puncture wound to foot through sneaker

pseudomonas

57

aspiration pneumonia (consider if delerius - in hospital)

polymicrobial
anaerobes

Decks in DIT topics Class (115):